« AnteriorContinuar »
ENGLYNION, or WELSH STANZAS, SONNETS, &c.
in length, whịch grew at Ganllwyd, near Dolgelleu, in
Derwen velen-wen vläenwych, Gwmpassog
Gampusol i'w hedrych ; To have, or lose this ordinary light,
Coeden rwyddwen ireiddwyeh, That when to elements his body turned were,
Vawr rywiog-wedd, vrigog-wych. He knew that as those elements would fight,
Brenhinhren brith-len y berth-lwyd, Méfbren To his immortal soul should find above,
Dewis-braft i'th roddwyd; With his Creator, peace, joy, truth, and love!''
Union tw'gwych pren tég wyd, He was one of the most accomplished Noblemen of his
Tri gain-llath, trôr y Ganllwyd. time ; both a scholar, a poet, a musician, a statelman, and a
Pennill on the same. true knight of chivalry : he also wrote his own life, when
Brenhinbren y Ganllwyd, he was past fixty ; which was afterwards published from his manuscripi, by the late Lord Orford.
Oedd dirion à dorwyd,
Mewn bariaeth ve 'i bwriwyd, Craig y Deryn, near Towyn Meirionydd,
O'r aelwyd lle'r oedd; Is one of the inoit beautiful and striking features of the rocky
Ve dywodd yn gådpen mountains of Wales ; and is called Craig y Dergn, or the Rock of Birds, on account of the immense number of cor (Ni visiodd un vesen) morants, rock-pigeons, crows. hawks, and other smaller birds, ti hich inhabit and breed in that rock. The late Rev. Ar goedydd Glyn Eden, Evan Evans has described it very elegantly, as well as the
Glén ydoedd. melody of its birds, in the following Englynion, about A. D. 1773
Specimens of Englynion in Latin. 1. Brynn yr Aderyn ar diroedd, uchel
Englinici, seu Rythmi, Brittanico more concatenati. lachav man dan ’Nevoedd ;
Vellem a carne vili, qua premor Caer * gynt yn y creigiau oedd,
Cum primis diffolvi, I vilwyr mewn rhyveloedd.
Cupio a te capi 2. Maen' weithian yma'n nythu, mån Adar
Salvator amator mi.
Edm Prifeus, Archidi, Meirion.
Pallium non dedi puellæ (ut dicis,)
Non decit amare;
Senex ego fum farte, , 3.
Tardus et rarus in ré.
groyw yn eu tymmor ; Unan' yn y gán in' gør,
Gardd lås, gardd ddulas, gwyrdd ddeiliog ; Glasvrig
Eglwysuron dra'wreiddiog; 4. Hedyddion mwynion uwch mynydd, seiniant
Gwyrdd goed enw, gardd gadwynog,
Gloyw is y glynn, glás ei glóg. Disgybl W. Penllyn.
Englyn i faith weithred Trugaredd. Mwyn yw y din ym min dydd. 5. Clywch ddethol firiol vesurau, mwyn ydynt
Dód Vøyd, a Diod par Dj_a Dillad,
Diwalla 'r Carchardy;
Gwilla 'r Clav yn y gwely,
I’r Marw par gael daear dy. 6. Miwsigsydd ddiddig i ddyn, naturiol
Yn Ffrainc y mae gwin yn ffraeth ; yn Llundain,
Mae llawnder cynnaliaeth ;
In Holand 'menyn helaeth ; Yw d'araith Graig Aderyn!
r Nghymru, Llymru a Llaeth t. Hugh Llwyd Cynvael. * Upon Bryn y Penmaen, close by Llanvihangel y Pennant, in the hundred of raum-aner, formerly stood Caftell Tráv Serî. + The origin of this Englyn is too curious to pass over. Hugh Llwyd Cynvael was an excellent poet, and lived at Cynvael, in Ardudwy, Meirionethshire, about the year 1620. When a young man, he made a stone bench to put at his door ; his filter. . in-law, (or wife's fifter) was the first that fat on it. Molly, said he, you have had the maidenhead of this bench, and you must pay me three kisses for it. The demand was satisfied. Some time after, his wife died, whereon he went to London ; leaving his filter-in-law, now married, and her husband, in possession of the house. He entered into the army of Oliver Cromwell
, wherein he had a commision; and was in the army of General Monk, at the restoration of K. Charles II. After having been from home a great many years, and grown old, he returned to his native country; and, going to his own house, on a fine fummer's evening, he faw his fifter-in-law, her husband, and children (all grown up,) fitting on the stone-bench, eating fiummery and Milk, (Wallice, Llymru a Waeth); he asked them in English if they would lodge him that night? but none of them knew a word of English; they, however, conjecturing what he wanted, shewed him a bed, the best in the house,and asked him to partake of their fare ; which he did; and, being satisfied, he in Welsh recited the above Englyn. What, then you are a Welsh. man, my friend ? exclaimed his fikter-in law. Yes, said he, I am ; it is many years since I had three kisses from the lady who first fat on this beuch? This made him known, and all was joy. He then took out of his pocket a large purse full of gold, and gave it to his fister-in-law; here, said he, take this, as a reward for your hospitality to the old English Aranger, who is now more than fourScore years of age ; he requires no more for it, than a bed every night, and Armmery and milk every day, whilft he lives.
