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tion, Athelstan prepared himself for the danger, and proved victorious the following day. This happened at Weondune, near Brunsbury, in Northumberland'.

Giraldus Cambrenfis, who wrote a description of Cambria, about the year 1189, speaks of the hofpitality and liberality of the Welsh, in his time, as follows; “ There is no beggar among these people; for their hospitality is common to every body: generosity they prefer to every other virtue. Travellers, when they enter a house, deliver their arms to be laid by, and immediately are hospicably entertained, being offered water to wash their feet, which is the manner of invitation with this nation. Their young men, therefore, who are devoted to arms, and hunting, roam from house to house, and make every place their home, unless they are called out to defend their country. Those who come at early hours are entertained with the conversation of young Women, and with Tunes on the Harp, all along to the evening : for here every family hath its damsels, and Harps alligned for this purpofe.

Every family too is here well skilled in all the knowledge of the Harp. In the evening, when strangers have ceased coming, an entertainment is prepared, according to the number and dignity of the guests, and according to the abilities of the family; when the kitchen is not loaded with divers dishes, and with incitements to appetite ; nor is the house adorned with tables, and towels; these people ftudy nature more than ornament. They lay before the guests large dishes of herbs. The matter and mistress of the feat are carefully serving their guests, nor do they ever eat themselves before the company have been fatisfied; that, if there should be deficiency, it may fall to their own share ?."

Ireland makes use of only two instruments, namely, the Harp and the Drum. Scotland bas three, namely, the Harp, the Drum, and the Crwih. And Wales has the Harp, the Pipes, and the Crwih. The Irish too make use of strings of brass oftener than those made of hide or gut 3."

Giraldus likewise gives a curious account of the efficts of music, and says, “ The sweetness of music not only delights with its harmony, it has its advantages allo. It not a little exhilarates dejecteil minds ; it clears the clouded countenance, and removes superciliousness and austerity. Harmony is a kind of fool to the mind. Whatever be our pursuit, music afits application, and quickens genius. It gives courage to the brave, and assists the devotions of the pious. Hence it is, that the bishops, abbots, and holy men, in Ireland are used to have the Harp about them, and piously an use themselves with playing it; f.s which reason, the Harp of holy Kejeinus 4 is held in such great estimation by the original inhabitan:s. Befides, the warlike trumpet sends forth a musical consonance, when its clangor gives the signal for the attack, Music has its effects on the vicious as well as the virtuous. The story of Alexander is well known; fo is likewise that of David driving the evil spirit from Saul. Music has a power to alter our very nature. Hence the Irish, the Spanish, and some other nations, amidst their funeral wailings, bring forth musical lamentations, either to increase, or diminish their grief. Ifidor hath said, that without Music no institution of discipline is perfect. The very world is said to have been Harmoniously created s.".

Galileo', in his Dialogue on Ancient and Modern Music, written in the year 15S2, has given a very interesting paffage respecting the Harp, which I thall insert here literally translated : “ Among the stringed inftruments now used in Italy, we have, in the first place, the Harp; which is in fact nothing but the ancient Cithara, with a great number of strings, differing some what in form, but that chiefly owing to the taste of the artists of those times, the number of strings, and their degree of tension ; the extreme highest and lowest comprising upwards of three o&aves. This very ancient instrument was brought to us from Ireland, (as Dante 7 has recorded,) where they are excellently made, and in great number; and the inhabitants of which island have practised on it for many and many centuries; its being also the particular badge of the kingdom, and, as such, frequently painted and sculptured on their public edifices and coins, the people alledging, as the cause of it, that they are descended from the Royal prophet David. The Harps used by them are much larger than ours, and they are usually mounted with strings of brass, and some of steel, in the acute part, of the same kind as the Clavichord, (or a kind of Spinnet.) The performers upon them

1 Carie's History of England, vol. I. p. 322.–And Malmesbury, | nastery of Glenda'loch, in the county of Wicklow.Lites of the Lib. ll.

British Saints, vol. 1. p. 336, 460.-- And Hanmer's Chronicle, 2 Cambria Descriptio, chap. X.- For a farther account of rhe mufic of the Welth, see p. 35 of this book -Lyttelton's Hift. of Hen. s Giraldus Canirenis, Chap. XII. II. Book II. p.68, 4t0.- 3 Giraldus's Topog. of Ireland, chap. X!. Vinc. Galileo's Dialogue on Ancient and 11. lern Music, p113,

4 Probably this was Si. Coemgen, Keivin, or Coemgenus, who &c. folio edition, printed at Florence in 1582, and after that in flourished about the latter end of the fifth century; fcholar of 1002. Galileo was an admirable performer on the Lute. St. Petrock the Briton. Coemgenus founded the celebrated mo 7 Dante il urished about the year 1310.

