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ance of the

1651. from Paris, to solicit his and the assistance of other

catholic Princes against their and his own enemies, Even Ormond, once more secure from personal danger, finding his royal master the dupe, as his father had been the victim, of his bigotted reluctance to permit the sovereign to avail himself of the services and attachment of his catholic subjects, now recommended the sending fitting ministers, and proposing apt inducements * to the Pope himself, for his interposition with catholic princes, and to enable the King's catholic sub

jects of Ireland to make head against the rebels. Persever- The Irish nation has been upbraided with too hasty Irish in the submission to the arms of Cromwell t. Orrery himself royal cause.

allows “ that the Irish catholics were the last in the " three kingdoms that laid down their arms, and “ gave over fighting for the royal cause.” Propositions were received from the parliamentarian general, offering the citizens of Limerick the free exercise of their religion, the enjoyment of their estates, churches, and church livings; a free trade and commerce, without any garrison to be imposed upon them, provided they would allow his forces to march: through their city into the county of Clare. They rejected the propositionsỹ, though far more favorable than any

Ca. Col. Pa. Vol. I. 401.
+ Reply to a Person of Quality, p. 50.

3 Lel. 370.
§ The only disposition that appeared in any part of the nation
to favour the rebeis, was in the readiness of the peasantry to sup-
ply their camp with provisions. Cromwell issued a proclamation,
forbidding his army, under pain of death, to burt any of the inha-

that had been granted or even promised by the King 1661.
or his lieutenant. Whilst the general assembly,
which had been convened by Ormond was still
sitting at Loughrea, under Clanricarde, the regi.
cides made very favorable overtures to them for
an accommodation. “ The consequence of it was,
( says Carte,) an excommunication denounced
“ by the bishops, and a proclamation issued out by
" the deputy, upon the advice of the assembly,
" against all persons, that either served in the army of
" the rebels, or entertained any treaty with, or made
« any submission to them, declaring them guilty of
“ high treason, and punishable with death, unless
“ within twenty one days they quitted the service of
" and left off all communication with the rebels."
When Ormond resigned the government into the Seizure of

the royal hands of Clanricarde, all Ireland * except the province authority,

and transa plantation

to Conbitants, or take any thing from them without paying for it in naught. ready money. Under this proclamation, even on his march to Drogheda, he ordered two soldiers to be hanged in the face of the army for having stolen two hens from a cottager. Under this security, and the false assurances of his officers, that they were fighting for the liberties of the commons, and that every body should thereafter enjoy their own religion and property in freedom, his camp was constantly better supplied than the army of Ormond, whose passage through the country was more dreaded by the peasantry than that of a ferocious enemy.

* Clan. Mem. p. 56, where this nobleman's portrait of the dis. tresses of the remaining loyalists in reland, at that time, contradicts the accounts of Borlase, and others of that description of writers, and is an honourable testimony of the persevering loyalty of the frib oonfederates.

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. 1651. Connaught, the county of Clare, the city of Limerick,

and town of Galway,was eitherin the possession or under
the contribution of the regicides. Connaught and Clars
werefor the most part waste. The King had invested the
Queen and his brother the Duke of York, then at
Paris, with full powers to trtat with the Dule of
Lorrain, and with their approbation, and the strong
recommendation even of Ormond, that treaty was
entered upon. It failed, however, in its execution, and
Clanricarde, no longer able to support the troops he
could command, threw himself into the town of Car.
rick, where, “ being * encompassed,” says Ludlow,
“ by our men on all sides, he submitted, and obtained
“ liberty to transport himself with 3,000 men to any
“ foreign country in friendship with the common-
" wealth, within the space of three months.” In
the year 1652, Clanricarde left Ireland, carrying with
him the royal authority, says Borlase, t and within a
twelvemonth after, “ Mortagh O'Bryen, the last of
“ the Irish commanders, subaitted to the parliament
" on the usual terms of transportation, by the favor
66 of which 27,000 men had been that year sent
“ away." War, andi ts baleful consequences, famine
and pestilence, had so reduced the population of that

• Lud. Mem. 408. This method of clearing the country of its military strength, which the regicides despaired of gaining over to their party, had been so successtully practised by the Cronwellians, that Dalrymple (Mem. Vol. I. 267), says “ Cromwell, in order to get free of his enemies, did not scruple to transport 40,000 Irish trom their own country.”

Bo:!. Ir. Reb.

1653.

unfortuna'e country *, that, according to Clarendon, - Cromwell's council seriously thought of the utter ex." - tirpation of the whole nation. But, finding more diff.

culty in the execution of this sanguinary project, than

they were at first aware of, and sensible that it would - carry with it somewhat of horror, they devised the

? following expedient of transplantation, which they si called an Act of Grace. The whole native popula2: tion of Ireiand, that professed the religion of their an.

cestors, were driven in herds into Connaught and Clare,
then a desolated waste, and a proclamation was pub-
lished, that if, after the first of March, 165+, any Irish

catholic, man, woman, or child, should be found in - any other part of the kingdom, they might be killed

by any person, who should meet them, without charge - or trial. Arbitrary allotments of these wasted lands

were made, though some attention were pretended to
be had to the proportion of the possesions of which
individuals had been elsewhere divested; but the
merciful donative was fettered with an insidious
obligation, of releasing and renouncing for themselves
and their representatives for ever, whatever estates
and property they or their ancestors had possessed.
Thus were these scanty wrecks of the native Irish
made martyrs to royalty, and penned up like hunted
beasts in the devastated wilds of Connaught, hardly

existing in the gregarious and promiscuous possession - and cultivation of the soil, without the means of

* Borlase says, that in the summer of 1650, 17,000 persons died of the plague in Dublin,

1653.

acquiring live or dead stock, and wanting even the
necessary utensils of husbandry. This tyrannical :
appropriation of the soil of Connaught and Clare, went
to divest the possessors of their inheritances, as much
as if their estates had been situated without the pre-
cincts of this proscription. It is singular, that this
atrocious conduct of Cromwell should have been
represented as necessary or useful policy, to be grate-
fully supported and commended by authors of respect-
ability, from the days of the restored monarch Charles
II. down to the most prominent engine of the late
Union, the Earl of Clare *.

. It might be more orderly to reserve observations upon the conduct of Charles II. towards his Irish subjects, with referend to their forfeited estates, to the ensuing chapter. It cannot, however, be irrelevant to the severity and injustice of Cromwell towards the Irish, to notice the speech of Lord Clare in the Irish house of peers on the 10th of February, 1800, in recommending the Union. He did not scruple to assert, that it would have been as act of gross injustice on the part of the King to have overlooked the interest of Cromwell's soldiers and adventurers, who had been put into possession of the confiscated lands in Ireland. And on the same occasion that affected patriot drew the following picture of his country :

“After a fierce and bloody contest for eleven years, in which the face of the whole island was desolated, and its populatioa nearly extinguished by war, pestilence and famine, the insurgenis were subdued, and suffered all the calamities which could be inflicted on the va!iquished party in a long contested civil war. This was a civil war of extermination. Cromwell's first act was to collect all the native Irish, who had survived the general desco lation and remained in the country, and to transplant them intə ebe province of Connaught, which had been depopulated aadl

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