ANCIENT BRITISH TRIADS OF THE ISLAND OF BRITAIN.
1. Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us:
" For thee my tuneful accents will I raise,
I HAVE here selected some documents which tend farther to elucidate the occupation of the bards, and musicians, their privileges, maxims, and adages; which are extracted from the old Wellh laws*, from the Ancient British Triads of the island of Britain, and from other mänuscript Triads.
* T e Druids an! Bards were supposed to be the first framers of Laws in Britain. The first written laws are faid to be those of Dyvnwal Moelmud, king of Britain, about 440 years before Christ, (called the Moelmutian laws.) After that, the laws of Martia, quan of Britain, (or the Mercian law), which were afterwards translated into Saxon by king Alfred. Then the laws of king Howel, about A. D. 940, which contain most of the former laws of Britain, and are translated by Dr. Worcon, aud Moses Williams, and called Cyvreil hieu Howel Dda, ac Eraill; the laws of king Howel the good, and others; or, Leges Wallicae. And from those laws many of these Triads are extracted. See also Origines Juridiciales, by Dugdale, P, 54 And Silas Taylor, on Gravel-kind, Tri anbepgor Brenhin ynt :
The three indispensibles of a King : Ei Offeiriad wrth vendigo ei vwyd a chanu offeren : His Chaplain to say graceat meat, and to chant prayers: A'i Yngnad llys wrth ddosbarth pethau pedrus : The Judge of the court to investigate dubious things : A'i Deulu wrth ei anghenau. Leges Wallicae, p. 310. And his family ready to attend his necessities.
The three things indispensible for a Gentleman, Tri anbepgor Gwrda, (alias) Breyr :
or a Baron: Ei Delyn, A'i Vryccan, A'i Dawlbwrdd. L. Walli p.301. His Harp, his Cloak, and his chess-board.
Men who became freemen from llaves, when they · Tri meib rhydd o gaeth :
were of the three following professions : Ysgolhaig, Bardd, A G6v.
L. Wallicae, p. 364. A learned Scholar in languages, a Bard, and a
Smith, Tair Celvyddyd ni ddyly mab Taeog ei dysgu beb
The three Arts which the son of a Tenant ought gennad ei Arglwydd :
not to follow, without the consent of his Lord. Ysgolheicdod, a Barddoniaeth, a Govaniaeth : Canys Literature, Bardism, and a Smith’s trade: for if a o dioddevyr Arglwydd b;d pan rodder corun i'r Ysgol. Lord suffered it until the scholar was polled, or until baig, n u yn i el y Góryn ei evail, neu Vardd wrth eithe Bard composed a Song, or until the Smith fat up a gerdd, ni ellir eu caethiwo gwedy hynny. L. Wal.p. 309. Smithy, they could not be deprived of their freedom
afterwards. Tri wyr Húd a Lledrith Ynys Prydain :
The three men who were Magicians, and Enchan
ters of the Isle of Britain : Menyu mâb Teirgwaedd, Eiddilig Còr, a Máth mab Menyw, the son of Teirgwaedd, Eiddilig the dwarf, Mathonwy. Trioedd Ynys Prydain 31.
and Mâth, the son of Mathonwy.Tri priv Húd Ynys Prydain .
The three chief Magicians of the Isle of Britain :
The Magician of Math, the son of Mathonwy, who Húd Math mab Mathonwy, a ddysgodd i 'Wydion mab
taught Gwydion, the son of Dôn ; the Magician of Dón; a Húd Utbur Pendragon, a. ddysgodd i Venyw,máb Teirgwaedd; a'r trydydd, Hud Rhuddiwm Uthyr Bendragon t, who taught Menyw, the son of
Teirgwaedd ; and the third was the Magician of Gawr, a ddysgodd i Coll måb Collvrewi. Trioedd 32.