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are wont to let the nails of beth their hands grow to a considerable length, trimming them with great care in the mar.ner we see the quil's on the jacks of the Spinnets. The number of strings are 54, 56, and as far as 60; whereas we read, that among the Jews the Cithara or Pfilterion of the prophet, had only 10 strings. The diitribution of the strings of one of these Harps, (which I obtained a few months ago, by means of a very obliging gentleman of Ireland,) I found, on careful examination, to be the same as that of the Harp with a double row of strings, which was a few years ago introduced into Italy; although some (without a shadow of reason) affert, that they have lately invented it, endeavouring, to persuade the vulgar, that none but theniselves can play upon it or understand its temperament, which they hold in such great estimation, that they have, ungratefully denied it to many; in spite of whom, however, I will here describe it, for the sake of those who may desire it': The 58 ftrings, which are mounted on the ilarp, contain four octaves, and one tone; not major or minor, as some have imagined, but of the measure which I have above laid to be contained in a key instrument. The lowest ftring, therefore, as well for a sharp as for a flat, is double C; and the highest string is Din alt: when they are to be tuned for B flat, the 16 lower strings on the left side are to be distributed according to the nature of the common diatonic, and the 14 that are in the opposite ro’ to these, that is, on the right side, (leaving apart the unison of D and A,) must give, as we may fay, the cromatic kind, agreeable in its nature to the faid diatonic. The 15 that follow next, ascending the scale, are to be tempered diatonically, according to the mode of the 16 lower ones, on the left side. The 13, that follow next above the first 16, are now to do the office of the lower ones on the right, as may be seen in the example 2. If then you want to play in B natural, let the flats of cach diatonic be altered, and tuned in one or the other of the cromatics, instead of the B flat; and let these be put in the place of those in the diatonic, bosh on the right and the left. This mode of proceeding was so ordered by its author for the convenience and facility of the fingers of both hands, particularly in making diminutions, and lengthening sourds. Tie find thus among the said strings: five times C, five D, four E, four F, four G, four A, four B flat, and four B natural. Four unison of D, four unilon of A. Four sharps of c, four sharps of f, four sharps of g, and the four flats of e; which in all make the number of 53 strings. But there are wanting, for the perfection of the diversity of harmony, the four sharps of d, and the four flats of a; for which, in those modes, or melodies, where these strings occur, their unilons, which are among the cromatic strings, are accommodated to them; which unison prodaces a great facility in the diminutions, as appears manifefliy in practice; which facility is the cause that they are generally distributed in the manner I have mentioned.

The Harp is so similar to the Epigonium and the Simicum ?, that it may with reason be said to be one of them; nor do I think he would be much mistaken, who should maintain, that the strings were tuned in the same manner and proportion in the one as in the other instrument, seeing that these instruments were not introduced till after they began to play in consonant parts; and what distribution is best adapted to this, has been fully explained.

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Galileo continues as follows: " And let all others of so bad, tal fla:s and Marps; the remainder were uniforis in both rows. a ditpontiou remember, that it thole nien), distinguified in divers 3 - To tell you bricfly what I think of the Epigonium, and the noble profe lions, had not, with to much labour of their own, Simicum, l hold that the matter and form was a wocden frame, and for the benefit of posierty; left behird fo many volumes in both somewhat similar to that of a Harp. However. I submit concerning those arts, they would now le perfectly ignorant of to the better judgement of those who understand the matter them, and the fune of those would now be wholly ob{cured.' better than I do. The Epigonium was invented by Epigonius of Whereas, by n.eans of the excellence of their writings, they | Ambracia, the head of a famous sect, a licele before, úr after, live for ever in our memory, and every one may thereby become Socrates, as we are told by Porphirius, in his notes upon the very skiltid, and at the same time (we may truly tay) bappy; if mulic of Ptolemy. Which Erigonius (as is afferted by Julius in tact harpine's in this world conditis in nothing but to know Pollux) was the first who used to itrike the strings with the fin. and underliaud the truth of things: l'rompted by whole exain gers, instead of the plectrum; which manner of touching the ple, the noble and virtuous ninds of our times readily take itrings, together with the number of them, argues that he pisto learn the tciences, for no other purpote but to facilitate played in contonant paris; which manner was afterwards (as we and illustrate them by their writings, without ever refusing, or leain from Suetonius Tranquillus) followed also by Noro; that co!cealing, ar.y thing they know, to those who do not know it, author telling us, that Nero, having once app ared publicly in and with to learn it. Those yngrateful perluns do not perceive, the theatre, in the midit of several musicians, firit played a very Iliut, the liitle they know, they h ve learnt from the one and the pretty prelude with his fingers, and then began to ling Gali other; who), if they had been tenacious, or unwilling to impart leo's Dialogue on Music, p. 39.—As to the Simicum, fome say it tete, muit net ds have been very unhappy.”

