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tism of the mind, and not of the body; and that Bantitw denotes to purify, and not to dip or overwhelm.

1. The association of baptism with faith favours these conclusions. After directing his apostles to preach the Gospel, our Lord notices the results which would follow their ministry. Some who heard would confide in the heavenly message, and thereby obtain salvation; others would reject it, and for the rejection be condemned. Faith or trust, exercised towards the Saviour, whom they proclaimed, is the great requirement of the Gospel ; and this is the principle of all goodness and happiness. Now the connexion with this general spiritual service, of a particular rite, is neither natural nor scriptural. The incongruity may not be felt, in a phrase with which we have been long familiar, but it would be felt at once in any similar phrase. The statement,--He who believes and partakes of the Lord's supper, will be saved,—is imme. diately seen to present an unsuitable, and (if we may so speak) an unchristian kind of association. Some general expression for the change produced in the mind of the Christian, would best agree with the general expressions used, both for the commencement and the close of his course. But the mention of a special corporeal action does not at all accord with the Christian faith which precedes, or the Christian salvation which follows. He who trusts to the Gospel, and is dipped or overwhelmed, will be saved,—is therefore less likely to be the sentiment of the passage, than-He who trusts to it, and is purified, will be saved.

If we regard BaTTLO beis, as expressing some consequence of trusting to the Gospel of Christ, it is probable that it denotes in general the effects of faith, or some of the more important of them. No adequate reason can be assigned, for the selection of the simple observance of an outward rite, as the one effect of faith to be here mentioned. From the multitudes baptized by the apostles at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, there does not appear to have been any unwillingness to receive the rite. Many were ready to observe such a ceremony, who had no right apprehension of the salvation of Christ, and who paid little regard to his commands. The acknowledgment of himself, on which so much stress is laid by our Lord, when he requires that we should confess him before men, is, surely, the adoption, not of the Christian name, but of the Christian character ; it is the doing his will, and not the calling him, Lord, Lord. The reception of baptism with water, was one of the least important of the effects of faith, and it often resulted from other causes. It is in nowise accordant either with the style or the spirit of the Gospel, to give to such a corporeal action the distinguished prominence which would be assigned to it, if we suppose, that being baptized with water is the effect of faith here mentioned. It is, therefore, less likely that being dipped or overwhelmed, or being in any way ceremonially cleansed, should be exhibited as the result of Christian confidence, than that, being purified in heart, should be so exhibited.


If we consider Battlodeis to denote that, by which Christians might be distinguished from others, the argument is confirmed. Our Lord always referred to character and conduct as the only proofs that men were really his disciples. It is, therefore, very improbable that he should have represented them with this characteristic, as the dipped or the overwhelmed. No where is such a description given of believers ; but they are frequently designated the purified. ay.ou, nyaopévou. Many were baptized with water who did not believe, and who were not saved. But all who were purified in heart, did believe, and were saved. As it is probable, that our Lord here describes his followers, by the principle within them that made them his, and by some manifestation of that principle from which they might be recognized as his, we conclude, that the baptism he refers to, is the purification of the soul, and not the purification of the body; and that his words mean,—He who trusts to it and is purified, and not,—He who trusts to it and is dipped.

2. The connexion of baptism with salvation favours the same conclusions. Faith is often represented as the sole condition of salvation. Therefore, when other things are stated to be also necessary, they must be regarded as either included in faith, or as certainly connected with

We nowhere in the New Testament, find the observance of an outward rite exhibited as the condition of salvation. But we are there taught that the hearts of men are purified by faith, and that without the holiness or purity thus produced, no man can see the Lord. The expression,—He who is purified will be saved, -exactly agrees with the phraseology and doctrine of the New Testament. The expression,-He who is dipped will be saved,-has no such recommendation.

If outward baptism were here mentioned, we might expect that something would be said, of those who were baptized, without the faith that leads to salvation ; and of those who had this faith, but who were not baptized. We know that there were many of the former class, and on the hypothesis that baptism was performed by immersion, there must also have been many of the latter. Salvation is only promised to those who both believe and are baptized. Will the unbaptized be saved? But if spiritual baptism,—the cleansing of the soul from sin, is referred to, then these statements are complete, and nothing more would be expected. All who trust to the Gospel are purified by it; and none possess the purity of the Christian, without having first the faith of the Christian.

