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term was granted to the Queen, for the special pur. pose, as the act expresses it, of enabling her Majesty to expel the Scotch Highlanders, who had emigrated from their own country, as an avowed band of mercenaries. These adventurers having come over upon the speculation of profiting of the internal dissentions of the Irish chieftains, were open to any party, which held out the most lucrative terms. Their numbers were so considerable, and their outrages so alarming, that, it was made high treason to invite them into Ireland, or to engage or pay them, and felony to internzarry with them without license of the Lord Lieutenant. The advantages gained by the Earl of Sussex over two of the most powerful septs of Leinter, the O'Moors and the O'Connors, enabled the English to extend the pale, by reducing their territories of Leix and Offaly into two counties: they were by act of parliament vested in the crown, and converted into shire-land. Leix was denominated the Queen's County, and its principal fort was stiled Maryborough: and with a like compliment to her royal consort, Offaly was called the King's County, and its fort was called Phillipstown; which, as Sir John Davies observes, “ were the two first counties, that had been made in this kingdom since the 12th year of King John*. This noble earl having thus extended the jurisdiction of the English into two counties more, was not satisfied with that addition, but took a resolution to divide all the rest of the Irish counties unreduced into several shires; and to that

Dav. Disc, 248.

1566. end he caused an act * to pass in the same parliament,

authorizing the Lord Chancellor, from time to time, to award commissions to such persons as the Lord Deputy should nominate and appoint, to viewe and perambulate those Irish territories ; and thereupon to divide and limit the same into such and so manie several counties, as they should thinke meete ; which being certified to the lord deputie and approved by him, should bee returned and enrolled in the Chancery, and from thenceforth be of like force and effect, as if it were doone by act of parliament. Thus did the Earl of Sussex lay open a passage for the civil government in the unreformed partes of this kingdome; but himself proceeded no farther than is be

fore declared.” Mary'sgo. So confident was the English government of the verninent displeasing pacific disposition of the Irish in this reign, that the to the Irish.

army was reduced to about 1000 men. The renewed turbulence, however, of some Irish chiefs to each other, and the lawless conduct of the Scottish adventurers, soon rendered it necessary to encrease it with reinforcements from England. Although the Irish were in general gratified by the restoration of the catholic religion to its ancient footing, they were dissatisfied with the civil administration of the power of the crown within the kingdom.

* To show the precarious title of the crown out of the pali, the proamble of this act particularly recites, that as these territories were known not to be within any shire of the kingdom, no title for the crown could be found, as will be seen at large in the first section of a chap. of 3 and 4 of P. and M.

They were particularly sore at the power vested 1558. in the Lord Lieutenant, to dispose of the territories of Leix and Offaly in royal grants, which defeated the inheritable rights of the native owners of those lands. O'Sullivan says, that notwithstanding Mary's zeal for supporting and promoting the catholic religion, yet was her administration injurious to Ireland *. en She died on the 17th of November 1558. . . "5"

* Qua tametsi Catholicam religionem tueri et amplificare conata est, ejus tamen præfecti et conciliarii injuriam Ibernis inferre non destiterunt. Sull. Cath. Hist. p. 81.

1560, tholic religion had been renewed, should be repealed;

that the Queen should be enabled to appoint commissioners to exercise ecclesiastical jurisdiction; that all of. ficers and ministers ecclesiastical or lay should on pain of forfeiture and total incapacity take the oath of supremacy; that every person, as well as his aider, abettor, or counsellor, who should in any way maintain the spiritual supremacy of the Bishop of Rome, should forfeit for the first offence all his estates real and personal (or be imprisoned for one year if not worth 20 1.), incur a præmunire for the second offence, and become guilty of high treason for the third ; that the use of the Common Prayer should be enforced as in England; that every person should resort to the established church, and attend the new service under pain of ecclesiastical censures, and of the forfeiture of twelvepence for every offence, to be levied by the churchwardens by distress of the lands or chattels of the defaulter ; that the first fruits and twentieths of all church revenues should be restored to the crown; and the old writ and form of congé d'élire superseded by the King's letters patent, by which in future all collations to vacant sees were to be made. These ordinances were followed by an act of recogs nition of the Queen's title to the crown; and it was made a case of præmunire to speak, and treason to

write against it. Effects of So much had Sussex been alarmed by the opposithis parlia

tion he had encountered in parliament, though he


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* It sat from the 12th of January to the 12th of February.

ultimately succeeded, that he found it necessary quickly 1561. to dissolve it. He repaired to England to give to the Queen, in person, a minute and faithful account of the reception these new laws had met with from the Irish nation. The people were provoked by the violence offered to their religious prejudices. The partizans of Rome inveighed against the Queen as an heretic. The non-conforming clergy abandoned their cures ; no reformed ministers could be found to supply them; the churches fell to ruin; the people were left without religious worship, and the statutes lately made were evaded or neglected with impunity. . Under this general discontent the kingdom was for Elizabeth several years convulsed, either by internal feuds, or second pas the grand insurrection of O'Nial, that ended by hisia treacherous murder at a banquet in the camp of the Scotch adventurers. In order to put down faction and disturbance, to provide for the necessities of government, and forward reform, Elizabeth *, in the eleventh year of her reign, convened

convenes a


* 2 Lel. p. 226. The late Lord Clare, who was less ignorant than desirous of the good of Ireland, has fairly described the state of the kingdom under Elizabeth. “ It seems difficult to conceive any more unjust or impolitic act of government, than an attempt to force new modes of religious faith and worship by severe penalties upon a rude, superstitious, and unlettered people. Persecutions or attempts to force conscience will never produce conviction. They are calculated only to make hypocrites or martyrs : and accordingly the violence committed by the regency of Edward, and contia pued by Elizabeth, to force the reformed religion cn Ireland, had no other effect, than to foment a general disaffection to the Eng. lish government; a disaffection so general, as to induce Philip 11.

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