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A DISSERTATION on the MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS of the ENGLISH.
Since I have deviated a little from the subject, I will mention likewise, the Bell Harp'; and the Jews. Harp, which properly should be called Jaws-Harp; from its being played with the mouth 2.
The · The Bell Harp is so called, probably, from the players \Aruments (the Salt-Box, the Jaws-Harp, the Marrow-Bones swinging it about, as a bell on its biass, for the sake of varying and Cleavers, and the Hurdy. Gurdy) into notice, whatever opinion the tone. It is a small flat instrument, about three feet long, they may have of the Ode itself. and strung with steel, or bráfs strings, which are fixed at one N. B. I bave ftriatly adhered to the rule of making the found ecbo end, and tretched along the found-board, and screwed at the to the sense. other end : its compass is about two octaves. In performing May 30, 1763. on this inftrument, it is held at the sides, and played only with the thumbs, which are both equipped with a little quill, for
A BURLESQUE ODE, ON SAINT CÆCILIA'S DAY. that purpose. Its shape is totally different from the Harp, and Part I. Overture. Recitative accompanied. rather more of the Lyre kind. But there is no reason to suppose
Be dumb, be dumb, ye inharmonious founds, that the Bell Harp is ancient, as I find no mention made of
And music, that th' astonish'd ear with difcord wounds: it under that name.
No more let common rhymes profane the day. • The Wellh name is, Tjyrmaħt, and implies the mouth in
Grand Chorus. motion ; which removes all doubt, that Jews Harp, is a cor Grac'd with divine Cecilia's name ; ruption of Jaws Harp, or Jaws Trump: neither is it to be
Let solemn hymns this awful feast proclaim, found in the plate of Jewish musical instruments, given to us And heav'nly notes conspire to raise the heav'nly lay. by Calmet. The earliest mention of it, that I can find, is in
Recitative accompanied. Davydd ab Gwilym's Ode on the wind, written about the year
The viler melody we scorn, 1370, thus: “ Yftyrmant yr ystormydd.” -Mr. Pennant informs
Which meaner inftruments afford ; us, (in his Tour to Scotland, p. 195,) that one of gilt brassavas
Shrill Flute, sharp Fiddle, bellowing Horn, found in Norway, deposited in an urn. Likewise, there is a
Rumbling Balloon, or tinkling Harpsichord. print of a Jaws Harp, in Lufcinius's Mufurgia, p. 28; published
Air. in 1536. Therefore, from all these circumstances, it seems
In strains more exalted the Salt-Box shall join, rather ancient.
And clattering, and battering, and clapping combine ; There is a most admirable Burlesque Ode, written in the year
With a rap, and a tap, while the hollow side sounds, 1763, which greatly tends to illustrate this instrument as well
Up and down leaps the flap, and with rattling rebounds. as several others of the inferior English Minstrel instruments,
Recitative. that are now but little known; therefore, I am induced to
Strike, itrike, the soft Judaic Harp, quote it here, as well, alsa, on account of its poetical humour
Soft and sharp, as for information.
By teeth coercive in firm durance kept, " An Ode on SAINT CÆCILIA's Day, adapted to the an And lightly by the volant finger swept. cient British Music: viz. The Salt-Box, The Jaws Harp, The
Air. Marrow-Bones and Cleavers, The Hurdy Gurdy, &c. With
Buzzing twangs the Iron Lyre, an introduction, giving fome account of these truly British
Whizzing with the wav'ring wire.
AGrand Symphony, accompanied with Marrow-Bones & Cleavers.
Hark, how thc banging Marrow-Bones
Make Clanging Cleavers ring,
With a ding
dong, ding dong,
Ding dong, ding dong,
Ding dong, ding dong, ding dong, ding.
Let Cleavers sound very little known in the polite world, it will be proper to
A merry merry round give some account of them.