Rhuddlwm Gawr I, who taught Coll, the son of
+ This was myrddin Emrys. I Gwythelin Gòr, A.. D. 460. § Bleiddyd ab Rhún, or Bladud, the son of Rhùn, king of Britain, about anno mundi 3085, is said to have been a famous magician ; in some manuscripts he is called Bleddyn Cloth, (Bleddyn the magician): Leland says, his great knowledge of natural philosophy got him that name among the vulgar. 'He built Caer-Badon, or Bath, and is said to be the founder of the hotbaths. Stor says, Bleiddyd, or Bladud, erected an university at Stamford, which continued till St. Auftin's time; and that he was the first who taught necromancy in Britain. -- Brut, Brenhinoedd, by Tulfilio; and
Lewis's Ancient History of Britain, p. 34. Camden calls him Bleddyn Ddoeth, or Bleiddyn the footh-sayer; and says, Pliny assures us, that this art magic was in such won. derful esteem among the Britons, that even the Persians seemed to have hence derived it from them. Pliny, Lib. III. cap. t. 6
ANCIENT BRITISH TRIADS, OR SENTENCES.
Tri Priv Ledrithiawg Inys Prydain :
The three chief Enchanters of the Ifle of Britain Coll, mab Collvrewi; Menyw, mab Teirgwaedd; Coll, the son of Collvrewi; Menyw, son of Teir. a Drch, eil Cibddar.
gwaedd ; and Drych, the successor of Cibddar. r Tri Sanctaidd linys Ynys Brydain :
The three Holy Lineages of the Isle of Britain : Llinys o Joseph of Arimathea;
The Lineage of Jofeph of Arimathea *; A Llinys Cunedda Wledig ;
The Lineage of Cunedda Wledig t; A Llinys Brychan Brycheiniawg.
And the Lineage of Brychan Brycheiniawg 1.
Arrived in Britain, A. D. 63. Drwy Loegr bu dair gwely ordd,
+ Reigned about A. D. 350. O Suint. Cymru 'n neutu'r Nordd, ут
| Reigned about A D. 440. Mon ac uwch Conwy, O ryw'y tair e roed dwy. L. G.
Tri Thlws Cenedl, ni ddylir eu rhannu eithr ber. The three Family Beauties : wydd eu ffrwythau: Melin, Cored, a Pherllan S. A Mill, a Wear, and an Orchard ||( A'r rhai hynny ni ddylir eu rhannu na' i cychwynnu (These things ought not to be separated, nor renamyn rhannu eu ffrwythau i'r néb a'i dylyo ;) Sev. moved, because their produce is to be divided achos y gelwir yn dri Thlws Cenedl, wrth allel o amongst those who have an interest in them.) The bawb o'r genedl vod ynghyd am danynt.
reason they are called the three Family Beauties, is,
because all of the tribe can participate in them.§ Gwerth cyoraith y sydd ar bob avallen o'r berllan.
There is a lawful price on every apple-tree in an orchard. Leges Wallicae, p. 416.
Tri Anivail.y fydd cymmaint gwerth eu Troed a'i There are three Animals whose foot is as valuable benaid :
as their whole body: March, Hebog, a Milgi. L. Wallicae, p. 302.
A Horse, a Hawk, and a Greyhound. Tri Arv cyureithiol :
The three lawful Weapons : Cleddyv, a Gwayw, a Béa å deuddeg faeth. L. Wall. A Sword, a Spear, and a Bow with twelve arrows.
The three honourable Feasts of the Ifle of Britain: Tair Gwlédd anrhydeddus ynys Prydain : Gwledd Caswallon yn ôl gyrru Iwlcaffar o'r Ynys hon;
The Banquet given by King Caswallon, after repetGwlédd Emrys Wledig, ar ol Gorchvygu y Saeson ;
ling Julius Cæsar from Britain ; A Gwledd Arthur Vrenin, Ynghaer-Lleon ar W/g. The Feast of Aurelius Ambrofius, after he had con
Trioedd. quered the Saxons **;
And the Feast of King Arthur, after his conquests tt. Caswallon, or Calībelan, in a pitched battle gave Cæsar a complete overthrow, in which Cæfar made a speedy retreat, and embarked in his shattered fleet about midnight for the Continent, leaving all his baggage behind him. Lucan says, “ Territa quesitis oftendit terga Britannis ;" i. e. He fought the Britons out, and then he Aed. And Propertius says, " Te manet in viatus Romano marle Britannus ;” i, e. By Roman force unconquered yet. See an account of the Banquet in page 6, note 5. Harlein Library No. 6067, pp. 7, 5, aud 22. Drych y Prio Orfoedd. Dio Caffus, cit a C. p. xliii. And Sammes Britannia, p. 193
Julius Cæsar was very fond of jewels, and all sorts of curiouş toys, which he frequently gave to his favourite ladies. Pearls were then the great mode, and there was a fishery of them in Britain ; partly on which account he is said to have visited this island. He made a present of one of them to his beloved Servilia, valued at no less than £: 50,005. Blackwell's Memoirs of the Court of Augufius, Vol 11. p. 270.
