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the priests alone"; and we find they performed this office in the war against the Midianites“.

“ Sound an alarm, your silver Trumpets found,

“ And call the brave, and only brave; around." I have now concluded the account I intended of the Musical Instruments of the Ancient Britons, or Welsh, viz. the Harp, the Crythau, the Bagpipes, the Pibgorn, (or Cornicyll,) the Bugle-Horn, and the Tabret, or Drum ; that is, Six in number; the two Crwths being the same species of instrument; the Pibgorn, and the Cornicyll likewise, so similar to each other, that I include them as one. Two of the above, instruments were unfortunately omitted in the musical trophy, at the beginning of this Differtation ; that is, the Bagpipes, and the Cornicyll, as they are now but rarely to be seen in Wales, and consequently were forgot to be delineated, till after the engraving was executed.

The following are the National Melodies, or Bardic Tunes and Songs of the Aboriginal Britons, for Wellh, who formerly inhabited all this island,) which have been handed down to us by tradition, and some of them from very remote antiquity: These have often resounded through the Cambrian halls, in the days of festival, with an unlimited harmony of Harps, Crwths, Pipes, and Voices. The original melodies of the Airs are preserved here with the most scrupulous fidelity : the only licence I have taken, is the addition of new Basses, and have given Variations to many of the Tunes; because, since the regular Eisteddvodau, or Bardic Congresses, have been discontinued, which were the conservators, and correctors of our Music, Poetry, and History, the performers on the Harp, and Crwth of the latter ages had forgot, and mutilated the original harmony of these ruins of genius. Most of them were never before committed to writing, at least not . in modern notes. I have colleeted these Bardic Songs, and Tunes, with infinite pains, from hearing the old Musicians, or Minstrels of Wales, play them on their instruments, and from their being chaunted by the Peasantry, as well as the Pennillion, or Poetical Blossoms, which are usually sung to these Melodies, and were retained in the same oral manner 3. What is most pleasing to the generality of people, is that which is most familiar and common, and this accounts, in some degree, for these venerable remains of Music, and Poetry, having so long been preserved by tradition.

The striking merit of many of these native Melodies, is that of their being so extremely characteristic of their origin : some of them probably were extempore compofitions of the Bards “, excited by incidental events, on various occasions, at different periods. Some are Mournful, and Pathetic; others breathe a spirit of Heroisms; some are tinctured with Gaiety and Mirth; others again with Rurality, Simplicity and Love, as refined taste is always most favourable to love, and friendship. But, the choicest style of music of the Welsh themselves, is that in the Bragod Gywair, (in the compound, or minor key,) which generally expresses a plaintive content, or a pleasing tranquillity. Even the most inferior of these Tunes, and Ballads are not destitute of harmony, or nature. Some of the Airs undoubtedly are very ancient; and the latest of them were probably composed previous to the reign of Elizabeth'. See more on the subject in the preceding pages 54, and 55, also among the following Music; and in the Second Volume of this Work. “ Such were the sounds, that o'er the crested pride

“ As down the steep of Snowdon's shaggy fide « Of the first Edward scatter'd wild dismay,

1“

“ He wound with toilfome march his long array.Gray's Bard. In the early ages, the character of a Druidic-Bard was perhaps the most revered, and accomplished of all others; it appears also, that Music was so united with Poetry, Mythology, Philosophy, Government, Manners, and Science in general, that an universal knowledge was requisite to qualify a Bard for the attainment of fo exalted a rank and station

1 " And the Levites stood with the instruments of David, heard. The Welsh terms for a Trumpet are Udgorn, Tolgorn, or and the priests with Trumpets.” 2d Chronicles, Chap. XXIX. Llú gorn; and a Trumpeter is called Bardd- birgorn, or the Long v. 26." And seven priests shall bear before the ark feven Trum- Horn Bard ; therefore, probably the Welsh Heralds found pets of rams-horns. And the seventh day ye shall compass the ed the Trumpet.-See also the preceding pages 30 and 58.-3 city seven times, and the priests shall blow with the Trum- Chronicles, XX. v. 21, 28.-And 1 Chronicles, XV. v. 5 and 28. pets." Joshua, Chap. VI. v. 4.-i Kings, Chap. I. v. 34 and 39: 3 See the Pennillion and Sonnets in p. 60; &c. - Blow up the Trumpet in the new moon, in the time ap