was invented by Simicus, and that it had 35 itrings; that is, 2. In the plaie, or scale of the airings of this Harp, described in 22 diatonic notes, beside the unisons, and perhaps' cromatics. Galileo, D. 144, it had 29 strinys in each of ine iwo rows; that Probaby it must have been invented prior to the Epigonium, is, Dat top, and DD at buriom, in the right-hand row; and C wbich had 40 itrings; 20 of them are said to have been diatopics, at top, and CC at lotion, is the left-hand row. It seems they and the others were unisons and cromatics.--Graffineau's Mufical were tuned in different keys, as occafions required them; and Dictionary, p. 149. And Galileo, pp. 39 and 40. pait of one row and part of the other served for the inciden

6

Returning

Returning now to the invention and origin of modern instruments, I say, that (on account of the agree. ment of the name, of the form, and of the number, disposition and matter of the strings, although its professors in Italy say, that they have invented it ;) froin the Harp, most probably the Harpsichord had its origin, which instrument is nothing but a horizontal Harp; and, from it, may be derived the key inftruments of touch.".

We have likewise another proof that the Italians had not the Harp; Dionysius of Halicarnasseus, (a writer in the reign of Augustus,) speaking of Evander and Carmenta, says, chat, among other inventions, they introduced into Italy the use of the Lyre, the Trigon, and the Lydian Pipes, when, before, pastoral Reeds forined the only musical instruments .

The most ancient Irish Harp now remaining is that which is said to have belonged to Brian Boiromh, king of Ireland, who was flain in battle with the Danes at Clontarf, near Dublin, A. D. 1014. His son Donagh, having murdered his brother Teige, in the year 1023, and being deposed by his nephew, retired to Rome, and carried with him the crown, Harp, and other regalia of his father, which he presented 10 the Pope, in order to obtain absolution. Adrian the IVth, furnamed Breakspear, alledged this circumstance as one of the principal titles he claimed to this kingdom, in his bull transferring it to Henry II. These regalia were deposited in the Vatican, till the Pope sent the Harp to Henry VIII. with the title of Defender of the Faith; but kept the crown, which was of massive gold. Henry gave the Harp to the first earl of Clanricard, in whose family it remained till the beginning of this century; when it came by a lady of the De Burgh family into that of Mac Mahon, of Clenagh, in the county of Clare, after whose death it paffed into the posseflion of conmisioner Mac Namara, of Limerick. In 1782 it was presented to the right honourable William Conyngham, who deposited it in Trinity College Library, Dublin ; where it still remains. This Harp had only one row of strings, is 32 inches high, and of extraordinary good workmanship; the sound-board is of oak, the pillar and comb, of red fallow; the extremity of the uppermost bar, or "comb, in

part

is

capt with silver, extremely well wrought and chisicled. It contains a large crystal set in silver, and under it was another itone, now loft. The buttons, or ornamental knobs, at the sides of the bar, are of silver. On the front of the pillar are the arms, chased in silver, of the O'Brien family; i.e. the bloody hand, supported by lions. On the sides of the pillar, within two circles, are two Irish wolf-dogs carved in the wood. The string-holes of the sound-board are neatly ornamented with escutcheons of brass, carved and gilt; the sounding-holes have been ornamented, probably with silver, as they have been the object of theft. This Harp has 28 string-screws, and the same number of string-holes to answer them, consequently there were 28 strings : The bottom, where it rests upon, is a little broken, and the wood very rotten. The whole bears evidence of an expert artist 4.

