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the dignity of this noble Science, and for putting those Laws into execution, by punishing all abuses and disorders happening by any of your society within this Honor; for which end you have a Governor appointed you, by the name of a King, who has several officers under him, to see the execution of the several Laws and customs, belonging to this ancient community.

ist. Gentlemen, you are to inquire into the behaviour of the several Minstrels, within this Honor, since the last Court.

2d. Whether any of them have abused, or disparaged their honourable profession, by drunkenness, profane cursing and swearing, singing lewd and obscene Songs, playing to any company or Meetings;' on the Lord's day, or by any other vice, or immorality, or by intruding into any company, unsent for, or by playing for any mean or disgraceful reward ?

3d. Whether any of the Minstrels within this Honor, that should be the known masters of concord and harmony, have been themselves guilty of any brawls, quarrels, or disorders ?

4th. Whether the Minstrels within this Honor have been decent in their apparel, and skilful in their art, and respectful to their supreme, the King of the Minstrelly? Whether their last year's officers of the Minstrelly have well performed the duty of their respective offices ?

5th. Whether any Minstrels, that owe Suit and Service to this Court, have appeared, and done their Suit?

6th. Whether any Minstrels have exercised their Art within this Honor, not being allowed, and inrolled in this Court? And if you find any Minstrels within this Honor, to have offended in any of these particulars, you are to present them.

And, in the last place, Gentlemen, it must be recommended to you, that you chufe Skilful, and Good Men to be Officers of the Minstrelly for the ensuing year. The King is to be chosen out of the four Stewards of the preceding year, one year out of Staffordshire, another year out of Derbyshire, interchangeably; and the four Stewards; two out of Staffordshire, and two out of Derbyshire ; three of them to be chosen by you, and the fourth, by the Steward of this Court, and the Bailiff to the Earl of Devon"."

The original Charter granted at Tutbury, in Staffordshire, to the King of the Minstrels, by John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, is dated the 22d of August, 1380, in the fourth year of the reign of sweet Richard the Second, and intitled, Charta le Roy de Ministralx, which was written inold French; see Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, Tom I. p. 355, and Tom II. p. 873, 2d edition ; and partly translated in Plot's History of Staffordshire, Chapter the Xth, 69, 70, &c. and in Blount's Ancient Tenures, by Beckwith, p. 303, &c. with a further account of the manner of electing the King of the Minstrels, and his Officers. Likewise, in all probability, there must be more information on this subject, to be found among the ancient records, in the Dutchy Court of Lancaster, London, and in the possession of the present Duke of Devonshire, lord of Tutbury.

I must not omit to mention a remarkable anecdote of the origin of the Minstrel Jurisdiction, in Cheshire, which happened about the year 1214; and perhaps, the earliest instance of the kind among the English. Ranulph Bowen Bloendaval ?, or Blundeville, the sixth earl of Chester, who is faid to have atchieved several military enterprises against Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales , but one time meeting with the said Prince, and being sensible of his inability to withstand him, was obliged to retire for refuge into the castle of Rhuddlan, in Flintshire, wherein Llewelyn besieged him : in consequence of this, he sent expresses with the utmost privacy to his General, Roger Lacy, constable of Chester, and earnestly desiring his immediate relief. These expresses found Lacy at Chester, during the anniversary of the Midsummer Fair ; and, as the occasion was critically urgent, from the imminent peril of the earl's life, the General immediately marched with a tumultuous croud of Players, Musicians, and all the persons he could possibly assemble; of whom great numbers had been tempted to Chester, by the celebration of this festal anniversary. Llewelyn,

· The steward who presided at the court of the Minstrels atdential character of that officer, and his facility of access to the Tutbury, in Mr. Blount's time, was the Duke of Ormond, and King at all hours, and on all occasions. Warton's Hiftory of Mr. Edward Foden his deputy. The earl of Devon was then

Prior. Englifo Poetry, Vol. II. pp. 105, 134, &c. The districts of the Honor of Tutbury; under the King of The Cheshire Minstrel meeting was discontinued in 1758; and the Minstrels, anciently comprehended the counties of Stafford, Tutbury in the year 1778. Shakespeare flourished about the Derby, Nottingham, Leicelter, and Warwick'; and all the year 1010; Playford about 1670; Dr. Derham, and Boyle about Musicians within those counties prid their fuit, and service to 1680; whoare all mentioned in the above Charge to the Minfrels; the King of the Minstrels. Blount's Ancient Tenures of Land, therefore, it must have been delivered some time afterwards. by Beckweth, pp. 309, 311, &c. ed. 1784.