From a consideration of the phraseology and doctrine, the letter and the spirit of our Lord's discourses, and of the whole of the New Testament, we conclude that it is highly improbable, that the observance of an external rite,—to which not the slightest allusion had been previously made, either in the context or any part of this Gospel,—which was merely introductory to Christian instruction,—which had been received by multitudes who became the followers of Christ in name, but not in reality,– that this should be exhibited in connexion with faith, as the condition of the salvation of the soul. On the other hand, from the same considerations, it is very probable, that spiritual purity should be thus represented, as the effect of faith, the mark of a true Christian, and the condition of salvation. It is, therefore, improbable that mention is bere made of the purifying of the body; and it is probable that mention is made of the purifying of the soul. It is unlikely that Bantiso means to dip, and it is likely that it means to purify.

II. “And Jesus approaching addressed them, saying, All authority in heaven and earth is given to me. Go forth, and make disciples of all nations, purifying them for the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things whatever I have enjoined upon you; and remember, I am with you always, to the end of the world." μαθητεύσατε πάντα τα έθνη, βαπτίζοντες αυτούς εις το όνομα του Πατρός και του Υιού και του Αγίου Πνεύματος, διδάσκοντες αυτούς, &c. Μatt. ΧΙVii. 18.

It has been supposed that in this passage, we have the institution of the ordinance of Christian baptism; and also the form of words to be used in the administration of the rite. The statements of St. Jobn, already quoted, iï. 26, iv. 1, clearly show, that the rite of Christian baptism existed long before, and, therefore, could not have been instituted on this occasion. There is nothing to show that the phrase here used, is a form of words for the administration of baptism. Had it been such, the expression would have been-Baptizing them, saying, I baptize thee, &c. There is no indication of the use of this form in the Acts of the Apostles, although it was soon adopted by the early church. We read that persons were baptized, in acknowledgment of the Lord Jesus, by his authority, and for him. But no form of words is given on any of these occasions. We, therefore, conclude that the great object of baptism, and not the language used at the observance of baptism with water, is denoted by the terms “For the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.”

It is a well-known Hebrew idiom, to speak of the name of a person, when the person himself is intended. Of this we have many instances in the Septuagint and in the New Testament.* The phrases eis tò örona llavlóv, and eis tòx Mwüoñv, plainly mean, for Paul, and, for Moses. So also είς το όνομα Ιησού Χριστού, and εις Χριστόν, agree in signification, and

* Vide Gen. xiii. 4. “ Abram called on the name of the Lord." td óvoua 1 Kings v. 3. “To build a house unto the name of the Lord." To óvóuari. Ps. v. 11. Lo them that love thy name be joyful in thee.” od ovoua. vii. 17. “ I will sing praise unto the name of the Lord.” TẬ óvbuatı, viii. 1. “ How excellent is thy name in all the earth.” To ovoua. xxxiii. 21. “ We have trusted in his holy name." èy Tý rogat lxxxiii. 16. “ 'That they may seek my name.” To ovoua. cxxiv. 9. “Our help is in the name of the Lord.” év óvbuat. Is. xxvi. 8. “We have trusted to thy name." ήλπίσαμεν επί τω ονόματί σου.


“Let him trust to the name of the Lord." erd Tu óvbuatı. Mal. i. 6. “O priests that despise my name.” ad šraua. 11. " Incense shall be offered to my name." Tợ óvóuatı. Matt. xii. 21. "And to his

1. 10.

mean,--for Jesus Christ. We, therefore, conclude that the phrase eis tò ovoja Toll Harpòs, &c. has simply this sense For the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.

After the general command given by our Lord to his apostles, to make disciples of all nations, two other directions are expressed ; they were to baptize the converts, and to teach the doctrines and duties of Christianity. If it be supposed, that when the apostles were told to baptize men, the meaning of the direction was, that they should teach men to observe the rite of baptism—then we have a most strange and unaccountable connexion of thought. Why, when they were directed to teach men to observe all the precepts of Christ, should mention be first made of one particular precept? And how is it consistent with the genius of the Gospel, that the one particular precept selected for this special mention, should be an outward action, in the performance of which believers and unbelievers were often associated, and from which alone no good would result. It is unlikely that a single regulation of any kind, still more, that a single ceremonial regulation, should be introduced before the general rule, “Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have enjoined upon you." But it is likely that the great end to be sought by the apostles, for which all the commandments of Christ

