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principle of general benevolence, patriotism, and public spirit, which persons who live to be old without ever marrying are not so generally remarkable for. The attention of these persons having been long confined to themselves, they often grow more and more selfish and narrow spirited, so as to be actuated in all their pursuits by a joyless desire of accumulating what they cannot consume themselves, and what they must leave to those who, they know, have but little regard for them, and for whom they have but little regard.'
A series of family, cases (in which a considerable degree of anxiety and painful sympathy have a good effect) greatly improves, and as it were mellor's, the mind of man. It is a kind of exercise and discipline, which eminently fits him for great and generous conduct; and, in fact, makes him a superior kind of being, with respect to the generality of those who have had no family conneXions.
On the other hand, a course of lewd indulgence, without family cases, sinks a man below his natural level. Promiscuous commerce gives an indelible vicious taint to the imagination, so that, to the latest term of life, those ideas will be predominant, which are proper only to youthful vigour. And what in nature is more wretched, absurd, and despicable, than to have the mind continually haunted with ideas of pleasures which cannot be enjoyed; and which ought to have been long abandoned, for entertainments more suited to years ; and from which, if persons had been properly trained, they would, in the course of nature, have been prepared to receive much greater and superior satisfaction.
Besides, all the pleasures of the sexes in the human species, who cannot sink themselves fo low as the brutes, depend much upon opinion, or' particular mental attachment; and consequently, they are greatly heightened by sentiments of love and afection, which have no place with common
prostitutes, or concubines, where the connection is only occasional or temporary, and consequently flight. Those persons, therefore, who give themselves up to the lawless indulgence of their passions, besides being exposed to the most loathsome and painful disorders, besides exhausting the powers of nature prematurely, and subjecting themfelves to severe remorse of mind, have not (whatever they may fancy or pretend) any thing like the real pleasure and satisfaction that persons generally have in the married state.
§ 2. Of the pleafures of imagination.
As we ought not to make the gratification of our external senses the main end of life, so neither ought we to indulge our taste for the more refined pleasures, those calied the pleasures of imagination, without some bounds. The cultivation of a taste for propriety, beauty, and sublimity, in objects natural or artificial, particularly for the pleasures of music, painting, and poetry, is very proper in younger life; as it serves to
draw off the attention from grofs animal gratifications, and to bring us a step farther into intellectual life; so as to lay a foundation for higher attainments. But if we stop here, and devote our whole time, and all our faculties to these objects, we shall certainly fall short of the proper end of life.
1. These objeas, in general, only give pleasure to a certain degree, and are a source of more pain than pleasure when a person's taste is arrived to a certain pitch of correitness and delicacy: for then hardly any thing will pleaf, but every thing will give disgust that comes not up to such an ideal standard of perfeaion as few things in this world ever reach: so that, upon the whole, in this life, at least in this country, a person whose tafte is no higher than a mediocrity, stands the best chance for enjoying the pleasures of imagination ; and consequently, all the time and application that is more than necessary to acquire this mediocrity of taste, or excellence in the arts respecting it, are wholly lost.
Since, however, the persons and objects with which a man is habitually conversant, are much in his own power, a considerable refinement of taste may not, perhaps, in all cases, impair the happiness of life, but, under the direction of prudence may multiply the pleasures of it, and give a person á more exquisite enjoyment of it.
2. Very great refinement and taste, and great excellence in those arts which are the object of it, are the parents of such excesfive vanity, as exposes a man to a variety of mortifications, and disappointments in life. They are also very apt to produce envy, jealousy, peevishness, malice, and other dispositions of mind, which are both uneasy to a man's self, and disqualify him for contributing to the pleasure and happiness of others. This is more especially the case where a man's excellence lies chiefly in a fingle thing, which, from confining his attention to it, will be imagined to be of extraordinary consequence, while every other kind of excellence will be undervalued.