I Galileo, p. 143, &c. Kircher likewise imagines that the was owing to the size of the hammers, fufpended four equal Harv first furnilied the idea of a Harplichord.

ftrings, sustaining weights of twelve, nine, eight, and fix pounds; 2 Dionyfius, Lib. I. p. 26, edit. 1580.-Dion. Hal. Lib. II.- then, itriking alternately the strings which sustained the twelve Carmenta was a prophetess, and mother of Evanaer : the left and lix pounds, he found that the diapason or octave was formed Arcad a, and came into Italy, with her son, about A. M. 2750. by the proportion of two in one. The iwelve and eghe pound

Polybius, Lib. IV. speaks at large concerning the delight of the weigh's taught him, that the diapente, or fifth, was in the proArcadians in Music: for he lays, " That science is uletul to all portion of thiee to two; and the iwelve and nine po inds, that nies, but even necessary to the Arcadians, who are accustomed the diatellaron, or fourth, was as four to three. I must refer the to great hardships. For, as their country is rough, their seasons curious reader, for farther satisfaction, to the twenty-fixth chap. inclement, and their paltoral way of life hard, they have this ter of lamblichus, de Vita Pithagorae. only way of rendering nature mild and tractable; therefore they 3 The Harp of Mr. Jonathan Hebir, of Limerick, which

their children, from their very infancy, till they are 30 was made by John Kelly, in the year 1726, contains thirty-three years of age, in finging hymns in honour of Gods and Heroes. Atrings, is five-feet high, and seems to be made of red fallow. It is no difgrace among them to be unacquainted with other It does not appear that the irith Harp had any more than one sciences, but to be ignorant of Music is a great reproach. From row of strings, until Robert Nugeni, a Jesuit, introduced the these manners of the Arcadiaos arose the fi&tion of the Poeis, Harp with a double row of strings, in the 15th century. Grat, that Pan, the god of the Arcadians, invented the pipe, and was Lucius, p. 37. Though it is more probable that the Irishi had in love with the nymph Echo. For, Arcadia, being mountainous it froin the Weltlı; becaule, the Bard, Davydd Bencuym, who and full of woods, abounds with echoes; whence not only the flourished about the year 1989, mentions his Harp having 29 inhabitants of that country, but also the mountains, woods, and strings, or more; which probably were in two rows.-dod trees, are said to fing." See the VIlIth Eclogue of Virgil, and Mersenne's Treatise on Music, published in the year 1632, describes the Xih, aj.

a Harp with three rows of strings; and I never heard of any We learn from lamblichus, that the sound of the smith's ham country's having a triple Harp but the Wellh. mers taught Pythagoras to invent the Menochord, a:1 inttrument 4 Collectanea de rebus Hibernicis, Number 13. Encyclopædia for measuring the quantities and proportions of sounds geome Britannica; priated at Edinburgh, 4t0. Vol. VIII. Part 1. trically. This philosopher, observing that the diverlity of found

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How the Harp originally came to be the armorial ensign of Ireland is a matter which has often been a subject of investigation among the curious. According to Tindal's History“, all the ancient pennies that have the head in a triangle were Irish coins, which triangle is supposed to represent the Irish Harp. Others think the triangle alludes to the Trinity. King John, and his two next succeffors, were the earliest monarchs who used the triangle constantly on their money. From this triangle, perhaps, proceeded the arms of Ireland. There is a groat of king Henry the VIIIth, which has on one side of it the arms of England, on the reverse a Harp crowned, and Franc. Dominus Hiber. which is the first time that the Harp appears distinctly represented on the coins. It was struck about the year 1530'.

According to a paper which was delivered to the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, the following account is given of the arms of Leinster 4: “ In the suite of the first Milefian princes were a celebrated Bard and a Harper, both in great favour; on the partition of the country, Heber wanted to retain both; this was opposed by his brother Heremon, equal in power: to avoid disputes the choice was to be determined by lot, which fell to Heber, who chose the musician; and, as this contest happened in Leinster, to commemorate the event, as well as their love of music, the Harp was assumed as the provincial arms.” See farther in the preceding page.

There is a coin which seems to have relation to Ireland, where a crowned king is, or David playing on the Harp, over which is the crown of England and Floreat Rex; on the reverse, a mitred Bishop (or St. Patrick, the Briton, who reformed the Irish”,) holding a double cross, and standing between a church and a serpent, which he seems to drive away. There is another of St. Patrick preaching to the people, with a trefoil in his right-hando.