name shall the Gentiles trust.” Tý óvóuati. John i. 12. “ To them that trust to his name." eis To ovoua. i. 23. “Many trusted to his name." eis to ovoua. iii. 18. “Because he hath not trusted to the name of the only-begotten Son of God." eis to ovoua. xvii. 6. “I have manifested thy name.” od ovoua. xx. 31. “ That believing ye may have life through his name.” èv óvomat. Acts ii. 21. “Whoever shall call on the name of the Lord will be saved." To ovoua. ii. 16. “Ye killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, whose witnesses we are; and through trust in his name, his name hath restored this man whom ye see and know.” To ovoua. viii. 12. “Who published to them the good message concerning the reign of God, and the name of Jesus Christ.” Toll óvóuatos. ix. 14. “All who call on thy name." Td óvoua. xv. 14. “To take a people to his name." To ovbuatı. 1 Cor. i. 2. “Who call on the name of the Lord Jesus Christ." od ovoua. comp. 2 Tim. ïi. 22. Tv επικαλουμένων τον Κύριον. 1 John iii. 23. “ This is his commandment that we trust to the name of his Son Jesus Christ.” TQ óvbuatı.

The phrases εις το όνομα and επί τω ονόματι are translated in our version in the same way as the phrase {v Tq ovbuatı, “in the name." But these phrases are not equivalent. Els denotes for, referring to the object or end, contemplated as future. Thus éBarτίσθημεν εις Χριστόν Ιησούν. Rom. vi. 3. εις Χριστόν εβαπτίσθητε. Gal. iii. 17. βεβαπτισμένοι υπήρχον εις το όνομα του Κυρίου Ιησού. Acts viii. 16. εβαπτίσθησαν εις od ovoua Toû Kuplov 'Inaoû. xix. 5. mean, baptized for Christ Jesus, for Christ, for the Lord Jesus. 'Eni denotes with a regard to, on account of, referring to the cause or reason, contemplated as past. Matt. xviii. 5. “Whosoever shall receive one such child, with a regard to my name." é tw óvónari uov. Thus βαπτισθήτω έκαστος υμών επί τω ονόματι Ιησού Χριστού εις άφεσιν αμαρτιών. Acts ii. 38. Let each of you be baptized with a regard to Jesus Christ, i.e. in acknowledgment of him. The sense of dy being with or by, ev óvbuatı means, with the name, i.e. by the authority. Ilpooétaté τε αυτούς βαπτισθήναι εν τω ονόματι του Κυρίου. Acts Χ. 48. He directed that they should be baptized in the name of the Lord. Here the English and Hebrew idioms agree.

were given, should be thus expressed. It is unlikely that our Lord's direction was,—Make disciples of all nations, dipping them, teaching them to observe all things, &c. It is likely that his direction was,Make disciples of all nations, purifying them, teaching them to observe, &c.

Men were to be baptized for the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The one invisible and incomprehensible God, who manifests himself in the person of Jesus Christ, and in the hearts of those who trust to him, is the object of the Christian's baptism. Being separated from the world, he is consecrated to His worship, to know, love, trust, adore, and obey him. The minds of men are purified by Christian instruction,* that they may be consecrated to the most holy One, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. “Ye are the temple of the living God; as God said, I will dwell and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore withdraw yourselves from them, and be separate, saith the Lord, and touch not that which is impure; then I will receive you, and be to you as a Father, and ye shall be to me as sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us purify ourselves from all defilement bodily and spiritual.” 2 Cor. vi. 16. “ If then any purify himself from these, he will be a vessel for honourable service, consecrated to the Master's use, and prepared for every good work.” 2 Tim. ï. 21. “Do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit which is in you, and which you receive from God, and that you are not your own ? Ye are redeemed by purchase ; so glorify God with your body and your soul, which are God's." 1 Cor. vi. 19. Baptizing is something so obviously related to the worship of God, that the connexion could be properly expressed without any comment. From the passages now quoted, and from many others, it appears, that to purify for the worship and service of God, is an expression scriptural, simple, and natural. But to dip, or to overwhelm, for the worship and service of God, is a mode of expression harsh, obscure, and unscriptural. We, therefore, conclude that our Lord's direction to his apostles was to this effect : Make disciples of all nations, purifying them for the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and for this end, instructing them to observe all things whatsoever I have enjoined upon you. Compare with this the other translation ; Make disciples of all nations, dipping them, or overwhelming them, for the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, instructing them to observe all things whatsoever I have enjoined upon you.

It is hardly necessary to remark, that the work which was assigned to the apostles, was one, in which they held the humble place of instruments in the hand of their divine Master. When, at their first mission, they were directed to heal the sick, to raise the dead, to cleanse the lepers, and to expel demons; they were appointed to a work far above

• Purifying their hearts by faith.” Kalapioas. Acts, xv. 9.

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