4 « Thefe venerable ancient Song-enditers pointed, on our folemn feast-day.”- Pfalm LXXXI. v. 3. - “ Soar'd many a pitch above our modern writers ;

Numbers, Chap. XXXI. v.6.--2 Chronicles, Chap. V. v. “ With rough majestic force they mov'd the heart, 12. Deuteronomy, Chap. XX. v. 2.-1 Maccabees, Chap. III. v. « And Atrength and nature made amends for art." Rowe. 58.- Exodus, XIX. v. 19.

s If Heroic Songs had still been continued to be sung, as they “ By the loud Trumpet which our courage aids,

were formerly, I am well perfuaded that our modern warriors “ We learn that found, as well as sense, persuades.” Waller. would have fought with greater success than they sometimes

The Cornet was a different instrument from the Trumpet, have done:--and probably blown by the Chiefs. See the 2d Book of Samuel, o The resources in music are inexhaustible; and Dr. Johnson Chap. VI. v. 5:-Daniel, Chap. III. v. 5.-1 Chronicles, Chap says, that Music is the only sensual pleasure without vice. xv.-Fudges, Chap. VII. v. 18. and 22.

7 Vide the explanatory notes to the different Tunes. The tone of the Bugle Horn is more melodious and softer & See the seven excellencies in p:83 ; the games in p. 36: And, than the brazen Trumpet, and poffibly it would be farther the feparation of the Bardic profesion in pp. 29, 83,84, and 85. vwwwwwwwww

