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ham was too upright a governor, not to become an object of jealousy and intrigue. He was accused of not having effectually supported the English interest, and of other malpractices. Being recalled to take his trial in England, he died before it came on, having indignantly rejected terms of compromise from

his accusers *. Tardy pro. As in Ireland the reformation was tendered to a

people very tenacious of their ancient faith, many of whom were avowed enemies of English government, and many staunch opposers of English administration, it made but tardy progress. The protector Somerset having successfully advanced the refor. mation in England, was resolved, that the Litur. gy of the Church of England should, as well as other new ordinances concerning religion, be introduced into Ireland. Orders were accordingly sent over to convene a parliament for this purpose; but, from apprehension of violent opposition, that design was dropped, and a royal proclamation was transmitted to the clergy, enjoining the acceptance of the new Liturgy. This innovation in religion was unexpectedly and violently opposed by Dowdall of Armagh, the new primate. Besides Archbishop Browne, four only of the bishops submitted to the proclamation; and these five were not supported by their own clergy. The new Liturgy was performed for the first time on Easter Sunday, A. D. 1551, in the cathedral

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* Ormond his prime accuser was soon after poisoned with sixteen of his retinue at a feast at a house in Holborn; but whether by accident or treachery was never discovered.

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of Christ Church, Dublin, in the presence of the de. 1551. puty, magistrates, and the few of the Dublin clergy who had then conformed.

Injudicious measures were adopted, that tended to a religious ulcerate the public mind too tenderly sore upon the appointed. subject of religion. A public conference, or rather a theological disputation, was holden in St. Mary's Abbey, between Dowdall on behalf of the catholic, and Staples of Meath on behalf of the reformed religion. This spiritual tournament produced its natu. ral and usual effect : each champion claimed the vice tory, and each party retired with increased acrimony against the other. John Bale, the violent impugner of popery, was nominated to the see of Ossory. His learning was great, his temper vehement. He in. sulted the prejudices of his flock. They were provoked, and not so restrained by the civil power, as to dissemble their resentments. Five of his domestics were slain before his face; and his own life was saved by the interposition of the magistrate.

As a mean of establishing the tranquillity of Ire- The Irish land on a more permanent basis, applications were extension of made by the deputy to the English cabinet for an ex- law. tension of the English law to all the Irish natives. They were not attended to. Times and circumstances were altered. The Irish once offered to purchase the participation of the English law. The attempt to in. troduce a new system of religion with an English ritual, connected itself with national prejudice against English oppression, and co-operated in raising the insurrection of Tyrone, for the suppression of which

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1553. we must look to a later period of the Irish history.

This nobleman, notwithstanding he had lately made a full submission and accepted of an English title, retained all his native predilections for the greatness and regal splendor of his famiiy. He had once pronounced a curse upon those of his posterity, who should conform to the English manners, or associate with the Saxon race. With this he was often upbraided by his kinsmen and followers; and finding the Irish nation now more than ever estranged from the English government, by their recent attempt to force them out of their religion, he chose this as the most favorable moment to throw off allegiance, and revert to the ancient consequence and independence of O'Nial.

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Ireland.

CHAPTER III.

The Reign of Mary. The reign of the Princess Mary must be considered 1553. as having immediately followed the demise of her brother, notwithtsanding the short interregnum of Mary pro

claimed ten days, during which the unfortunate Lady Jane Queen of Grey, who had been proclaimed Queen by Northum. ' berland, was possessed of the crown. The English council was at first surprised into compliance with the violent measures of Northumberland, and had ac, tually transmitted an order for proclaiming the Lady Jane in Ireland; but before these first orders had been acted upon, another messenger was dispatched to revoke them, expressing their concern at having thus borne with the time, declaring, that their sovereign Queen Mary had been proclaimed in London, and directing a like proclamation to be made to all her subjects of Ireland. All the great officers of state were confirmed in their several departments: a general pardon was granted to all her subjects, and a license was published as in England, for the exercise of the Catholic religion without penalty or compulsion.

The death of Edward VI. and the short reign of his Civil estabsister Mary, gave some respite to the troubled state of the catholic Ireland. The only measure of the British cabinet in stored the late reign affecting Ireland related to the ecclesia astical system. The first act of Mary's reign which touched that system, was a proclamation, by which she

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1556. end he caused an act * to pass in the same parliament,

authorizing the Lord Chancellor, from time to time, to award commissions to such persons as the Lord Deputy should nominate and appoint, to viewe and perambulate those Irish territories; and thereupon to divide and limit the same into such and so manie several counties, as they should thinke meete ; which being certified to the lord deputie and approved by him, should bee returned and enrolled in the Chancery, and from thenceforth be of like force and effects as if it were doone by act of parliament. Thus did the Earl of Sussex lay open a passage for the civil government in the unreformed partes of this king. dome; but himself proceeded no farther than is before declared.”

So confident was the English government of the displeasing pacific disposition of the Irish in this reign, that the to the Irish.

army was reduced to about 1000 men. The renewed turbulence, however, of some Irish chiefs to each other, and the lawless conduct of the Scottish adventurers, soon rendered it necessary to encrease it with reinforcements from England. Although the Irish were in general gratified by the restoration of the catholic religion to its ancient footing, they were dissatisfied with the civil administration of the power of the crown within the kingdom.

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* To show the precarious title of the crown out of the pal:; the proamble of this act particularly recites, that as these territories were known not to be within any shire of the kingdom, no title for the crown could be found, as will be seen at large in the first section of 2 chap. of 3 and 4 of P. and M.

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