* This Ranulphtook the name of Blaendaval from being born In the reign of Edward the Fourth a ferjeant of the king's in Powis, at Álbum Monafterium, near the town of Ofwefiry. Minstrels occurs; and in a manner, which shews the confi

alarmed 25, &c. On the Staffordthire Clogg, or Ancient perpetual Rheolwr tendiwr tyndant,

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alarmed at the approach of this vast multitude, raised the fiege with precipitation; by this means the. earl Ranulph effected his escape in triumph ; and the effusions of his gratitude formed his first acts of lovereignty, by rewarding Lacy with an exclusive prerogative over those particlar trades, and mysteries, which had been exercised by those fortunate and signal instruments of his royal preservation. The constable's son, John Lacy, reserved his exclusive privilege over some of those mechanic occupations, but granted the Minstrel prerogative to Hugh Dutton, of Dutton', and his heirs; the son of that Ralph Dutton, who is supposed to have particularly marched at the head of the band of Minstrels. Thus configning the rule and jurisdiction over this Minstrel profeffion to that family, whose ancestor had so valiantly commanded them, in the capacity of a body of victorious soldiers ?.

It may be necessary to add one thing more on the subje&, which ought to have mentioned before. . The Wellh term for the Harp is Telyn', which is not only of very high antiquity, but its etymology indicates, that it was applied to the first stringed instrument, for, it means a thing stretched, or on the stretch ; a name which could not, with any propriety, be applied to any one particular instrument, if there were a variety of them when it was so applied. The root of Telyn is Tél, i. e. what is straight, even, or drawn tight; whence also Annel, a stretch, a tension, a prop, a springe; and Annelu, to stretch, to bend e bow, to take aim. Hence it is very evident, that the name Telyn is coeval with the knowledge of a stringed instrument amongst the CYMBRI; and it followed, as a matter of course, that all the varieties invented in after-time must have some other appropriate appellation *. The antiquity of the word Telyn is fingularly corroborated by the circumstance of the coast of France, where Tculon is situated, being an. ciently called the promontory of Citharistes ', and the town itself Telo Martius S.

The Anglo-Saxon name for Telyn is Hearp, or Darp, which is used through both the Teutonic and Roman dialects ? ; and, I believe, the earliest mention of it under that name is by Venantius, about the year 600'. In a manuscript of about the seventh century, in the monastery of St. Blasius, quoted by Gerbertus, prince Abbot of that monastery', there is a representation of a Harp, intitled Cithara Anglica, which is precisely the same shape as the present Harps, only more fimple, and with a fewer number of strings. We find Harps sculptured, both in stone and in wood, on several of the most ancient Cathedrals in England and Wales io


and drawn in old misals, and illuminated manuscripts. * The mansion and lordship of Dutton, in Cheshire, are now * I am indebted to Mr. William Owen for his affiftance in the property of Mrs. Bullock, wife of John Bullock, esq. of the above etymology; whom also on other occasions I have Falkborne- hall, and representative of the borough of Maldon, often consulted on obfcure passages, owing to his fingular knowin Effex.

ledge in the Ancient Britilh language; thisgentleman is author * See more on the subject in Lbwyd's Hiftory of Wales, by of Geiriandur Cynmraeg a Saesoneg, or Welsh and English Dazydd Powel, edition of 154, pages 296, 270. Sir Peter Dictionary ; 'which work is now completed, and publiined Leicester's Antiquities of Chethire, Part 11. Chap. VI. p. 141, by Williams, No. 11, in the Strand.. &c.; and particularly in King's Vale Royal of England illuftra s Pliny. - Gough's Camden, Vol. I. p. 15, of the account ted, Part It. p. 29.-Doomsday Book, Gloucestershire, Berdic, of the first inhabitants of Britain. Joculator Regis, habet iii villas et ibi V car. nil redd. See Anstis, • Antoninus.Camden fays, if you ask our Britons what , Ord Gart. ii. 304. Joseph Keebles Statutes at large, 39 Elizabeth, they call a Harp, they presently will answer you Telyn. And Chap. IV. Ø 2.10.-Stat. 43 Eliz. Chap. IX.-Stat. 4 Henry if you could raise an ancient Phænician, and aik him,