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THE INDEX TO THE TUNES, AND

AND SONGS.
Page

151 and 185 | Hoffedd Modryb Marged,
Absen-dôn,
157 Hudy Bibell,

173
Anhawdd ymadael,

161
Hela 'r ysgyvarnog,

174
Alaw Salmon,
164 Hob y Dyliv,

153
B

Hai down,
Blodeu 'r Gwynwydd,
134 Hwb y Dyriv,

156
Blodau'r Grúg,

149

M
Breuddwyd y Vrenhines,
163 Mwynder Meirionydd,

124
Blodau'r drain,
167 Malídod Dolgelleu,

127
Blodau Llundain,
172 Mwynen Cynwyd,

129
Bwrw goval ymaith,

175
Morva Rhuddlan,

143-144-145-14h
Blodau'r Dyffryn,

175
Merch Megan,

149
с
Malltraeth,

153
Croefo'r Wenynen,
134 Megen a gollodd ei gardas,

157
Cerdd yr hen-wr o'r Coed,

135
Mentra Ğwen,

164
Cudyn Gwynn,

142
Maldod Arglwyddes Owen,

167
Cily V wyalch,
154 Mantell Siani,

167
Codiad yr Hedydd,
I55 | Maynen Môn,

168
Conset Davydd ab Gwilym,

168
Cynghan-fail Cymry,

169-170-171
Nôs galang

159-160
Croesaw Gwraig y Ty,

172

Р
Cnott y Coed,

173
Pen rhaw,

165-166
Cwynvan Brydain,

Plygiad y Bedol,

183
Ereigiau 'r Eryri,
178 Plygiad y Bedol-vácb,

148
The Pennillion, and Englynion, or Songs,

60_62_&c.
Caflell Towyn,

179

R
Ceffylyn rhygyngog,

179-180
Rhyvelgyrch Cádpen Morgan,

140
D
Dyvyrrwch Gwyr Dyvi,

Rhyban Morvydd,

149
129
Reged,

150
Dynwared yr Eos,

133
Dityll y Donn,
134 Serch Hudol,

135
Diddanwch Gruffydd ab Cynan,

148
Sibel; or Sibyl,

158
Dowch i'r Vrwydr,
153 Symlen ben-bys;

163
Davydd y Garreg-wen,

154
Syr Harri Ddů

173
156
Digan y Pibydd Côch,

Sawdl y Vuwch,

179
Dewis Meinwen,
157

183
Dilyn Serch,

173

T
Dadl Dau,

125
Diveriad y Gerwyn

183

y Ceiliog : or, Tudor and Catherine, 130-131-132
126

Tyb y Tywysog,
Erddigan Caer Waun,

137
Twll yn ei bôch,

147
Eryri Wen,

129
Trị banner Tôn,

148
Erddigan tro 'r Tant,

141

Tr ban gwyr Morgannwg,
Erddigan Dannau,

176

Tros y garreg,
Torriad y Dydd,

163
Ffarwel Vieuengaid,

135-136

U
Ffrec bâcb,

Urfula,

137
Ffarwel Ffranses,

147
Ffarwel Ned Puw,
148 Wyres Ned Pugh,

125
Ffarwel Ednyved Vychan,

152
Fiddle Faddle,

Winifreda , or, Hen Sibyl,

150
153

183
Ffarwel trwy'r pwll,

r
G
Ysgin Aur,

139
Gorhoffidd Gwyr Harlech,

124

1 bên môn,

r Galon Drom,
'Gogerddan,
127

147
Y mdaith Mungc,

162
Gyrru'r Byd o'm blaen,
Glán meddwdod mwyn,

149
r Gerddinen,

167
Gadael y Tir,

168, and 184
174

r Gádlys; or, Of Noble Race was Shenkin,
H

rfwfwl,
Hoby Deri donno,

128

Ř V wyna 'n vyz
Yr Eos lais,

181-182
53 Hofedd Abram ab Evan,
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ood

200000
ERRORS, and OMISSIONS, which the Reader is requested to correct, and to add.
In page 4, the first word of the verse, instead of Beneathe, correct, Beneath. And in note 21, instead of Brich, write Birch.

The following Triad was omitted to be inserted, as the first Triad, in page 10.
“ The three great modellers of the Illand of Britain : Corvinwr, the Bard of Ceri Hir, of Llyngwyn, who first made a ship,
with a fail and a helm, for the race of the Cymry. Mordial Gwr Gweilgi, the architect of Ceraint, the son of Greidial; who
first taught the race of the Cymry, the work of stone, and lime ; (at the time when Alexander the Great was subduing the world.)
And Coll, the son of Cyllin, (the son of Caradawc, the son of Brân,) who first made a mill with a wheel, for the race of the
Cymry: And these three were Bards.”_ -Triad 91. And, see the word Breuan, in Richard's Dictionary.

In page 12, the catch-word at bottom, instead of as, read, at. -In page 14, the 9th line, correct Vortigern. In page 17,
at the end of the first line, instead of Berds, read Bards ; and in note t, at the end of the 2d line, instead of th , read the

In page 23, the 6th, and 14th lines of the notes, instead of Ninnius, correct Nennius. In page 28, the text catch-word to be,
revolution ; and that of the notes to be Llyma. -In page 30, the first word of the last line but two of the notes should be,
Incursive. In page 50, at the end of note 1, write, the late Sackville Gwynn, Esq. of Glanbrân. In page 59, the catch-word
should be Tlysau. -In page 77, the last verse, correct, Rhyd-ychen. In page 81, the 11th line of the 2d column, read, the
primary Triad of tens : In

page 83, the following note to be added to the 10th line, of the twelve true words ; fee Genesis,
chap. II. III. and the Revelation, chap. XXII. v. ii. (of 12 sorts of fruit ) In page 113, the catch-word should be, The
Page 121, in the 18th line, instead of Cambria, read Cumbria.

9

Gorhoffedd
Scranan and Preiton, Printers-Sreet, London.

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Harlech Castle, in Merionethshire, was formerly a celebrated Fortress, and is said to have been built by that war. -like Prince, Maelgwn Gwynedd about A.D.530., In the beginning of the Sixth Century it was called Twr Bronwen y Brenhinoedd, from Bronwen, the Daughter of Prince LLŷr of Harlech, who probably lived in the Castle;and the highest Turret of it, to this day, goes by the name of Bronwen's Tower. This Fortress was rebuilt, or repair'd, about the Year 877, by Collwyn ab Tangno, one of the fifteen Tribes of North Wales, and Lord of Evionydd, Ardudwy and part of LLŷn; and from him it was called Caer-Collwyn, or Collwyn's Castle. This venerable Castle is perhaps the oldest remains of all the British Forts; and a doft ftately Structure of invulnerable itrength both by Art and Nature, being situated on a lofty Rock which commands a fine Bay of the Sea', and the Passage of entrance upon that Coast .. Nennius's Brit: Hist: and from Ancient M.S.

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+ The County of Morionedd has always been famed for Mufi , Poetry, and Hospitality.

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Erddigan Caer Waun * Thri Minstrelsy of Chisk

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Caftell y Waiin,or Chirk Castle, in Denbighshire, is the grand Mansion of the Middletons, and the moft perfect habitahle Castle in Wales; It stands upon an eminence, and commands a most beautiful picturesque Country. When it was occupied by its anciert Bacons it appears to have been the receptacle of Bards.

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