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was to possess his kingdom of Connaught in as full 1175. and ample a manner, as before Henry's entering that kingdom. By the second article, Henry engages to support and defend the king of Connaught in his territories with all his force and power in Ireland, provided he should pay to Henry every tenth merchantable hide throughout the kingdom. The third excepts from this condition the possessions of Henry and his Barons, such as Dublin with its liberties, and Meath, with its domains, which were to be holden by them in as full a manner, as they had been by O'Mealsachlin, or those deriving under him; Wexford, with all Leinster; Waterford with all its domains, as far as Dun. garvon, which, with its territory, was also to be excluded from this taxation. The fourth permits such Irish as had fled from the lands holden by the English Barons, to return in peace on paying the above tribute, or such other services, as they were anciently accustomed to perform by their tenures, at the option of their lords. If they should prove refractory, on complaint of such lords, Roderick was to compel them; and they were to supply Henry with hawks and hounds annually. The personal presence of Henry II. and the several Effects of

Henry's inaggressions of Strongbow with fresh reinforcements vasion acduring Henry's reign, all ended in making some colo. Sir J. Ďanial lodgments on the sea coast, and instilling into the "es. natives a dread of the English arms and discipline, and a hatred of their name and race. So says Sir John Davies*. “He (Henry) departed out of Ireland with

cording to


* Day. Disc. p. 15.

more at.

1175. out striking one blow, or building one castle, or plant.

ing one garrison among the Irish; neither left he behind him one true subject more than those, that he found there at his coming over, which were only the English adventurers spoken of before, who had gained the port towns of Leinster and Munster, and possessed some scopes of land thereunto adjoining, partly by Strongbow's alliance with the lord of Leinster, and partly by plain invasion and conquest, And this is that conquest of King Henry II. so much spoken of by so many writers, which though it were in no other manner, than is before expressed, yet is

the entire conquest of all Ireland attributed to him.” Nothing During the remainder of Henry's reign, nothing tempted in was either attempted or effected by the English ad, ing thiscur- venturers in Ireland of sufficient iinportance, to arrest reign.

the reader's notice, Henry's attentions being to the close of his reign wholly engrossed by the turbulent situation of his affairs both in England and the continent, he never returned to Ireland. The management of whatever possessions and powers he had there acquired was committed in rapid succession to different noblemen, as if the king capriciously repented of his appointments, or became jealous of the power of his

deputies, or dissatisfied with their conduct. Reaproint. In 1173, he appointed Hugh de Lacy, Lord of death of Meath, Lord Justice; who in the same year was sucs Strongbow.

ceeded by Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, as Lord Warden. In the mean time he summoned Strongbow to attend him at Rouen, and communicated to him his inteniion of committing the affairs of Ireland



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of Morton

of Ireland.

to his sole direction, which that nobleman undertook 1179. with the assistance of his confidant Raymond le Gross. After the death of Strongbow in 1176, the government of the English affairs in Ireland, devolved upon Raymond le Gross, who had been elected governor by the council, under the title of Procurator.

The same year the King, in a council at Oxford, John Earl very formally constituted his son, John Earl of made Lord Morton, who had not then attained his 14th year, King or Lord of Ireland. This grant to John appears rather to have been a cession of the king's proprietorship in his Irish acquisitions, than a deputation of the government or administration of affairs in that country. For in the same year we find William Fitz Adelm de Burgo created governor under the title of Seneschal. To the virtuous and upright conduct of this governor English and Irish historians give equal commendation. It appears to have been a fatality early intailed upon Ireland, that English policy should have always curtailed the government of the most deserving deputies. In 1179 Hugh de Lacy was again put at the head of Irish affairs under the title of procurator, In 1181 being recalled to England, Richard de Peche, bishop of Coventry, and John de Lacy, were appointed joint Lords Justices. In the same year, however, Hugh de Lacy resumed the government and continued at the head of affairs in that country, as Lord Chief Justice, till the year 1184, when Phillip de Braos, aliasof Worcester, was named chief governor under the title of Procurator.

In this year John Earl of Morton, having attained 21 Earl of years, was sent by his father over to Ireland with a went over

arl of Moreton

with great retinuo.

John de

1184. great retinue of English and Norman courtiers, by

whom the Irish were contumeliously treated. The dis-
contents of the natives soon rose into insurrection.
Hugh de Lacy was assassinated, and John recalled from
a government so weakly and wantonly administered.

Henry then intrusted the Irish government to John llenry's last de Courcy Earl of Ulster, who was a man of personal governor.

valour, of a rough and boisterous character, and besides the usual deputation of governing, appears to have had a special grant from the King, to appropriate to his own use whatever territory he could acquire by force of arms from the Irish, in the province of Ulster, of which he successfully availed himself, and continued in this situation till the death of Henry, which happened in 1189,


The Reign of King Richard, surnamed Cour de Lion.

Richard ne.

The reign of this monarch, which lasted 9 years 1189. and 9 months was, as to Ireland, a complete blank. Not one act of royalty during this whole space of time ver interfer

ed with liois recorded, which affected Ireland. Richard, from land." his accession to the throne of England, bent his mind to foreign objects of a more brilliant and ambitious nature than the reduction of Ireland. He was either insensible of the advantages of his father's conquests, as they were called, of that country, or too indulgent to his brother John, to question the power and authority he derived from his father's grant, and exercised over Ireland.

The style, which John Earl of Morton assumed was John Lord Lord of Ireland. By this title he had formerly grant- acts as sove. ed lands and other privileges to the monastery of St. reign. Thomas. And one of the first acts of authority, which he exercised after his father's death, was to grant to this religious house a tenth of the revenue of his city of Dublin, as it is expressed in the charter. By other charters he granted lands, franchises, and liberties, to be holden of him and his heirs, as if he held the island in fee, or absolute and uncontrouled dominion: though generally with an express reservation of churchlands, donations of bishopricks and

of Ireland

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