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JUNE. June! sweet, joyous and beautiful, that dost robe the earth in its richest and most gorgeous garniture. Hail, month of beauty 1 month of blessings! My heart bids thee welcome! Thou dost image forth most perfectly that spirit world, where never-failing Spring abides, and where the fields are forever dressed in living green--the final home of the blessed.

For thy birds and flowers, thy cooling zephyrs and laughing brooks, thy lovely vales and deep, dark and solemn forests—for thy cloudless summer days, teaching of an all-pervading love-for thy softened, dewy evening hours, wooing us up to heaven-for thyself, matchless queen of all the year, my soul doth thank and bless the bounteous.Giver, thy Father and mine,

Soul, look out upon this flood of beauty, scattered with such munificence! Drink in its spirit! love and enjoy it, and let it fill thee! 'Tis the smile of thy Creator-'tis His smile of blessing, love, and favor. 'Tis His smile of revelation, ever saying to thy spirit, “ Neither have entered into the heart of man the things that God hath prepared for those that love Him."

“O what a glory doth this world put on

For him who, with a fervent heart, goes forth
Under the bright and glorious sky, and looks
On duties well performed, and days well spent!"

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Vermont School Journa.

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JUNE June! sweet, joyous and beautiful, fitta earth in its richest and most gorgeous month of beauty ! month of blesstart thee welcome! Thou dost image for that spirit world, where never fails where the fields are forever deres final home of the blessed For thy birds and flowers, for our

ct laughing brooks, thy lovely as solemn forests—for thy elondes

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olding, but bounteous.Giver, thy Fatter

natural laws. Soul, look out upon thi such munificence! Dr

on and illustra. it, and let it fill thes!

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tion and arrangement of characters, from left to by two straight lines at a

These lines may be ei.. may be appropriately termed

122

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Penmanship, its Theory and Practice.

Does she pot beseem the fitting workmanship of Him who gave as his commandment, " That ye love one an. other as I have loved you ?”.

0 Maker of the beautiful and good, in the bud and bloom of life, wilt Thou dress the garden of our hearts, that, in the sere and yellow leaf, golden fruit may crown. life's finished labor, and scatter many seeds within those sunny vales of Paradise, where youth and beauty bloom in endless Spring, and where the sinless soul may forever repose in the bower of Love?-Mizpah.

PENMANSHIP, ITS THEORY AND PRACTICE. No. I.

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"? Only so much as the mind knows can the eye see; only so much as the mind perceives in any object can it attempt to represent."

The prevailing ineffioiency of the instruction in Pen. manship in our schools is proverbial. In a majority of cases it may be attributed to a just feeling of incompe. tency on the part of teachers, resulting from a lack of definite knowledge concerning the subject, together with the fact that, while both teacher and pupil are subjected to the severest criticism in every other branch of study, they are seldom questioned respecting their penmanship.

Hitherto all knowledge of this art, applied to purposes of instruction, appears to have been confined to a crude

*Teacher of Penmanship in the Public Schools of New York City. Author of “Ellsworth’s Systematically Arranged Copy Slips," “ Copy Books,” and the new “ Text-Book on Penmanship, Punctuation, and Letter-Writing,” published by D. Apple-ton & Co., New York,

Penmanship, its Theory and Practice.

123

collection of hints, founded upon the incidental obserya.. tion of each teacher, relating to pen-holding, form of letters, and the general style of writing which happened to suit his own fancy. Thus, with a continual change of teachers, each, of course, preferring his own style, acquired in a similar manner, the absence of any positive knowledge of the subject, in either teacher or pupil, is very naturally accounted for.

The general introduction of engraved copies has done much toward securing a uniform style of writing, and what now seems most needed is uniformity of teaching.

However desirable the services of a special teacher may be, this important end will not be attained till every teacher is duly qualified to instruct pupils in a thorough and systematic manner, according to the commonly received rules and principles of the art. This does not, of necessity, imply that he must himself be a finished pen. man, however advantageous it might prove as an incent. ive to pupils ; but that he be able to teach a correct theory of writing, and conduct a class in a manner well calculated to reduce that theory to practice. The foun. dation of this art is no longer considered by intelligent educators a myth, enveloped in the expressions, “Gen.. ius," “ Practice," "Imitation," or even pen-holding, but as resting upon the common basis of all art-natural laws. and principles.

These principles admit of demonstration and illustration so clear and simple that they can be perfectly un. derstood and applied by every person to whom a knowl-. edge of writing would be of any service.

The theory of writing may thus be briefly stated : Writing is the mechanical formation and arrangement of letters, and other significant characters, from left to right, governed at all times by two straight lines at a uniform angle with each other. These lines may be ei.. ther ruled or imaginary, and may be appropriately termed.

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