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instructed in the songs of the Lord, even all that were cunning, was two hundred, fourscore and eight
The inftrument upon which King David performed, was the 713) Kinnor, or Harp $ ; which is likewise called the Hafur ; that is, the tenth, or ten.stringed instrument : This is the instrument David played upon before Saulo. It was made of the wood of the algum-treer; a species of fine cedar. It was the Harp that the Babylonian captives hung upon the willows, growing upon the banks of the Euphrates. Also, the women played upon this instrument'. It was very common at Tyre ""; and was chiefly designed for the eighth band of musicians belonging to the tabernacle in the time of David". This ancient Kinnor, which is so often mentioned in scripture, and called by Daniel, Kitros "?, was according to all the fathers who have given us a description of it, an instrument of a triangular form, whose strings were stretched from the top to the bottom, and whose hollow part, whence the sound proceeded, was at the bottom; they played upon it at the top, with the fingers". The Kinnor 14 (or Harp) is rendered in the Septuagint, by Kinnyra, Psalterion, and Cythara's. It was in use before the flood
The Nable, Nebel, or Psalterion, was likewise a musical instrument of very near the same shape with the Harp; only, it had twelve strings". And, Ovid tell us, they played upon it with both hands, as we do on our Harp" :
Disce etiam duplici genialia Nablia palma
Plectere : conveniunt dulcibus illa modis. Sopater, quoted in Athenæus, tell us 9 : the Nable of the ancients was a stringed instrument; and called Sidonian, because the Phenicians were supposed to be the inventors of it. The septuagint, commonly translate Nebel by Psalterion 20, and that it was of the form of the letter delta?' A; it was made use of in the pompous and folemn ceremonies of religion. The Rabbins say, that they never made use of less than two Nebels in the temple, nor more than six 22. The Nable, and the Hafur would seem to be the same, were they not expressly distinguished in Psalm XCII. upon the Hafur, and upon the Nable; and by the distinct number of their strings.-
The ancients speak likewise of a 9 ftringed instrument called Trigonos, or triangular ; which, by the rea semblance of its figure, appears to be something like the Harp. Juba says it was invented by the Syrians 23, others give it the epithet of Phrygian, or Persian24. Diogenes, the tragedian, quoted in Athenæus, says, that the Bactrian and Phrygian damsels worshhipped the goddess Diana, in shady groves, with the found of
' I. Chronicles, chap. XXV. v. 7.
to excel; which, according to Calmet, should be, with harps • I. Chronicles, chap. XXIII. v. 5.
to preside over the Sheminith, or eighth band of musicians. 3 Calmet'i Critical Dissertations on the Old and New Testa iz Daniel, III. 5, 7, 10. ment, done into English, with addilional notes, by Tindal. 3 Calmet's Critical Differtation. Quarto. p. 71.
14 155 κιθαρα Ψαλτηριον Κιννυρά. 4 Genesis, chap. X.
" St. Ferom, who wrote about the year 400, fays, the KIOAPA, s Pfaims, XLIII. v. 4; XCII. v. 3 ; XXX. v. 2, 3; CXLIV. (kithara, or cithara), is of the thape of the Greek letter delta, a,
And Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, book VIII. had 24 strings, and was played upon with the fingers. chap. III. 8.
Genesis, chap. IV. v. 21. I. Samuel, chap. XVI. v. 23.
17 1. Kings, X. 12, and II. Chronicles, IX. 11. Pfalm, And the servants of the Hiram, and the servants of Solo. XCII. v. 3. Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, book VII. chap. mon, which brought gold from Ophir, brought algum-trees, and XII. 3. Plalm XXXIII. v. 2. precious stones, And the king made, of the algum-trees, ter 18 Ovid,lib. 3. de Arte. races to the house of the Lord, and to the king's palace, and 19 Atheneus, lib. 4, cap. 23, p. 175, and Eufebius, in Psalm harps and pfalteries for singers. And there were none such XXX. seen before in the land of Judah.-II. Chronicles, chap. IX. v. 20 The Psaltery, as-handed down to us, is a flat instrument, II and 12.-1. Kings, c. X. v. 12.-II. Samuel, c. VI. v. 5. or a kind of dulcimer of a triangular form. I have seen others Pfalm, CXXXVII. 2.
of the upright fort, which had strings on both sides of them, Isaiah, XXIII. 16. I. Chronicles, XV. 20.
one of which was brought from Germany. 10 Ezekiel, XXVI. 13.- Ifaiah, as before cited.
Casiodorus, (and St. Ifidorus), Prefat. in Pfalm. u 1. Chronicles, XV.21, (Psalm VI. and XII.) Our English a Calmet's Critical Dissertations by Tindal. tranflation of this place is thus : with harps on the Sheminith 23 Atheneus, l. 4. C. 23, p. 175.