By banging Marrow-bones. The Judaic, or (as it is commonly called) Jews Harp, Speaks its
To be repeated in FULL CHORUS. origin in its appellation ; and, indeed, the very twanging of its found
Recitative accompanied. feems admirably qualified to accompany tbe guttural Hebrew language:
Cease lighter numbers : hither bring though a learned critic of my acquaintance is rather inclined to think,
The undulating string that this inftrument is of a more modern invention ; and from its
Stretch'd out, and to the tumid bladder poßtion, when played upon, he conjectures, that Jews Harp is only a
In amity harmonious bound; corruption of its original name, Jaws Harp.
Then deeper swell the notes and fadder I am forry I can give no certain account of those two incomparable
And let the hoarse bare slowly folemn found. instruments, the Salt-Box, and the Hum Strum, or Hurdy-Gurdy; but it is reasonable 10 conclude, that the first was usually performed
With dead, dull, doleful, heavy hums, on at festivals, and the other at funerals, and on serious occasions.
With mournful moans, The Marrow-Bones and Cleavers are undoubtedly our own in
And grievous groans; vention, and do honour to the British nätion. There were originally
The fober Hurdy-Gurdy * thrums. made use of in our wars; when our brave ancestors rushed on their enemies (like the ancient Gauls,) clashing their weapons, and ready
This inftrument, by the learned, is sometimes called a Hum Strum, or 20 knock or cleave them down with thoje very infruments, on which Bladder and String ; and sometimes a tin canitter is used instead of a bladder. they could beat fo terrible an alarm. Indeed, since the pernicious in.
PART II, troduction of fire arms, the Marrow-Bones and Cleavers have quitted the scenes of human slaughter, and are now confined entirely to
In order that the bearers, as well as the performers, may have i he hambles.
some relief, it has been judged proper to divide this Ode into two if this Ode
, and the performance of it, contributes to lessen our parts ; but the pause, in the performance, is intended to be very falje taste in admiring thar foreign music, now fo much in vogue, buth hort: the writer and the composer's intention will be answered.
Recilative accompanied. Dryden and Pope have been immortalized for their Odes on St. With magic sounds, like these, did Orpheus' Lyre Cecilia's Day : “But these were unbappily adapted to the common Motion, fense, and life, inspire ; inftruments, which ignorance and falje talte have introduced among When, as he play'd. the lift'ning flood
I make no doubi, but tbat all, wbo fall be present at the per Still'd its loquacious waves, and silent stood ; formance of this Ode at Ranelagbon the tenth of June, will at least The trees, fwitt-bounding, danc'd with loosen'd stumps, commend me for my endeavours to bring theje noble long-neglected in And fluggish stones caper'd in active jumps.
The Minstrels of the Saxons appear to have been so similar to the latter Bards of the Welsh, that there cannot be a doubt, but they first originated from them '; about the time when the ininerant Bards began to degenerate, and to branch into various occupations, when they lost the patronage afforded them at the death of their own Princes : indeed they were nearly annihilated altogether, by the favage policy of Ed: ward the First, and by the cruel ediêts of the Henries ?: and, what strengthens this opinion is, their laws seem so congenial, that they must have been modelled from those of the Bards; only with this difference, that the course of discipline was far less strict among the Minstrels, and that they took the liberty of introducing Fable into their Songs; which was quite contrary to the laws of the Bards 3. It is rather extraordinary, that no good history of the Minstrels has yet appeared, though many of their songs have: nor is their profession rightly understood, for want of some judicious person to undertake to collect and publish their institution, laws, occupations, immunities, pay, dress, &c. ; and to give them, verbatim, to the public : when that is done, I am convinced, that the true character of a Minstrel will be found differ ent to what it has generally been represented *. But in order to convey some idea of that profession, I shall exhibit here, a copy from a curious manuscript, of the Steward's charge to the Minstrels; (which I was favoured with from Mr. Douce :)
See pages 33, 34, 85, 86, and p. 102, note 4. And more
particularly, fee The Battle of Flodden Field, an heroic poem,
with notes by Benson ; page 2. And ev'ry hooting owl around ;
King Edward ths First, and his successors until Henry the
Sixth's time, enacted special laws, that Welshmen should not
enjoy their former liberties and customs; although they and Áll, all confpir'd to raise thenliv'ning found. their posterity had been so liberal in granting privileges to the Recitative.