** Emrys Wledig, or Aurelius Ambrofius, a warlike monarch over all Britain, about A. D. 487. After his conquest of Hengist, and other Saxon chiefs, he summoned all the nobility and clergy of Britain to Mount-Ambri, in Wiltshire, to celebrate a grand feast of Pentecost, the solemnity whereof he continued the three following days. Gildas C. 26. Txfilio's Hiftory of British Kings, B. 8. C. 12. Bede, L. 1. c. 16. And Lowis's Hift. of Brit. p. 169.
tt Ar: bur, son of Uthyr Pendragon, after he overcame the Saxons in 12 battles, was made chief fovereign over all Britain, and Ireland. He took Norway, and placed Lot, or Lotkus, on the throne ; he then set fail for Gaul, to allist his nephew Howel against Frollo, whom he few in single combat, after that took the city of Paris, When Arthur returned to Britain, he instituted The Order of Knights of the Round Table; and further, to celebrate his victories, he gave a magnificent Pentecost fealt to all the nobles of Britain, and those of other countries where he had conquered; which was held at Caer Lleon, on the river Ulk, in Monmouthshire, about the year 530. See more in page 37.; and in the 2nd Volume of this Work, page 20, to 26. Brut y Brenbinoedd. Enderbie's Hif. of Wales, p. 195. Lewis's Hij. of Britain, p. 186. And Mundy's Chronicle. Táir priv Lys Arthur :
The three chief palaces of King Arthur: Caer-lleon ar Wyse, y Nghymru ;
Caerlleon, on the river Us, in South Wales;
Celliwig, in Devonshire, (or Cornwal);
There are three privileged persons who frequent Tri Din a gyvannedda llys :
palaces: Bardd Caw, Bardd Tant, a Bardd Cruth. The genealogical Bard ; the Bard of the Harp;
and the Bard of the Crwth.
Tair Cerdd raddol y fydd :
Tair uuben gerdd y sydd :
Tri chyffredin byd :
Tri Chid Beirdd Ynys Prydain :
Dég tri Arbennig :
Tri pheth gweddus i wr eu bod yn ei Dy:
Tri pheth y fydd ddawnus i Ddýn :
There are three Graduated Songsters, or Musicians:
There are three Primaries of Song :
The three universalities of the world :
The theee Memorials of the Bards of the Island of
The three primary Triads of Tens :
Three things proper for a man to have in his house :
Three things commendable in a man:
Tri pheth a ddylai dyn ystyried : :
Three things a man ought to consider:
Tair bendith ni adánt ddyn mewn newyn a noethni :
Three things that will secure a man from hunger Bendith ei Beriglor; Benditb Cerddor o lin Cerdd; and nakedness : The blessing of his Paftor; the bless. a Bendith ei Arglwydd priodawr,
ing of a Bard lineally descended of Songsters; and
the blessing of his Lord proprietor. Tri pheth y ddylai pawb ddiolch am dano : Three things for which every one ought to be Gwahodd, Rhybydd, ac Annerch.
thankful : Invitation, Warning, and Compliment. Tri chás beth Doethion Rhuvain :
The three hateful things of the wise men of Rome; Milgi hwyr ; a Bardd annigriv; a Gwraig hagr A slow Greyhound; a Bard without pleasantry : ddrzég.
, and an ugly wicked Wife. Tri Chadarn Byd :
The three Mighties of the world : Arglwydd, a Drůd, a Diddym.
A Lord, avaliant Hero, and Nonentity,(or Vacuum). Tair Sail Doethineb :
The three Foundations of Wisdom: Ieuenctid i ddysgu ; Côv i gadw'r addysg; a Synhwy. Youth to learn ; Memory to retain instruction ; and roedd i ddatgan y dysg.
Abilities to illustrate it. Tri phrív anhepgor Awen:
The three primary requifites of Genius : Llygad yn gweled anian ; Calon yn teimlaw anian; An Eye that can see Nature; a Heart that can feel glewder à vaidd gydvyned ag anian.
Nature; and boldness that dares follow it *. Tair dyledswydd Bardd :
The three duties of a Bard: Iawn ganu, iawn ddysgu, ac iawn varnu.
