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Penmanship, its Theory and Practice.
the line of position, or slant, which is imaginary, and the line of arrangement, which is now generally ruled.
All letters and other characters used in writing are formed from two principles, the straight line and the oval, by three distinct principles of movement. The Fig. I.
Prin's of Form. straight line is made by a direct movement toward the writer upon the line of slant; while the oval is made by two opposite movements,—one around the line of slant towards the left, forming the oval direct, or capital 0,the other around the line of slant toward the right, form: ing the oval reversed or capital loop.
All letters and characters made with the pen are formed either from these primary forms singly or by combipation. The small letters, (except o and s) are all obtained by cutting the oval through its center with the straight live, and uniting the segments or curves thus produced to its extremities, upon the right and left, by either turns or angles ; each manner of combination forming the type: of a class of letters.
The small letters are by this method divided into three distinct classes, each distinguished by the kind of curve 's Fig. III.
Penmanship, its Theory and Practice.
the oval. They are i, u, w, e, c, r, 8, t, and p, of which Fig. V is the type. .
Convexo-Concave. The second class begins with the convex curve, or left Begment of the oval. They are v, n, m, r, x, o, a, and d, of which Fig. VII is the type.
The third class begins with the convexo concave curve, or the two segments united, as in Fig. VIII. The letters. composing this class are 1, b, h, k, j, 3, , 9, af and long , which is the type of the class.
Type of Third Class Letters. The Capitals are likewise divided into three classes. The first class of capitals begins with the concavo-convex curve, or the segments of the oval united in the reverse order from the type of the third class, as in Fig. X. This class comprises A, N, M, T, F, P, B, R, S, L, D, I, and J.
Capital Loop. The second class consists of those capitals of which the oval direct, or capital O, forms the type. They are 0, E, C, H, and K.
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