Saxons, who came into this island. According to various
edies and decrees, especially one of Henry the Fourth, the Your loud united voices raise,
Welsh were kept under the yoke of servitude, and their own With folemn hymns to celebrate her praise,
proper laws abolished,and the English laws brought in ; proEach iuftrument shall lend it's aid.
viding, by general command, that no man should use the The Salt Box with clattering and clapping shall found, Welsh tongue in any court, or school. Breviary of Britain, by The Iron Lyre
Humphrey Lhwyd. See also pages 38 and 59 of this work; and
Leges Wallicae, p. 543, 547, and 548.
3 See pages 31 and 58:
4 In case any person should undertake such a work, I beg And the merry merry Marrow. Bones ring round. leave to suggest a few more hints, which may be useful in such Lal Grand Chorus.
an undertaking. To obtain farther particulars, it will be necessary Such matchless strains Cæcilia knew,
to investigate the religious ceremonies in monastic records When angels from their heav'nly sphere,
where Minstrels were employed '; of public celebrations; By harmony's strong pow'r, she drew,
Games and Sports ·; Revels', of dancing, malking, and seWhilst ev'ry Spirit above would gladly stoop to renades ; festivals at Chriitmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide : hear."
church feafts of saints; church ales; Whitson-ales 4; Wakes';
Bridals; and Interludes ; Allhallows; feast of St. ErkenI am informed, that the famous Dr. Arne had formerly a wald; feast of Purification of our Lady; Midsummer-Day, Benefit Concert, in the Little Theatre, in the Haymarket, &c. Of Jesters or Fools ?; Waits ® : Mummers '; Morrison the 22d of November, in the year 1749,
where he intro- dancers to ; Merry-Andrews; Magiciaris"; Jugglers, duced all these instruments, and allotted to each of them a&c. Solo part; and that this was the Ode to which he adapted them. How couled that be, il the ode wooned written urtel 1763? 1 See page is of this work. --Bede's Church History.-Britannca Saneta,
THE MUMMER S. or Lives of the moit celebrated British, English, Scottish, and Irish Saints, in A Knight enters with his sword drawn, and says: two volumes quarto.
Room, room, make room brave gallants all; 2 See the Ancient British Games, in page 36; which are said to be as old as
For me and my brave company ! the time of King Arthur. Also Brand's Popular Antiquities, chap. xvII.
Where's the man, that dares bid me stand ? p. 201, &c.-King Charles's declaration to his subjects, concerning lawful
I'll cut him down with my bold hand. Iports to be used. And the downfall of May-Games, by Tho. Hall.
3 See an account of the Mafter of the Revels:--Allo, Dugdale speaks of the St. George. Here's the man, that dares bid you stand, Revels ofLincoln's Inn, as appeareth in oth of Henry VI:- Hawkins's History of
He defies your courageous hand! Mufic, Vol. IV. p. 393. Vol. II. p. 193, 137.-King Henry Vilich. had The Knight. Then mind your eye, to guard the blow, a marquerade at Greenwich. — Likewise, tee Popular Antiquities by Brand.
And fhield your face, and heart allo. • Hawkins's Hifory of Music, Vol. IV. p. 383. And the Anatomy of St. George gets wounded in the combat, and falls. Abuses, by Philip Stubs.
Do&or, Doctor, come here and see, 5 Brand's Popular Antiquities, p. 299.
St. George is wounded in the knee : 6 Interludes are common in Wales, and they used to be the same in
Doctor, Doctor, play well your part, Cornwall.
St. George is wounded in the heart ! 7 A jefler is well characterized in Shakespeare's Tempeft: and is commonly a incipal character in the Welth interludes : It first originated, probably, from The Doctor enters. the Teuluwr, see page 84.
