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1660. loyalty, or attachment to Ireland, could have inspired
the conduct of an individual, then resident in any part of the island, out of Connaught and Clare, in any
effort to effectuate the restoration. Richard Then
The contentions between the parliament and the the Parlia. army drove Richard Cromwell to dissolve the parlia
ment, which, in fact, put an end to his protectorate, which had lasted only seven months and twenty days. His character was the very reverse of that of his father. After the protector had, at the instigation of Broghill, dissolved the council of officers, with a degree of resolution that was not expected from him, the lords Howard, Broghill, and others, plainly apprized Richard, that the heads of these officers continued to hold secret meetings, which not only put his power but his person in danger; that Fleetwood and his party were to be crushed only by a bold stroke, and that, if he would properly empower them, all his enemies should be forced to obedience, or be cut off. The protector startled at the proposition, and answered in consternation. He thanked them for their friendship, but * " that he " neither had done nor would do any person any harm, “ and that rather than a drop of blood should be spilt “ on his account, he would lay down that greatness, " which was a burthen to him.” Henceforward, Broghill, sensible of the decline of the power of the Cromwells, to whom he had rendered such signal services, and from whom he had received such personal obligations, threw himself with vehemence into
* Budgel's Mem. of the Boyle Family, p. 76.
the tide, which he saw on the turn. From that time 1660. he was as prominently forward in promoting, as he had lately been in opposing, the return of the Stuarts. Though personally inimical to Sir Charles Coote, who had heretofore never agreed with him but in savage zeal to oppress the native Irish, and support the interests of Cromwell, he engaged him to second his efforts for the restoration of Charles, as the most promising means of advancing and securing their own interests. Even the population of the three provinces, consti- Charles pre
claimed tuted as it then was of an heterogeneous mixture, throughout being wearied of so many alterations and changes, and despising the weakness of the distracted government, began to incline to a restoration of the old order of things. This popular disposition favored the views of Broghill and Coote; they artfully manæuvred the advantage that presented itself, and so modelled the armed forces under their respective commands in Munster and Ulster, as to send an assurance of efa fectual co-operation with Monck, who was then in Scotland *. Coote seized upon the castle at Dublin,
* That self-interest actuated all the actions of these time-serying adventurers, Broghill and Coote, is evident from their conduct to their sovereign, to each other, and to the country. No sooner had Broghill communicated his intentions to Coote, thân Coote took the advantage of him by sending over 'Sir Arthur Forbes to the King at Bruxelles, with special instructions to depreciate Broghill, and to assume the whole merit of having first put the plan for his Majesty's restoration into motion in Ireland; and te magnify the difficulties he had surmounted, in bringing the leVOL. I.
1660. and the persons of those who under the parliamen
tary commission then exercised the powers of government, which continued in the form the commissioners thought most agreeable to the presbyterian system, until the restoration of Charles II. when Monck was declared lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; soon after which, the King was proclaimed at Dublin, and
in every other part of the kingdom. Persevering The cause of royalty had been publickly supported loyalty of the Irish. in Ireland three years longer than in any other part of
his Majesty's dominions. It was, therefore, natural that the restoration of the Stuart family to the throne should be more sensibly felt by the Irish, who had survived the successive disasters of war, famine, pestilence, and proscriptive exile into Connaugòt and Clare, than by any other of his Majesty's subjects. The duration and severity of the sufferings of the Irish for the cause of royalty were unprecedented, as they were unme. rited. The perseverance of these martyrs to royalty, it would be natural to suppose, would have moved
luctant Broghill to acquiesce in the attempt. In consequence of
the sympathy and challenged the justice of the re. 1660. stored monarch. But Charles was a Stuart, and the Irish were his most staunch, persevering, and therefore suffering friends. If ever Ireland had a call of gratitude upon the crown of England, it was at the restoration of Charles II.; and if any period since the invasion of Henry II. be distinguishable for the sufferings of the Irish nation, it was the moment when Charles II. immolated them to the treachery and rapacity of his own and his father's enemies. Such was, however, the force of prejudice against the Irish, who resisted the usurpation of Cromwell almost to extirpation, and spent their last blood and treasure in supporting the royal cause, that by the first legislators after the restoration, the rebellious regicides were established and confirmed in the wages of their sanguinary usurp ation. Thus basely and inhumanly were the crimes of one kingdom compromised by the forfeitures of the other.
Of all the leading men in Ireland, none had given Broghill more virulently into the usurpation of Cromwell than of Orrery,
Coote Earl Broghill and Coote. During the whole Interregnum of Monthey continued presidents of Munster and Connaught; they had been the occasion of taking away more lives in cold blood from the year 1641, than any other men in Ireland, if we except the orders of Cromwell at Drogheda and Wexford. They turned, as we have seen, with the tide ; and Charles, in the full glow of his family passion for rewarding his enemies, created. Broghill Earl of Orrery, and Coote Earl of Mon
created Earl the Irish cawholics.
1661. tra th, and appointed them lords justices of Irew
land *. Combina. Sir Maurice Eustace (an old and particular friend tion of pow, er against of the Marquis of Ormond, says Carte) was at the
same time, by the recommendation of Ormond, made lord high chancellor. By the advice, management, and contrivance of these four persons, (all determined enemies to the Irish catholics) was the whole settlement of that kingdom conducted., Commissioners were sent by this party to the King to forward their grand design, which was to call a new parliament, into which 110 catholic either peer or commoner should be admitted. It was their intent to grant a general pardon and indemnity to all protestants, to secure all the Cromwellians in their possessions, and effectually to prevent the Irish from recovering their estates.
Mecting of The parliament, which was convened on the eighth the first parliament un- of May, 1661, was so constituted t, as to command der Charles II. and how Constituted.
* “ These iwo earls bad been, says Clarendon, eminently against the King : but upon this turn, when all other powers were down, were eminently for him. But the King bad not then power to chuse any, against whom some as material objections might not be made. With them there were too many others, upon whom honours were conferred ; upon some, that they might do no harm, who were thereby enabled to do the more." Clar. Life, Vol. II. p. 219. .
+ This House of Commons consisted of 260 members, of which all but 61 were burgesses : and Cromwell had filled all the cor. porations throughout the kingdom with his own creatures. In the House of Peers there were about twenty-one catho