what are IV. Cap. XXVII.--Stat. 1 Jac. I. Cap. XXV, 20.-Walter fongs played on the Harp? he would answer you Telynu.. Heming's Chronicle, Chap. XXXV.P. 591.- Hawkins's Hift. Sammes's British History, p. 67. of Mulic, Vol. II. pp. 43, 54, 61, 64, 106, 290, 296, &c. 7 Johnson's Dictionary: Vol. III. p. 479, &c. Vol. IV. pp. 265, 277, &c. -Burney's Venantius Fortunatus, Lib. 7. Carm. 8.-Alfo, fee pp. go, Hift. of Music, Vol. II. pp. 268, 367, &c.—Stow's Survey of and 94, of this work. London continued by Strype. The Account of Queen Elizabeth's 9 Gerbertus, De Muhca Sacra, Tom. II. in Calcem. Entertainment at Killing worth Castle, Warwickshire, &c.-And 10 There is a Harp carved on the entrance into the ChapterWarton's Hist. of English Poetry, Vol. II. p. 105.

house of Westminster-Abbey , another in the groin of the roof, 3. Telyn is mentioned by Taliesin about 540; lee p. 100.- over one of the North doors of the Abbey ; and another in the Also, in King Howel's Laws, as early as the year 914, and East cloister, over the door of the record-office, of the Abbey. probably much earlier, (because those laws were only collected, Another on one of the capitals of the columns in the French and part written at that period, by Blegabred;) which statutes church at Canterbury, supposed to be about the year gco ; were fince published under the title of Leges Wollicæ ; pp: 70, Antiquarian Repertory, Vol. 1. p. 57: There are two Harps 162, 266, 267, and 415, of that book; and pp. 94, 97 of this carved on the outside of the door of the South isle of the nave work.

of Ely cathedral, and on the under-part of the seats of the choir Likewise, there is a township in Montgomeryshire, called of that cathedral : which latter was erected in the year 1328. Trer Delyn ; and another place near Llancarmon, in Glamor- And, on the front of Litchficld cathedral, there is a statue of ganthire, called Cae'r Delyn, or Llan Caer Delyn.

King David playing on the Harp. Also, there are all forts Two Englynion to folicit a Harp.key:

of ancient musical instruments faithfully delineated in Carter's Fforch gogwrn cildwrn coel-dant, chwip dyllwir

Specimens of Ancient Sculpture and Painting, Numbers 12, 13, Chwap dwyllwr y mwyndant ;

Almanack, there are hieroglyphics to express the festival aru teg cywirva tant.

days; from the first of March a Harp is the symbol, shewing Cwpplys/sorch eurdorch irdeg, cu rowndorola

the feast of St. David, who used to praise God on that instru. Cywreindeb bleth landeg ;

ment.--Plot's History of Staffordskire, Chap. X. pp. 420, 429, Cain irdorch canu aurdeg,

&c. Cywreinforch yn deirfforch deg.


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The Crwth is the second in rank of the Wella musical instruments: its antiquity is such among the ancient Britons, that there is 'every reason to believe it to be the prototype of the Violin, and all the fidicinal instruments'. The Crwth is so called from its protuberant, or bellying form, whence it is also a term for a box, or trunk; as Crwth halen, a falt-box. The found of the Crwth is very melodious, and was frequently used as a tenor accompaniment to the Harp; but is now become extremely rare in Wales'.