* Vide eundem, l. 14.C 19, p. 636.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE HARP AMONG THE ANCIENT BRITONS.
the Pečtis, and Persian Trigonos. A Greek author, named Joseppos', says, the Egyptian priests played upon it on their festival days. The Trigon, or a kind of triangular Harp, is represented, in Voyage Picturesque de Naples?, from an ancient painting in the museum of the King of Naples 3,5
Having now investigated the probable origin of the Harp amongst the Hebrews, it will be necessary to endeavour to trace its fource, use, and progress, among the Ancient Britons, or Weldh; and, what will greatly affist to elucidate this subject is, that the Cymry, or Aboriginal Britons ^, have retained their primi. tive customs more pure than any other Celtic tribe. “ Every nation has their peculiar taste, genius, temper, and fancy, indelible by any revolution of time, government, or education.”
Cæfar says, that Druidism is supposed to have originated in Britain. This religious order was a branch of the Bardic System; also, we are informed, by Ammianus Marcellinus, (and others) that, The BARDS Sang of the exploits of valiant heroes, in sweet Tunes y adapted to the melting notes of the melodious Harp. Therefore, the Harp was a Bardic instrument, and was played by them, from the earliest period, both at their sacred ceremonies, and at their other celebrations o.
Diodorus Siculus, who wrote about 45 years before Christ, speaking of the Britons, or Celts, says, “ Among them they have poets, that sing melodious fongs, whom they call Bards ; who, to their musical instruments like unto Lyres, chant forth the praises of some, and the censures of others. There are likewise among them philosophers and divines, whom they call Druids, and are held in great veneration and esteem. Prophets, likewise, they have, whom they highly honour, who foretel future events ?."
Diodorus Siculus, out of Hecateus, describes the Hyperboreans, (which are the Britons, according to Carte's History of England, Rowland's Mona Antiqua, and others,) and says, “ There is an island in the ocean over against Gaul, (as big as Sicily,) under the Artic Pole, where the Hyperboreans inhabit, so called because they lie far north. That the soil there is very rich and fruitful; and the climate temperate, insomuch as that there are two crops in the year. They say that Latona was born there, and therefore that they worship Apollo above all other Gods; and, because they are daily saying songs in praise of this God, and ascribing to him the highest honours, they say that these inhabitants demean themselves as if they were Apollo's Priests, who has there a stately grove and renowned temple of a round form, beautified with many rich gifts. That there is a city likewise consecrated to this God®, whose citizens are most of them harpers, who playing on the Harp, chant sacred hymns to Apollo in the temple, setting forth his glorious acts. The Hyperboreans use their own natural language : but, of long and ancient time, have had a special kindness for the Grecians ; and more especially for the Atheneans and the Delian's. And that some of the Grecians passed over to the Hyperboreans, and left behind them divers presents, (or things dedicated to the Gods,) inscribed with Greek characters ; and that Abaris o formerly travelled thence into Greece, and renewed the ancient league of friendship with the Delians 10.. (To these accounts are added, schools of philosophers, which could be no other than those of the Druids, Bards, and Ovyddion ".)
Joseppos, apud Thom. Galle, Not. ad Jamblic.
s Cafar's Commentaries, book VI. chap. 13. But Borlafe's . Voyage Pittoresque de Naples et de Sicile par Mr. Saint Antiquities of Cornwal gives the fullest account of the Druids. Non; tom. 2d, p. 45 ; et p. 137.