I am a Doctor, and a Doctor good, 8 Waits, are musicians of the lower order, who commonly perform upon
And with my hand I'll ftop the blood.wind instruments, and play in most towns, under the windows of the chief The Knight, What can you cure, Doctor ? inhabitants, at midnight, a short time before Christmas; for which they colleat The Doctor, I cure coughs, colds, fevers, gout, a Christmas-box, from house to house. They are faid to derive their name of
Both pains within, and achs without : Waits from being always in waiting in celebrate weddings, and other joyous
I will bleed him in the thumb ! cvents, happening within their distria. Allo, see Brand's Hißory of Neweafile St. George. 0! (will you so ?) then I'll get up, and run ! upon Tyne, Vol. II. p. 3453 and 717. There is a building at Newcattle
, called some more Mummers, or \Minstrels, come in, and they fing the following fonnet; Waits Tower, which was formerly the meeting-house of the town band of accompanied by ebe Hurdy Gurdy, muficians. ibid. Vol. I. p. 16.
“ My father he killed a fine fat hog, 9 It is customary in North Wales, about Christmas, for the young farmers,
rs And that you may plainly see ; both men and maids, to go about to their neighbours houses, disguised in each
« My mother gave me the guts of the hog, others clothes, and somerimes in masks. They are called Gwræshod, probably
“ To make a Hurdy. Gurdy." from their affuming old characters, or wizards. They act various antic divere
Then ebey repeat the song in full ckorus, and dance. fions, and dance, and fing; for which they get good cheer ; or ale, apples, and In former times, it appears, that the first nobility went about at Christmas, nuts. Likewise, to convey a more perfect idea of the Mummers in England, I in character of Mummers. See Brand's Popular Antiquities, cbap. XV). Thall infert here a tradicional sort of thing, which is still acted in Oxfordshire, p. 196, &c. In the third year of Henry the Villch an act was made against abous Christmas, by the Muminers.
Mummers; vide cbe statutes.
“ The Charge delivered in the Music Court of the Honour of Tutbury. « Gentlemen of these Inquests ! “ T'he annual custom and usage of this honourable and ancient Court, having now called you together, something, I suppose, is expected should be said of the delightful Art and harmonious Science you profess.”
“ Gentlemen, The nature of your Art consists in raising, and skilfully regulating harmonious founds. All founds (as the philosopher observes,) arise from the quick and nimble elifion, or percussion, of the air, being either divided by the Lips, or reeds, of Pipes, Hautboys, Flutes, or other wind instruments, or else struck and put into motion by the tremulous vibration of strings, yields an agreeable found to the ear. Now, it is your business, Gentlemen, to regulate, compose, and express, these sounds, so as to cause the different tones, or notes, to agree in concord, to make up one perfect concert and harmony.
“ As for the Antiquity of Music, it will suffice, that we read of Jubal, the son of Lamech, the seventh from Adam, (whom some will have to be the Apollo of the Heathens,) being the father of all such as handle the Harp and Organ, and probably, most other sorts of music "." After the Flood 13
are first said to have had this Art; and, about the time of the confusion of tongues, Misraim, the son of Ham, is said to have carried this Art, with its company, into Egypt, where it was so much practised and improved, that succeeding generations, who knew not the writings of Mofes, believed the Egyptians were the first inventors of music. Laban, the Syrian, expoftulated with his son-in-law, why he would not let him send him away with Mirth, and with Songs, with Tabret and with Harp.
But the Heathen writers are much divided about the author, or first invention thereof: some say Orpheus; some Lynus ; (both famous poets and Musicians ;) others Amphion ; and the Egyptians ascribed the invention to Apollo; but, as I before observed, the sacred History puts an end to this contest, by telling us, that Jubal, the son of Lamech, and brotherof Noah, was father of all such as handle the Harp and Organ; and, probably, many other kinds of music : for, what variety of inventions, as well as improvements, of musical instruments, might be expected from such a genius, in the space of seven 'or eight hundred years experience? This Jubal (as I before faid) is by the learned thought to be the Apollo of the Heathens; but, as sacred, and profane History make them cotemporary, we may reasonably infer, that the Egyptians held this science in the highest esteem, from their making Apollo (the God of Wisdom) the
god of it.