It appears by Sir William Segar's MSS. in the Heralds Office, London ?, that he was present when it was debated before the privy-council, and the commissioners for executing the office of earl-marshal, on the accession of James the First to the throne of England, what would be the proper mode of quartering the Royal arms; and, it being determined that the Harp for Ireland should be in the third quarter; Henry Howard, earl of Northampton, one of the council, who (as Segar says) shewed no affection to suffering the same, rose up, and said, “that the best reason he could observe for the bearing was, that it resembled the country, in being such an instrument, that it required more cost to keep it in tune than it was worth.”

Stanihurst's History of Ireland 8 relates, “ that, whilst the Irish were at supper, a Harper usually attended, who was often blind, and by no means skilled in music, so that he sometimes offended the accurate ears of a connoisseur. Yet, by striking the strings, he uniforınly delighted the commonalty with his rude harmony,” Again, he says, “there lives in our age (viz. about the year 1584) a man of the name of Crusus, who, according to every one's opinion, is very eminent on the Harp. He very much abhors that confused sound which is produced from unstretched strings, and are in themselves discordant. On the other hand, he keeps such rules with regard to his measure, and agreement of melody, and observes so much concord in his music, that he wonderfully delights his auditors, insomuch that they do not hesitate to declare, that he is rather the only than the greatest Harper. Whence it may be deduced, that the Harp has not hitherto been wanting to Musicians, but Musicians to the Harp. The Irish also use the Bagpipes, which appears amongst them an incentive to warlike valour; for, as other soldiers with the found of Trumpets, so these, with the sound of the Pipes, are inspired with ardour for the fight."

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2 Ibid. p. 387.

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* Tindal's History of England, Vol. I. p. 281.

which was sent to the president of the Royal Irish Academy,

Dublin, in the year 1586.
3 Simon's Elay on Irish Coins, 4to. And Ware's Antiquities of s Giraldus Cambrensis's Topography Hibernia, Chap. 16; and the
Ireland, Vol. 11. chap. 32.
It seems probable that the Harp was noies in

p. 13

of this work. borne in the arms of the Kings of England prior to Henry the Evelyn on Medals, p. 133. And Ware's Antig. of Ireland, VIIIth, because, Cole, vilcount Ennitkellen,'traces his descent

Vol. II. chap. 32. from Henry the i!!. &c. (Sir John Cole was created lord Ranelagh, ? Vol. 111. 1132, in Coll. Armor. and the present descendant is Charles Jones, viscount Ranelagh: There is a molt perfect Harp on the great-seal of king James the another reason that favours this opinion is, they bore a golden 1. who was the hap yuniter of three kin dons under one head, Harp with filzer ftrings in their coats of arms, which I believe and called it Great-Britain; and the first of our monarchs that is the only family that has it, except the Royal Family, and the quartered the arms of those three kingdoms in one fhield, by motto is,

Wordhip Gort-Serve the King." "I have fome recol the addition thereto of the insignia of Scotland and Ireland, to lection of having i en te Harp in the armorial bearings of which his motto of Tria in uno Juneta fee. th to have respect, Henry the Illd, or the IVth, though I cannot be certain, and I which is also ftamped on his coins. Sanford's Genealogical History, only inention this in hopes that some judicious person will take the trouble to inveitigate farther in ancient and authentic Books Richard Staniburfi, Dubl nienfis, de rebus Hibernia Gefis, p. of Heralary. The city of Dorchester affumes the Harp in its 33, &c. See more in Holinshed's Hill. Book II. Chap. 8. And berinys, or arns of England. Likewise, the archbishop-fee of in Spenser's View of the State of Ireland. Derry, in Ireland, has the Harp for its enlign.

9 It does not appear that the Irish had the pipes in Giraldus's • A paper written by Mr. O'Halloran, on the arms of Ireland, time; see the preceding page 95:

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About

p. 516.

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About the year 1400, the science of music had made such progress in Scotland, that one of its princes, James Stuart, the first of that name, (who was educated while a prisoner in England, at the command of Henry the Fourth,) is represented by the Scotch-historians as a prodigy of erudition. He civilized the Scotch nation. Among other accomplishments, he was an admirable musician, and particularly skilled in playing on the Harp'. John Major mentions, that this Monarch’s Cantilena were commonly sung by the Scotch as the most favourite composition, and that he played better on the Harp than the most skilful Irish, or Highland Harper?.

