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Method of Teaching Geography. thousand useful facts," which constitute the basis of our geographical text-books. Innumerable names of towns, rivers, bays, &c., taxing the memory beyond endurance
-giving trivial descriptions of each section or prescribed boundaries, without reference to the physical features, and with no recognition of the principles of the science of geography
With the publication of Prof. Guyot's maps and books, we hope for a new order of things, and that classes will not be left to wander without the guide of principle and law in the ancient wilderness of miscellaneous facts. Let them know and feel that the great creative hand can be traced in all the departments of geography; that the earth is an organic total, fitted by all its structure to be the home of man; that there is a " life of the globe;" that the world, as much as the human body, exhibits design in all its members ; that the air, ocean and land, act and react perpetually upon one another, fitting this “terraqueous sphere" for all the wants of the human race; that mountains, rivers, seas, &c., exercise an important influence on the products and industry of a people and the progress of nations; that nature provides for the growth of cities and towns; that the favoring winds and currents that aid the intelligent mariner, are governed by law; in fact, that geography is a science worthy of their closest study. Prof. Guyot, as an investigator of truth in this direction, stands out in bold relief above all others.
None of the numerous pupils of the renowned Humboldt and Ritter has entered more into the spirit of investigation wbich was evinced by these acknowedged masters, than he, and none has developed in a more felicitous manner, or with more important additions, the views which they were foremost to announce. Having been their pupil in early life, he adopted their views with an enthusiasm which foreshadowed his late distinction. He early became an earnest investigator of the natural world; the mountains and glaziers of bis native land were
his favorite study; and since his removal to the United States he has lost no opportunity to become familiar with the mountain ranges of the country.
Fortunate indeed for our American youth that he has undertaken the preparation of a series of maps and books illustrating and embodying the results of his patient investigations and high attainments. In New England especially, where their merits will be most fully appreciated, his works will receive a most hearty welcome, and we bespeak for them that general use which their intrinsic merits demand.
rating and embod:04 of a series of mell that he has
VALE DICTORY AT ORANGE CO. GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
BY MISS E. L. ALLEN, GRANVILLE.
The fleeting moments since we met,
Have brought us near the time we part;
Now casts a shadow o'er the heart.
Within this hall fair science blends
Her genial light with Christian grace;
Have made us love the school and place.
Our teachers, each, have daily shown
Their hearts most friendly, kind and true;
Their precepts and examples too.
Farewell, teachers ! and if prayers
For others may be heard on high,
To waft your spirits to the sky.
Sad word! but we have left the thought ;
Paternal care and love unbought,
Hearing Recitations. ]
May guardian angels o'er each head
E'er spread their bright, celestial wing;
Make life one bright, perennial spring!
May, no regret for errors past,
No thought of sin that's unforgiven,
Across our pathway bright to heaven !
My soul nor deigns nor dares complain,
Though heart and hope would fain rebel;
And therefore say, farewell, farewell!
The teacher should stand during the recitation. If his emotional nature is in the right state he cannot sit.
He will not be able to conduct the recitation properly unless he has a full knowledge of the subject. If the teacher possesses this knowledge, he will not desire to be encumbered with a text-book. That he may have this knowledge, I would recommend that he study most carefully the lesson before the recitation occurs.
If the pupil fails in his manner of recitation, the teacher can give models, in which he may correct the position of the student, his tones of voice, his use of language, his use of illustrations, and his want of animation.
The teacher should permit the pupils to recite first without questions, following the topics that have been assigned. If the whole recitation is conducted by questions, the evils arising are: 1. Much time that belongs to the pupil is consumed by the teacher. 2. The pupil in preparing will not find it necessary to master the subject, but will study with the idea of depending on the teacher for important help during the recitation. 3. The Hearing Recitations.
pupil can answer many questions by a simple reply in the affirmative or negative, and in this way will not be called upon to combine his ideas into a discourse, or to make any complete expressions. The power of expression is not cultivated. 4. It is quite difficult to ask questions that shall not, in some degree, contain the answer. .
Students learn the right use of language more by example than by, rules. The teacher, then, should be a perfect model in the use of language. The emotions can all be expressed by the different tones of the human voice. It is on this account that the tones of the human voice are capable of exciting the emotions. The teacher should take advantage of this fact, and use such tones in his teaching as will have a tendency to excite proper emotions in the minds of his class. Tones that indicate a want of animation, or the existence of bad temper, have a bad intellectual and moral effect upon the student. I would recommend to the teacher to avail himselt of all the good effects that can come from proper tones of the voice.
Be enthusiastic. By this the class will be enthusiastic also, and enthusiasm throws a 'charm over everything towards which the feeling is exercised. It will excite a love for the school-rooin, for thə work to be performed in it, and for the teacher himself. Take care that the class give their entire attention to the work during the recita: tion, and that they exhibit a good, earnest spirit in their criticisms and explanations. And thus the teacher may, by his methods of mental discipline, do much to secure for the student a good preparation for the duties of life.
“Have you in your album, any original poetry?" asked one lady of another.
"No," was the reply, "but some of my friends have fa. vored me with original spelling."
TEMPERATURE. The temperature at any given place upon the earth's . surface will vary with the latitude, or the distance of the place from the equator. The farther we are removed from the equator the colder does the climate become. But this variation is influenced so much by currents of the atmosphere and of the sea that it does not bear any ascertainable proportion to the latitude. The warm current of air from the Pacific tbat beats along the chain of the Rocky Mountains like a great aerial sea upon its strand; and the oceanic current of the Gulf Stream that flows from the Gulf of Mexico into the Northern Atlantic, give those regions of the globe a much higher temperature than they would have were their warmth due solely to the influence of the sun. The annual mean temperature at the equator is about 82° Fahrenheit, and as a general rule, the mean temperature of the tropics may be ex. pressed by the formula 82° x cosine latitude.. But above the tropics, the temperåture becomes irregular and ca. pricious, varying with localities at the same latitude and depending upon the circumstances whether heated air from the tropics or cold air from the poles prevails. As a curious 'fact, however, the formula above given will an. swer for the western shores of continents to points far beyond the tropics, extending in Europe even to the North Cape.
The temperature varies also at any given point upon the depth to which we may descend into the earth, or the height which we may ascend into the atmosphere. The deeper we penetrate into the earth, the warmer does it become, the thermometer rising one degree for about every fifty or sixty feet descent. And so regular is this rise of temperature with descent that we can have no hesitation in