Afterall-the moft diligent investigation into Greek, Roman, Pibau i'r trydydd: 8c wyntau pan vont meiri a ddilyant eu gadas and other antiquities, the only thing that ever I met with, i'w Harglwydd.". Leges Wallicæ, pp. 69 and go. which had any fimilitude of form with our Harp, (the Hebrew “ Every chief Bard, to whom the prince shall grant an of excepted, which I have already mentioneds) was in a folio fice, the prince shall provide him an intrument; a Harp to book intitled, Ser Turchische Schau-plak, &c.(or a Series of Prints, one; a Crwth to another, and Pipes to the third; and when faid to have been drawn from natural Turkish figures,) en: they die, the instruments ought to revert to the prince." graved by Melchior Lorick de Flenbourg, printed at Hamburg, Wythued you y Bardd Teulu : Telyn a gaiff gan y Brenin, a A. D. 1685, and plate 86, where there is a Harffenspielerin, or modrwy aur gau y Vrenines pan rodder ei fwydd iddo, y Delyn ni female Harpist delineated, playing on a kind of Harp; the ad byth i gantho, na ar werth nac yn rhád, trá vo byw. Leges body of which instrument is exactly the shape of an Indianca. Wallicæ, pp. 35, 37, Doe set up an-end, and continued by a bar, nearly in a hori. “ The eighth officer of the household is the Family Bard, zontal position on one side of the bottom of it ; which both who should have bis Harp from the king, and a gold ring together form an angle, (somewhat of the figure of a short from the queen, when initiated into his office ; the Harp he footed scythe with its blade upwards) and filled with strings is not to part with, neither by fale, or gift, as long as he lives." which are screwed into the bottom bar. The upright body, or And, see the preceding page 94.boat-like curve of this instrument, must have been made of Tri gwystyl ni ddygwydd yn benvaddeu : Telŷn, a Phaeol, a very pliant wood, and perhaps the only poflible way it could Phlu. Os rhoddai dyn o'r vódd un o'r tri hyny i vôd yn benvaddew, have been formed to fulain the great tension of the ftrings eve a ddygwydd val gwylyl drall, canys eve ei hun a lygrwys ei without a pillar. The figure of this Harp appears so extremely vraint, pan y gwystlodd." Leges Wallicæ, p. 355. fimple, that one is rather led to believe there was such an in- i. e. « The three pledges that shall not be parted with; a ftrument, and not altogether fancy. Likewise, I have seen Harp, a Bowl, and Feathers. If a man fhall wilfully give an illuminated East-India drawing, where there was an Angel, either of these three to be conditional, it shall go like another or a Cupid, playing on a similar kind of Harp, formed some pledge, but without redemption ; for, it is he himself that has what of the shape of a lizard. Notwithstanding the possible disgraced his privilege in pledging them.”-Giraldus Camexistence of this instrument, after all the diligent enquiries brenfis's Topography of Ireland, Chap. XI. and Hawkins's Hift. of which I have been able to make respecting it, I am informed, Mufic. Vol. 111. from good authority, by Gentlemen who have travelled over There is a baffo-relievo, of an angel playing on the Crwth, those countries, that no such an instrument is now used either carved on the upper partof the seats of the choir of Worcester in Turkey, Persia, or India; therefore, since it is not to be cathedral, which was built by King Edgar in the year 957. found in those regions at present, it still remains a doubt, See Carter's Specimen of Ancient Sculpture and Painting, No. 13. whether it ever existed, and originated only from the imagi- Also, I am informed there is the figure of the Crwth among nations of the draughtsmen.

the outside ornaments of the abbey of Melross, in Scotland, The Coromantee negroes of the gold coast, in Africa, play which was built in the time of Edward the Second.upon a musical instrument called the Bentwo, which is fomé- : The Crwth, or Crota, was invented by the Britons (for, thing in the form of an archer's bow, and made of a piece of by some of the poets it is called Crota Britanna,) which is hoop of about three-quarters of a yard long, and Arung vith commonly termed violin. Croth, or Crwth, by the Britons, two strings.

fignifies the calf of the leg, the womb or belly ; as also by the Respeding the Theban Harp, which was communicated by Syrians 7A (Crath,) and by the Grecians Kpworós, fignifies Mr. Bruce to Dr. Burney, and said to have been drawn from the womb, or a water-vefsel

. Baxter's Gloffarium Antiquitatum an ancient painting in one of the fepulchral grottos of the first Britannicorum, P: 92. And, Richard's Will Dictionary. kings of Thebes : On this instrument Dr. Burney makes the 3 In praise of the Crwth : following judicious observations: “The number of ftrings, · Aur-lais gwin dyvais gan-dant, dr wiw grwth the size and form, and the elegance of its ornaments, awaken