Just composition, just knowledge, and just criticism. Tair rhagorgamp ar Gerddawr:
The three honours of a Musician : Cyvlawn ddynodiant ar bob peth; cyvlwyr vanegiant; Strength of imagination ; profundity of learning ; a chyvlwys ganiadaeth.
and purity of morals. Tri dyledogrwydd Cerddawr :
The three excellencies of a Minstrel: Grymufder athrylith; cydlawnder dysg; a glendid Profound discrimination of all things; complete il. ei gampau.
lustration; and luminous composition.
* Poetic Triads, in a Dissertation on Bardism, p. Ixv. of the Preface, to the Heroic Elegies of Llywarch Hên, by Mr. W. Owen.
Tri diben Cerdd :
The three intentions of Song : Gwelláu'r deall; gwelláu'r galon;
To improve the Understanding ; to correct the a diddanu'r meddwl.
Heart, and to soothe the Mind. -Tri pheth a bair cassáu Cerddawr:
Three things that will cause a Musician to be hated: Cybyddiaeth, Dyvrllydrwydd, a goganu dynnion då. Covetousness, Sottishness, and to Slander good men. Y pethau hyn à ddyly Cerddor eu gochel :
These things a Musician ought to refrain from: Llynna, Putteinia, a Chlerwriaeth.
Drinking, Fornication, and Strolling. Tri anhepgor gwr-wrth gerdd :
The three indispenfibles for an instrumental MuLlaw, a Throed, a Chlust.
fician:-A Hand, a Foot, and an Ear. Tair drøyfogaeth Serchog :
The three conductors to Love : Digrivwch, Haelioni, a Syberwyd.
Mirth, Liberality, and Elegance. Tair ymlidiad Serch :
The three procurers of Love: Cowydd, Englyn, a Llatai.
A Poem, a Song, and a Confidant. Tri llavarwch Serchog :
The Lover's three incitements to Eloquence : Havddydd ; Cóg; a Llatai.
A Summer's day; the Cuckoo's note ; and a Mel.
senger with Love-gifts. Tri chyvodiad ferch :
The three exciters to Love : Annerch, Caru, a Chusan.
A Present, a Courtship, and a kiss. Tri o wyr y cyngan ferch arnynt :
The three persons who shall prosper in Love: Gwr digriv diwladaidd; Gwr bael dewr ;
A merry man, void of ill manners; a Gallant a Gwr bonheddig tég.
liberal man; and a Handsome man of noble birth.
There were three ensign Bards, or Bards of the Tri Bardd Caw y Sydd:
bandage :—The primitive, or chief Bard; the lyric, Priv.vardd; Pof-vardd; ac Arwydd-vardd. or modern Bard; and the heraldic Bard * • The supreme Bard, and herald Bard are extinct ; the harp Bard, and Poetic Bard are those that remain. See p. 33, 34Tri rhyw gerddor y fydd :
There are three sorts of Songsters: Clerwr 5 Teulúwr; a Phrydydd.
The provincial circuiter, or itinerant Songster ; the
family Songster; and the historic Poet. Tri pbeth à berthyn ar Glerwr :
Three things belong to the circuit Songster: Goganu ; Gwarthruddio ; ac Imbil.
To lampoon ; to put one to the blush ; and to intreat. Tri pheth à berthyn ar Deuluwr :
Three things appertaining to a family Songster : Haelioni; Digrivwch; a Derbyn då heb ymbil, To promote Liberality; Pleasantry and Wit; and
to receive Gifts becomingly. Tri pheth à berthyn ar brydydd:
Three things requisite for a Poet : Clódvori, Digrivhau, a Gwrthwynebu gogangerdd To celebrate, to delight, and to overcome the fatire gy Clerwr.
of the itinerant rhapsodists. Tair priv vefur prydyddiaeth : fer,
The three principal kinds of Welsh Metres : Englyn; Cowydd; ac Awdyl.
Unirythm, or close Metre ; Parallel Metre; and the
Ode, or Lyric.--See page 30, 53 : and p. 8, of the 2d Vol. Tair Enaid Cerdd Davawd sydd :
The three Effences of vocal Song: Synwyr; Mesur; a Chynghanedd.
Sense; Metre ; Alliteration and consonancy. Tri pbeth à berthyn ar vesuro :
Three things belonging to Composition : Ymddangos yn eglur; Cadw rheol Athrawon ; Clearness of style; adherence to the rules of the a bod yn warrant i'r Disgyblion.
Doctors of the Art; and to be a true standard for the
Disciples. Tri braint y fydd i bennill o Gowydd:
There are threegradations in poetical Compositions: Penceirddiaidd ; Ddysgyblaidd; ac iselrådd, neu That of the head Bard, or Master : that of the dinceirddiaidd.
Disciple; and that of the lowest order, or Poetaster.
Three things proper for a Counsellor :