There is not the smallest orb we behold amidst the glorious canopy of the Heavens, nor the minutest species of the animal or vegetable creation throughout the terraqueous globe, as well in its make, motion, and appendages, but in its motions, composition and economy, like an Angel sings. For, when we consider the exquisite Harmony that visibly appears through the whole creation, and the feathered race, as one heavenly chorus, continually warbling forth their praise to the Great Creator ; I say, when we permit such thoughts as these to have due influence upon us, we must conclude that the universal frame is derived from Harmony; and that the eternal mind composed all things by the laws of music; and which gives plain and evincing hints to mankind, that as nothing but beauty, fymmetry, and true Harmony are difcovered through the creation, so their duty to their Great Creator would be best expressed by a chain of harmonious actions, agrecable to reafon and the dignity of their natures, and such as would really bespeak God's service to be the most perfect freedom.
Thus is music a representation of the sweet content and harmony, which God, in his wisdom, has made to appear throughout all his works. With what noble and sublime contemplations ought the melodious science of music, naturally to inspire our minds !
Thus Holy David, the Royal Psalmist, well experienced the powerful effects of music. You seldom meet him without an instrument in his hand, and a psalm in his mouth. Holy metres and pfalms he
10 The Morris dancers are fully described in the laf edition of Johnson and . 404.) In some Counties the Morris-dancers go about at Whitsuntide. But Stephens's Shakespeare, in the notes at the end of the Grst part of Henry Plot's History of Staffordshire mentions the Hobby-borse dance, at Christmas, the Fourb; and a print of them from an ancient painted window. See allo, chap. X. 66.. Some imagine that this dance forft took its rise from the the notes to Love's Labour loft, act III. There is a very curious picture that Druids, as well as many other festival entertainments, and characters; that of contains a group of Morris-dancers, at Lord Fitzwilliam's House, on Rich the Buffoon, or Merry Andrew, who usually bears a principal part in the Morris mond-Green, which formerly was brought from the old palace there. It dance, it is said to have been originally intended as a ridicule on the Druids, or a was painted by Vinkenboom, about the reign of Charles the First; and there mock Druid. However, I reter the curious to more on this fubject, in Brand's is a bad print taken from it, engraved by Godtrey, in 1774. Query, Popular Antiquities, chap. XIV. p. 174, 175; and the appendix, p. 499, and whether Morris is derived from mawur-rwyje, powerful, warlike; or from 400.Likewise, Hawkins's Hiftory of Music, Vol. II. p. 135. -Feuillet mór rys, a sea-faring hero? (Dr. Johnson derives it from the Morrs, and on Dancing, by Weaver, 12mo. p. 171. says it was probably a kind of Pyrrhíc, or military dance : see the sword. dance 11 See p. 90, &c. described in Brand's Popular Antiquities, chap. XIV, and the appendix, 12 Sec Ecclefiafticus, Chap. XLIV. &c,
dedicated to the chief musician Feduthun, to compose music to them; he was one in whom the Spirit of God delighted to dwell; no evil spirit can subdue that mind where music, and harmony are lodged. When David played before Saul, the evil spirit departed immediately. The use of music was continued in the Jewish church until the destruction of the Temple, and Nation by Titus ; and the use of it began in the Christian church in the time of the Apostles. The Christian Emperors, Kings, and Princes, in all ages, and in all Nations, to this day, have had this divine science in great esteem and honour, as well for divine, as civil uses; not only Jews and Christians, but most of the heathen poets and philosophers, were skilful musicians. Homer, who was a skilful master in that science, introduces Achilles quelling his rage against Agamemnon, by the help of music. And the poet feigned that Orpheus drew trees, stones, and floods ; fince nought, so stockish hard and full of rage, but music, for the time, doth change its nature. Plutarch tells us of Terpander's appeasing a seditious insurrection in Lacedæmonia by his harmonious lays. Pythagoras is said