Gwir iaith pencerdd moliant ; reflections, which to indulge, would lead us too far from our “ Gavael.grwtb chwimmwth eichwans, purpose, and indeed out of our depth. The mind is wholly “ Cry' athrylith Crwtb Rolant." Margaret Davies, o'r Goedcae-du. loft in the immense antiquity of the painting in which it is Alfo, Rhys Grytbor, who flourished about 1580, was esteemrepresented. Indeed the time when it was executed is fo re ed a good performer on this inftrument. And John Morgan, mote as to encourage a belief, that arts, after having been of Newburgh, in Anglesey, who lived about the end of the brought to great perfection, were again loft, and again in- last century, was one of the latt good performers

on the Crwth. vented, long after this period.” If one may offer a conjec- See likewise pp. 38, 49, &c. ture, after lo judicious a critic as Dr. Burney, we have great The Crwth is corrupted to Crowd in English ; and a player reason to doubt the authenticity of the Theban Harp. In upon it was called a Crowther, or Crowder, and so also is a the first place, its antiquity, ornaments, and elegance, are fuf- common fiddler to this day; and hence, undoubtedly, is depected; and particularly the want of a pillar to support the rived the common surname of Crowther, or Crowder. Butler, comb of it, which could not easily be contrived to withstand with his usual humour, has characterized a common fiddler the tension of the strings, even if it was made of mettle, and and given him the name of Crowdero, in the following passage: with that lightness with which it is described. In the next

“ I, th' head of all this warlike rabble, place,it is delineated as if it was made to ftand without support

“ Crowdero march'd, expert and able. in an equilibrium manner, which certainly is a very recent • Instead of trumpet and of drum, invention, even so late as when the pedals were added to the " That makes the warrior's stomach come, Harp; that is, about 40 years ago.

6 Whose noise whets valour strong." &c. However, since I published the former edition of this vo

Hud. Part 1. Canto II. v. 105. lume, it has since been ascertained, that Mr: Bruce has taken

Alfo, Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, derives the fiddle from an unlicenced liberty in ornamenting, and altering the origi. nal design of the said Theban Harp; which now appears to be the Crwth.

6 Hark, how the Minstrels 'gin to fhrill aloud rude, and simple, when compared with his drawing ; see Voyage dan la Baffle et la Haute Egypte, par vivant Denon ; printed

* Their merry music that resounds from far;

* The Pipe, the Tabor, and the trembling Croud, at Paris, 1802 ; plate 135, Nos. 26, 29, 30, and 31; also may be feen in other works, published by our own countrymen.

66 That well agree with outen breach or jar.”

Spencer's Epitba
Romanufque Lyra, plaudat tibi, Barbarus Harpa,
Græcus Achiltiaca, Crota Britanna canar.

« His Fiddle, is your proper purchase,
Penantius Fortunatus, Lib. VII. Carm. 8.

“ Won in the service of the churches Pôb pencedd o'ra elynno Arglwydd fwydd iddo, yr Arglwydd “ And by your doom must be allow'd ddyly geifiaw iddo Offer, nid amgen, Telyn i ún, Cruth i un arall,

To be, or be no more, a Crowd." Hudibras.


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Dyvaliad Crwth, yn ol Gruffydd Davydd ab Howel: A delineation of the Crwth, by Gruffydd ab

Davydd ab Howel : (The original opposite, is very descriptive, and seems to be a production of the 15th

century.) Prennol tég bra a gwregis,

A fair coffer, with a bow, a girdle, Pont a brán, punt yw ei bris ;

a finger-board, and a bridge; its value is a pound; A thalaith ar waith olwyn,

it has a frontler formed like a wheel, A'r bwa ar draws byr ei drwyn,

with the short-nosed bow across; Ac o'i ganol mae dolen,

in its centre are the circled sound holes, A gwàr hwn megis gwr hên ;

and the bulging of its back is somewhatlike an old man; Ac ar ei vrejt gywair vrig,

but on its breast harmony reigns : O’r Masarn vo geir Miwsig.

from the sycamore melodious music is obtaineda Chwe yspigod o's codwn,


if we screw them, A dynna holl dannau hwn;

will tighten all its chords; Chwe' thant a gaed o vantais,

fix advantageous strings are found, Ac yn y llaw yn gan yn gan llais;

which in a skilful hand produces a hundred sounds : Tant i bêb bis ysbys oedd,

a string for every finger is distinctly seen, A dau-dant i'r vawd ydoedd.

and also two strings for the thumb. The length of the Crwth is 20 inches, its breadth at bottom 9 { ; towards the top it tapers to 8 inches. Its thickness is 1 is and the finger-board measures 16 inches in length. This instrument is much more extensive in its compass than the violin, and capable of great perfection, therefore, deserves to be con. fidered. It has fix strings, viz. 1. Y crâs-dant,

1. The acute, or fharp string,
2. a'i vyrdon.

2. and its burden.
3. Byrdon y lloro-dant, } 3. The accompaniment of the low ftring,
4. r lloro dant.