“ The amusements of the Highlanders by their fire-fides were, the telling of tales, the wildest and most extravagant imaginable: music was another: in former times the Harp was the favourite instrument, covered with leather, and strung with wire , but at present is quite lost 4."

Buchanan, in his History of Scotland, speaking of the inhabitants of the Hebrides, says, “ Instead of a Trumpet, they use the Bag-pipe. They delight very much in music, especially in Harps of their own sort, some of which are strung with wire, others with intestines of animals; they play on then either with a pleEtrum, or with their long nails. Their only ambition seems to be to ornament their Harps with much filver and precious stones. The poorer fort deck theirs with chrystal instead of gems. They fing verses not unskilfully composed, which almost always consist of the praises of their men of valour, nor do their Bards treat of hardly any other subjects." Munro's Account of the Natives of the Western Illands of Scotland, says, “ They delight in music, especially in Harps or Clairse’chau decked with filver, after the manner of the Britons 6." It

appears the Bards were formerly in high estimation in Scotland, as well as in Wales and Ireland, and were retained in the family of every great lord. I find there is some vestige of it still remaining, that of Tulli-bardin, in the county of Perth, whence the duke of Athol derives the title of marquis of Tulli-bardin, Likewise, the present earl of Eglingtoun informed me, that he has a portion of land amongst his estate, near Eglingtoun-castle, in Scotland, called the Harper’s-land, which used to be allotted by his ancestors to the Bard of the family'.

I am informed, that, about the close of the last century, John Glass and John Macdonald, Bards by profeffion, who resided, and were respected as such, in the houses of two Highland Chiefs, travelled fifty miles, and met by appointment in Lochaber, to vindicate their own honour, and that of their respective Chiefs, at a public meeting, in a poetic and musical contest.

I shall now quote a foreign author, as it tends to elucidate farther information respecting the Harp, and one who, I should imagine, was no bad judge of such matters, both as a theorist and a practitioner. His name is Thom. de Pinedo, who wrote notes upon Stephanus de Urbibus, in the year 1678; where he has inserted a short Dissertation on Mufic, in which are these words: “ I was incited to give an account of musical intervals, by the learned dissertation of Joan. Albert. Bannus, in which he desires some one will give a new constitution of music, by placing hemitones between all the tones, fo that the art of music may be rendered complete, and fit to move the passions. I will gratify his desire, which I am enabled to do by my skill on the Harp with two rows of strings, the queen of all musical instruments; in which, on account of the number of its strings, viz. 39, may be seen, as in a glass, all the musical intervals; and by whose sweet harmony, arising from the discordant agreement of Arings, struck with the fingers instead of a plectrum, I have long not only amused myself, but have also relieved the misery attending an undeserved banishment from my native country.

For a confiderable length of time has the Harp contributed to keep alive the elegant pleasures of several polished nations, but more particularly the courts of Britain; and probably this inftrument was afterwards acquired by other nations, when the British tribes spread themselves over the neighbouring ifles and countries.

135.

1 Lesley, de Reb. Gest. Scot. Lib. VIL Pp. 257, 266, 267. s Buchanan's History of Scotland, Book I. (Written about the Edit. 1675, 4to.

year 1565.) * Major, Geft. Scot. Lib. VI. cap. 14. fol. Ed.

1521, 4to. • Munro's History. And Lewis's Ancient Hiftory of Great-Britain 3 Strings of gold, or of filver wire in Harps, or Harpfi. p. 234, fol, chords, I think would yield a sound almost twice as long as ? Also, Gilbert le Harpour held lands in Chesterton, Warwick those of brass, and those of steel; the latter produces a feebler thire, of the king, by grand fergeantry,--Blount's Tenures, by found than those of brass, as being both less heavy and less

Beckwith, p.152

that It will be necessary to observe here, that the Scotch have no Harpham, and was confirmed to Robert Harpham, of Marfleet, such a thing as an Ancient and Authentic Manuscript, like what in the county of York, by William Ryley, Esq. Norroy at Arms, the Irish, or the Welsh have. Thole, who with for a farther about A. D. 1657. Guilim's Heraldry, fixth edition, P. 295 proof, I refer to Dr. Johnfon, Mr Pinkerton, and oshers,

Stephanus de Urbibus ; Artic. Timoth, And Benjamin Stilo lingfleec's Principles and Power of Harmony, Chap. V.

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