to have softened fierce Minas; Asclepiades to have put a stop to sedition; Damon to have reduced a drunken man to fobriety, and petulent men to a modest behaviour ; and Xenocrates to have brought madmen to themselves, and all by the help of musical sounds. The evil spirit was removed from Saul, and he prophesied, and this by the efficacy of music. And Elisha, when he was consulted by the three Kings that marched against Moab, called for a Minstrel; and, when the Minstrel played, the hand of the Lord came upon him *. Music expels poison by rarifying and exhilarating the spirits. Persons bit by the tarantula have been (as by good authors we are informed) cured by music. Amphion was so great an orator and musician, that by the power of his oratory, and powerful touch of his musical Lute, the stones that built Thebes, a city in Egypt, danced after him to the place where they should be laid ; and his moving oratory, sweet harmony and musical sounds, did fo creep into the ears, and steal upon the hearts of a people, rude and uncivilized, as engaged them to live peaceably together at Thebes, where he was King
Musical facrifices and adorations claimed a place in the laws and customs of the most different nations. The Grecians, and Romans, as well as Jews, and Christians, unanimously agreed in this, as they disagreed in all other parts of their ceremonies. The Greeks, and Romans had their college, or fociety of musicians, whose art they thought useful to introduce virtue, and excite courage. Tully tells us, that the ancient Grecians (the politest people of the age) did not think a gentleman well-bred, unless he could perform his part at a concert of music, insomuch that Themistocles (though otherwise a great man,) was taxed for being defective in this accomplishment.
But to come nearer to ourselves, history tells us, that the ancient Britons had Bards, before they had Books; and the Romans, by whom they were conquered, confess the mighty power the Druids and Bards had over the people, by recording in their Songs the deeds of heroic spirits, and teaching them both Laws, and religion in Rhymes and Tunes.
And the long continuance of this very Court of Minstrelfy.' is a testimony of the antiquity of Music amongst us.
Theodoric, in an epistle to Boëtius, says, when this queen of the senses comes forth in her gay dress, all other thoughts give way, and the soul rallies its powers to receive the Delight which she gives ; lhe cheers the sorrowful, softens the furious and enraged, sweetens four tempers, gives a check to loose, impure, wanton thoughts, and melts to pure and chalte desires ; she captivates the strayed faculties, and moulds them into a serene, sober, and just, economy.
I say, Gentlemen, the force of music is wonderful; how strangely does it awaken the mind; it infuses an unexpected vigour, makes the impression agreeable and sprightly, gives a new capacity as well as fatisfaction; it rises, and falls, and counterchanges the passions ; it charms and transports, ruffles, and becalms, and governs with an almost arbitrary power ; there is scarely any constitution fo heavy, or reason so well fortified, as to be absolute proof against it. Ulylles, as much a hero as he was, durft not trust himself with Syren's voices. Timotheus, a Grecian, was so great a master of music, that he could make a man storm and swagger like a tempest ; and then, by altering his notes and time, he would take him down again and sweeten his temper in a trice. One time, when Alexander was at dinner, this man played a Phry,
gian * II. Kings, chap. III. verse 15.-1. Samuel, chap. X, verses 5 and 6. 'The Minstrels seem to have been the genuine successors of the latter Bards. The word Minfrel does not appear in use in England before the Norman conquest. The Minstrels continued down to the reign of Elizabeth, in whose time they had loft much of their dignity, and were finking into contempt and neglect. See Statutes 39 of Elizabeth, C. 4. § 2, And43 Elix, Cap. XV.
THE CHARGE TO THE MINSTRELS, AT THE COURT OF TUTBURY.
gian air, the prince immediately rises, snatches up his launce, and puts himself in a posture of fighting ; the retreat was no sooner founded by the change of notes, but his arms were grounded, and his fire extina, and he sat down as orderly as if come in from one of Aristotle's lectures.