4. The low string-
5. r Cywair-dant, 5. The key note, (or g,)
6. a'i vyrdan.

6. and its bass,
The strings of the Cruth explained, and the usual method of tuning them":

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ॐ ま The two lower strings of the Crwth are often struck with the thumb of the left hand, and serve as a bass accompaniment to the notes founded with the bow; something in the manner of the Baritan. The bridge of this instrument differs from that of the Violin, in being less of a convex at the top, a circumstance from which it is to be inferred that two or three strings are to be founded at the same time, so as to afford a succeffion of concords. The bridge is not placed at right angles with the sides of the Crwth, but in an oblique direction ; and, which is farther to be remarked, one of the feet of the bridge serves also for a sound-post; it goes through one of the sound-holes, which are circular, and rests on the inside of the back; the other foot, which is proportionably shorter, rests on the belly near the other sound hole ; which the reader will observe, on casting his eye on the delineation of it in the trophy, at bottom of page 89.

According to a transcript from an old Welsh manuscript in The following manner of tuning the Crwth was copied Sir John Sebright's library, which mentions a clue that might from a manuscript of the late Mr. Lewis Morris: lead one to find out the ancient notes of the Craih; it tells r modd i gyweirio Crwib :

" that one finger of the Crowder keeps 3 keys, viz. In gyntav codwch y Crafdant (111) eyvuwch ag y gellir heb Isgowair, Craf-gowair, and Lleddo.gowair: and that his indicial ei dorri; yno codwih y Cyweirdant (5) bump not yn is; a chodwch finger keeps the Go-gowair, and Bragod-gowair.” This bint y 6d wyth nôl yn is na'r Cyweirdant ; ac yno gellir ei alw yn might help a zealous investigator of antiquity to unravel the vwrdón neu 'n vas iddo ; cyweiriwch yr ail dant (2d) wyth nôign mystery; but unfortunately I have been deprived of my lis na'r cyntav, ac ve vydd gnieu yn vyrdon i'r cyntav; a chyweirancient Crwth by a fire, as well as other irreparable loss of iwch y trydydd tant (30), Lunip nột yn i's na'r cyweirdant ; una manuscripts, &c.

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codweb y llorvdant (40) wyth nôs yn uwch, oc velly ve vydd y 38

yn vyrdón i'r 4d, ar Crwth yn ei gywair naturiol. www.wa



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There was likewise the Crwth Trithant, or Three-stringed Crêth, which was a sort of Violin, or more properly a Rebeck ;' see the musical trophy: the performers, or Minstrels of this instrument were not held in the fame estimation and respect, as the Bards of the Harp, and Cruth ; "because the three-stringed Croth did not admit of equal skill and harmony, and consequently its power was less sensibly felt : see more in the preceding pages 33 and 85.

“ When the merry bells ring round,
« And the jocund Rebecks found,
“ To many a youth and many a maid,

“ Dancing in the checker'd shade." Milion.
The Pib.gorn's or Hornpipe, is so called, because both extremities are made of horn. In blowing, the
wind passes through it, and sounds the tongue of a reed concealed within. It has seven holes, besides
the aperture, and measures about 19 inches in length. Its tone is a medium between the fute and the
clarinet, and is remarkable for its melody. This instrument of peace, or rural Pipe, is now peculiar to
the Isle of Anglesey, where it is played by the shepherds, and tends greatly to enhance the innocent
delight of pastoral life. A species of a country dance, termed Hornpipe, originally derived its name from
the horn-pipe, by being commonly danced to this instrument. Also, there is a fort of Pipe used in
some parts of South Wales called Cornicyll, (from Cornig, a diminutive of Corn,) which has a concealed
reed on the same principle as the above, and the mouth-piece screws off in order to introduce it ; in other
respects, this instrument is made like a common clarinet.