See p. 3. and p. 27,- Ammianus Marcellinus, book XV. ch. . 3 The Hebrew Shalisbim is another fort of instrument, which 9, (who lived in 390), Carte's History of England, vol. 1, p. 61 the Seventy have rendered by Cymbala, and St. Jerom by Sifra and p. 43.-Aikenaus, lib. VI.- Strabo, lib. 1. lib. IV. - Die It is mentioned but once in all Scripture*, and that it is in the dorus Siculus, lib. V. chap. 2 ; and lib. II. chap. 3. - Lucan, description of David's triumph after his victory over Goliah. lib. I. 447.- And Tacirus, lib. IV. cap. 54 ; lib. XIV. 30, 31, The women came out to meet Saul and David, singing and -Tyluio's British Hiftory.-- Fabian's Chronicle, p. 32, ed. 1533. dancing, with tabrets and with Sbalisfim. This term is derived -and Lewis's Hiftory of Britain, chap. XXXV. lib. 67. from a root fignifying three; and therefore some will have it to be Diodorus, the Sicilian, translated by Booth, book V. chap. an instrument of three strings, others an instrument of a tri. II. p. 189. angular form, which seems to be the most probable. Those, Lewis's History of Britain, p. 35, says there was a temple who now play on the cymbal, were wont formerly to accom- of Apollo in London. pany it with the sound of a triangular instrument, made of a • Abaris is said to have taught Pythagoras the doctrine of rod of steel, on which were rings, that moved up and down transmigration of fouls. Carte's History of Britain, p. 61 to 69; the triangle, by means of an iron rod, which they had in their and Lewis's Ancient History, p. 7. See some account of Abaris, left hand, whilst they held up the instrument in their right by the British Philofopher, or Druid, in p. 8 of this work a ring, to give it a free motion. It is not unlikely but that the 1. Diodorus, the Sicilian, translated by Booth, book 11. chap. fcriptures,
by the word Shalifbim, mean this ancientinstrumentt. III. and p. 77, &c. I Samuel, XVIII. 6,
" Carte's History of England, vol. I. p. 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, and + Calmer's Collection of Critical Dillertations on the Old and New Testa- 67.Strabo, lib. IV.-Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. XV. chap. 9. ment with additional notes by Tindal, pp. 95, 98.–And Pignorius de Sarvis, -Herodotus, lib. IV.-Pythagoras, chap. XIX. And Row
land's Mona Antiqua, p. 76. : Cefar's Commentaries, book V. chap. 10. II
Blegywryd ab Seisyllt, King of Britain, about 160 years before Christ, is said to have been a celebrated
The three lawful Harps :
1. The Harp of the King ;
2. The Harp of a master of music , 3. A Thelyn Gwrda.
3. And the Harp of a gentleman. Gwerth y ddwy gyntav : chweugaint a dál bób un; The two first were valued at 120 pence, each ; a phedair ar hugaint ar eu Cyweirgorn. Telyn Gwrda, and the Tuning key, at 24 pence. The Harp of triugaint a dál, a'i Chyweirgorn deuddeg ceiniawg, a gentleman, (or baron) was valued at 60 Leges Wallicae, pp. 415, 226, 267, and 307. and its Tuning key 12 pence?: -
Therefore, from all these various instances, we may fairly infer, that the aboriginal Britons had the Harp, prior to any other nation“, except the Hebrews 5,
In former times, a professor of this favourite instrument, the Harp, had many privileges; his lands were free, and his person sacred, by the law. It was the office of the ancient Bard, to sing to his Harp before, and after battle, the old song, called Unbeniaeth Prydain, or the Monarchal Song of Britain ; which contained the exploits of the most worthy and distinguished heroes, and to inspire others to imitate their glorious example?. “ But heed, ye Bards, that for the sign of onset
“ Ye found the ancientest of all your rhymes,
" Its lofty strains •:"--
When Colgrin was besieged in the city of York, by king Arthur, in the fifth century, Badulf assumed the character of a Harper, and by that stratagem he gained admission to devise with his brother ko. King Alfred also made use of the same disguise, and by that means he had an opportunity to reconnoitre the Danish camp, which was then in SomersetOire ".
In the beginning of the tenth century, Anlaf, king of the Illes, invaded the north of England with a prodigious army of Danes; he was resolved to explore the situation of the English camp, and the condition of their
army, before he engaged ; and disguised himself like a minstrel, went into it as far as the king's tent, where he played upon the Harp with so much skill, that he was eafily admitted. King Athelftan was then at dinner with his chief officers, who were all agreeably entertained with the music; but, the repast being over, the musician was dismissed with a handsome reward ; which disdaining to carry off, he buried it in the ground. A soldier who had formerly served under him, observing the action, was confirmed by it in his suspicion that the disguised Harper was Anlaf, and gave notice of it to Athelstan, who blamed the man for not discovering it sooner, that he might have seized his enemy. However, in consequence of the informa:
* See the 1st and 2nd page--Tyfilio's British History.Fa. s Genefis, chap. IV. verse 21. bian's Chron. f. 32, ed. 1533.-And Lewis's Hift. of Brit. p. See pp. 27, 28, and 79.-Leges Wallicae, p. 35,68, 307, 67, and chap. XXXV.
Leges Wallicae, published by Dr. Wotton, and Moses See p. 27 of this book, and Leges Wallicae, p. 36.-Diodo. Williams, p:301.–And p. 56 and 79 of this book.- Bede, lib. rus Siculus, lib. V. chap. 2, says, " The Celts, in time of war, IV. chap. 24.