Have you, Gentlemen, never observed a captain at the head of a troop or company, how much he has been altered at the sound of a Trumpet, or the beat of a Drum ; or what a vigorous motion, what an erected posture, what an enterprising visage? all of a sudden his blood changes in his veins, and his spirit jumps like gun-powder, and seems impatient to attack the enemy. Music is able to exert its force, not only upon the affections, but on the parts of the body, as appears from Mr. Derham's story of the Gascoign Knight, that once had disobliged him ; and, to be even with him, caused, at a fealt, a Bagpipe to be played when he was hemmed in with the company, which made the knight to be-p-s himself, to the great diverfion of the company.
But farther, Gentlemen, not only mankind, but the very beasts of the field, are delighted with music. The beasts of the plough, their toil is rendered easy, and the long fatigue they daily undergo, is insensibly shortened by the rural Songs and cheering Whistle of the drivers. Not only dogs and horses, (those docile and sagacious animals,) but even the rugged bears themselves, dance to the sound of pipes, and fiddles.
Do but note a wild and wanton herd, or race of juvenile and unbacked colts fetching mad bounds, bellowing and neighing aloud, (the hot conditions of their blood,) if they perchance do hear a Trumpet found, or any music touch their ears, you shall perceive them make a mutual stand, and their favage eyes turned to a modest gaze, by the sweet powers of music.
The famous Mr. John Playford tells us a remarkable story to this purpole ; that himself, once travelling near Roytton, met a herd of stags, about 20 upon the road, following a Bagpipe and Violin: when the music played they went forward, when it ceased they all stood still; and in this manner they were conducted out of Yorkshire to the King's palace at Hampton-court.
But not only brute beasts, but even inanimate bodies, are affected with founds. Kircler mentions a large stone that would tremble at the found of one particular organ-pipe. Mersennus also, among many ‘relations, tells us of a particular part of a pavement that would shake as if the earth would open when the organ played ; this is more probable than what he relates about antipathy, (to wity) that the sound of a. Drum, made of a wolf's skin, would break another made of a sheep's skin; and that poultry would fly and cackle at the sound of a Harp-string made of a fox's gut. The great Boyle also tells us, that he tried an arch that would answer to C fa, and had done so 100 years; and that an experienced builder told him, any well-built vault would answer some determinate note; and Mr. Derham tells us, that one Nicholas Petter, a Dutch man, could break round glasses with the sound of his voice.
It is the common, or civil use of music that concerns you, Gentlemen, that owe suit and service to this Court; and in that, the world has not wanted examples, even of Emperors, Princes, and the greatest and most illustrious persons have not disdained, both to learn and practise your art. It is music, which gains you admittance and accceptance in courts, and palaces. In short, Gentlemen, what feast, what play, affembly, or ball, what country-wakes, merriment, or entertainment, can be well held without some of your society. Our great dramatic poet says, “ The Man that hath not Music in his soul,
c And is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds,
And now, Gentlemen, having spoke a few words of the nature, antiquity. usefulness, and wonderful effects, of music, I shall now proceed to inform you, that, as long as the ancient Earls, and Dukes of Lancaster, who were ever of the Blood Royal, had their abode, and kept a liberal hospitality at their Honor of Tutbury, there could not but be a general concourse of people from all parts, for whose diverfions, all forts of musicians were permitted likewise to come, to pay their services; amongst whom, some quarres and disorders now and then arising, it was found necessary, after a while, that they should be brought under Rules, and Laws ; and that the end of your attendance and service at this time, is the preservation of Taillefer, the Minstrel is said to have been the first person that broke into the English ranks at the battle of Hastings : and of Berdic, another French Minstrel attached to the Conqueror, by whom he was rewarded with the gitc of three rarithes in Glouceiterllire. George Ellis's Specimeus of early English Poetry