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Penmanship, its Theory and Practice.

the line of position, or slant, which is imaginary, and the line of arrangement, which is now generally ruled.

All letters and other characters used in writing are formed from two principles, the straight line and the oval, by three distinct principles of movement. The Fig. I.

Fig. it.


Prin's of Form. straight line is made by a direct movement toward the writer upon the line of slant; while the oval is made by two opposite movements,—one around the line of slant towards the left, forming the oval direct, or capital 0,the other around the line of slant toward the right, form: ing the oval reversed or capital loop.

All letters and characters made with the pen are formed either from these primary forms singly or by combipation. The small letters, (except o and s) are all obtained by cutting the oval through its center with the straight live, and uniting the segments or curves thus produced to its extremities, upon the right and left, by either turns or angles ; each manner of combination forming the type: of a class of letters.

The small letters are by this method divided into three distinct classes, each distinguished by the kind of curve 's Fig. III.

Fig. IV.

Fig. V.


Deviation of Curves.

Concave Curve. with wbich the letters comprising it begin. The first class begins with the concave curve, or right segment of

Penmanship, its Theory and Practice.

the oval. They are i, u, w, e, c, r, 8, t, and p, of which Fig. V is the type. .

Fig. VII.
Fig. VI.

Fig. VIII.


Conve? Curve.

Convexo-Concave. The second class begins with the convex curve, or left Begment of the oval. They are v, n, m, r, x, o, a, and d, of which Fig. VII is the type.

The third class begins with the convexo concave curve, or the two segments united, as in Fig. VIII. The letters. composing this class are 1, b, h, k, j, 3, , 9, af and long , which is the type of the class.

Fig. ix.

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Type of Third Class Letters. The Capitals are likewise divided into three classes. The first class of capitals begins with the concavo-convex curve, or the segments of the oval united in the reverse order from the type of the third class, as in Fig. X. This class comprises A, N, M, T, F, P, B, R, S, L, D, I, and J.

Fig. XI.
Fig. X.

Fig. XII.


Capital Stem.

Capital 0.

Capital Loop. The second class consists of those capitals of which the oval direct, or capital O, forms the type. They are 0, E, C, H, and K.

The Human Face Divine,or,
New Physiognomy. Eyes, Ears, Nose,
Lips, Mouth, Head, Hair, Hands,
Feet, Shin, Complexion, with all the

Signs of Character," and " How to Read Them,with hundreds of Portraits of remarkable Persons, to be given in the PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL

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Phrenological Journal



S. R. WELLS, Editor, is devoted to
the Science of Man, in all his rela-
in the departments of


PSYCHOLOGY, embracing our social, intellectual and religious nature, the right education and

training of children, and the better reg POET

ulation of ourselves and communities PUTLOBOPHEE. PORTRAITS, with biographical | THE SOUL, as manifested through sketches, of distinguished men ; illustrations organization, in its relations to this life and of the different laces; the toimpcraments: the life to come, and to elevate MAN to the

signs of character," is revealed through position bis Creator intended him to fill, are the orginization-head, face, feet, hands, subjects on which our scionces throw a walk, talk, including eves, mouth, lips, chin, | flood of light, and our readers shall have the nose, etc., will be given in each number. I benefit of its best teachings.

Other Interests, such as new inventions, agriculture, commerce, mechanism, science, art, and literature, will be considered. We feel it a duty to participate in, and co-operate with, all the great movements for the " emancipation of man" from error, ignorance, sin,want, intemperance, and spiritual darkness. Our work embraces all mankind, and all interests.

A New Vol., the 39th,
commenced Jan., 1864, pub-

lished montbly, at $1.50 a year,
if ordered.

Please address, FOWLER & WELLS, 308 Broadway, x, Y.



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Published under the Sanction of the Vermont State Teachers' Association

Board of Contributors. J. S. Adams,

M.H. Buckham


S. Ketchum.

Pliny 1 White

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C. E. Ferrin,

J. K. Colby,
C. C. Parker,

Edward Conant

C.O. Thompson

J. W. Phelps,

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J. B. Perry,

M. Burbank,
D. G. Moore,

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R. Parkinson.

HIRAM OROUTT, Editor and Proprietor.

JUNE, 1864.



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