The Pibau, or Bagpipes, I have omitted to mention at the beginning of this dissertation, which evidently appears to have been a common instrument among the old Britons at a very early period, and is recorded in King Howel's Laws, about the year 942?: and Morvydds pipes are mentioned as early as the seventh century; see the preceding page 26. Likewise, according to Giraldus Cambrenfis', in the year 1187, it appears, that neither the Irish, nor their descendants the Scots, had the Pipes at that period *. A praisepoem on the warrior, Sir Howel y Vwyall, written by the Bard, lolo Gôch, about the year 1400, contains the following couplet : “ A cherdd Chwibanogl a Chód,

With the music of the Bag-pipes, 6 Gwawr hoenus, a gwr hynod.

enliven’d by the presence of a noted Hero. Afterwards, it seems that the Irish had the pipes, which they used as an incentive to valour

; The Bagpipe was formerly a pastoral instrument in England ; and Shakespear, who is faithful in national customs, mentions the drone of a Lincolnshire Bag-pipes : alfo, Spencero, and others, menţion it. But, in the

· The Pib-gorn, or Hornpipe, was formerly a common in- ingale ; and to wear the spotted skin of a lynx. Pan's Syringa Arument in Cornwall, as well as in Wales, which is evident was composed of seven reeds, unequal in length, of different. by the following passages from Chancer :

tones, and joined together with wax.

Theocritus indeed men" Controue he would, and foule faile

tions a pipe consisting of nine reeds, i but seven was the usual " With Hornpipes of Cornwaile.

number. Nec te paniscat calamo trivisse labellum." Virgil

, Ed. II. « In Flutes made he discordance,

31. 36. Pindar Pyth. Ode XII.-Lucret. Lib. V.And see • And in his musick with mischance

the preceding page 97, which appears evident that the Roe “ He would feine." &c.

mans acquired their musical instruments from the Greeks, Romaunt of the Rose, fo. 135, ed. 1561. and the Greek had theirs from the « Merry Michael, the Cornish poet, piped thus 'upon his Leges Wallica, p. 70; and the preceding page 85 of this Oaten pipe for merry England." Camden,

book; and note e in p. 114. The musical instruments ufed by thepherds were. at first 3. Giraldus's Topography of Ireland, chap. XI.-And made of oat and wheat stalks ; then of reeds, and of the elder. pages 35 and 95 of this work. In the most ancient account of tree; afterwards of the leg.bones of cranes, and horns and this instrument among the Welsh, it is called Pibau, (Fiftulas,) bones of animals ; and, of late years, pipes and Autes are or Pipes :--Leges Wallica, p: 70. Thereforej we have reason excavated of the box-tree, plumb-tree, cherry-tree, &c. to believe that the Britons blew it with the mouth, inftead of

There is a fort of flute called the English Itute, Fifula dulcis, the bellows, like the Irish pipes ; (fee Stanihurfti Dublinienfis de feu Anglica, or the beaked Aute. Mersennus says, that some ot Rebus Hibernia Geffis, p. 38. &c.) nor did they use the drone as these Hutes were a present from England to one of the kings the Scots do, until a later period. A poet of the fifteenth of France, therefore were also called Fistulas regias, or royal century, in an Englyn on a piper, describes it thus : flutes. The Recorder seems to have been the same as the « Garw lais o clywais nid clád, i Bibydd, Flagelet, Fife, or Helvetian Flute with seven holes, includ- " Ar babi brat gofod, ing the blowing aperture ; likewise, there is a pipe with only Gerwini ynglev, gryn anglod, three holes, which is the associate of the Tabor. Mersennus " Gwydd gam yn gweiddi o'i God.. mentions John Price, who was a famous performer on these * See 95, and the notes in p. 114. inftruments.

$ The first part of Henry the Fourth; and the Merchant Pan was esteemed, by the ancient Greeks, to be the God of of Venice, Ac IV. sc. 1. fhepherds, and to preside over rural affairs. He is faid to • Shepherd's Calendar.-Fairy Queen, Book VI. Chap. make fiąe melody with reeds, to fing as sweet as a night. 10, s. 18.-.And Evons's Old Ballads, v. I. No.

fee p. 98.


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