march, observing time and measure, and sing the Peans, 3 See pp. 10, 11, 12, 26, 27, and 28, &c. of this work. when they are just ready to charge the enemy.' Likewise, the Ancient British Triads, in p. 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, Mason's Cara&acus, 8.4, 85, and 86.,
9 Carte's Hiftory of England, vol. I. p, 182. Gildas, a British *** Over the Celts reigned Bardus, a man famous for his author, who wrote in the fixth century, alludes to this victory invention of verses, and music. And Caius says, “Quin et as obtained by the blessings of God, without any human affift primos muficos (telte Cesare,) Britannia peperit, quos Bardos ance, Gildas Épif. n. 17, 18.-Uber's Antig. Brit
. pp. 179, 180. olim dicebant, atque achuc Cambri dicunt, a Bardo quodam 10 Txfilio's British Hift. Book XI. Chap. I.-Lewis's Hif. Britannorum Rege, homine inventione carminum et mufices
181. inclito, ut Berofus memoriæ tradidit.” Lewis's Hif. of Brit. Spelman's Life of Alfred, p. 63. p. 8. Chap. VI. - See also p. 26, 27, and 79, of this work.
95 A DISSERTATION on the HARP, and other MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS of WALÉS, &c. tion, Athelstan prepared himself for the danger, and proved victorious the following day. This happened at Waundune, near Brumford, in Northumberland
Giraldus Cambrensis, who wrote a description of Cambria, about the year 1188, speaks of the hospi. tality and liberality of the Wellh, in his time, as follows ; “ There is no beggar among these people ; for their hospitality is common to every body: generosity they prefer to every other virtue. Travellers, when they enter a house, deliver their arms to be laid by, and immediately are hospitably entertained, being offered water to wash their feet, which is the manner of invitation with this nation. Their young men, therefore, who are devoted to arms, and hunting, roam from house to house, and make every place their home, unless they are called out to defend their country. Those who come at early hours are entertained with the conversation of young Women, and with Tunes on the Harp, all along to the evening : for here every family hath its damsels, and Harps assigned for this purpose.
Every family too is here well skilled in all the knowledge of the Harp. In the evening, when strangers have ceased coming, an entertainment is prepared, according to the number and dignity of the guests, and according to the abilities of the family ; when the kitchen is not loaded with divers dishes, and with incitements to appetite; nor is the house adorned with tables, and towels; these people study nature more than ornament. They lay before the guests large dishes of herbs. The master and mistress of the feast are carefully serving their guests, nor do they ever eat themselves before the company have been fatisfied ; that, if there should be deficiency, it may fall to their own share !."!
• Ireland makes use of only two instruments, namely the Harp, and the Drum. Scotland has three, namely the Harp, the Drum, and the Crwth. And Wales has the Harp, the Pipes, and the Crwth. The Irish too make use of strings of brass, oftener than those made of hide, of gut!.”
Giraldus likewise gives a curious account of the effects of music, and says, “The sweetness of music not only delights with its harmony, it has its advantages also. Ít not a little exhilirates dejected minds ; it clears the clouded countenance, and removes superciliousness and austerity, Harmony is a kind of food to the mind. Whatever be our pursuit, music affists application, and quickens genius. It gives courage to the brave, and assists the devotions of the pious. Hence it is, that the bishops, abbots, and holy men, in Ireland are used to have the Harp about them, and piously amuse themselves with playing it; for which reason, the Harp of holy Kejeinus * is held in such a great estimation by the original inhabitants. Befides, the warlike trumpet sends forth a musical consonance, when its clangor gives the signal for the attack. Music has its effects on the vicious, as well as the virtuous. The story of Alexander is well known; so is likewise that of David driving the evil spirit from Saul. Music has a power to alter our very nature. Hence the Irish, the Spanish, and some other nations, amidst their funeral wailings, bring forth mufical lamentations, either to increase, or dimimish their grief. Ifidor hath faid, that without Music no inftitution or discipline is perfect. The very world is said to have been Harmoniously created 5."
Galileo', in his Dialogue on Ancient and Modern Music, written in the year 1582, has given a very interesting passage respecting the Harp, which I shall infert here literally translated: “ Among the stringed instruments now used in Italy, we have, in the first place, the Harp; which is in fact nothing but the ancient Cithara, with a great number of strings, differing somewhat in form, but that chiefly owing to the taste of the artists of those times, the number of strings, and their degree of tension; the extreme highest and lowest comprising upwards of three octaves. This very ancient inftrument was brought to us from Ireland, (as Dante' has recorded,) where they are excellently made, and in great number ; and the inhabitants of which island have practised on it for many and many centuries; its being also the particular badge of the kingdom, and, as such, frequently painted and sculptured on their public edifices and coins, the people alledging, as the caufe of it, that they are descended from the Royal prophet David. The Harps used by them are much larger than ours, and they are usually mounted with strings of brass, and some of steel, in the acute part, of the fame kind as the Clavichord, (or a kind of Spinnet.) The performers upon them
Carte's History of England, vol. I. p. 322.–And Malmef- | monastery of Glenda'loch, in the county of Wicklow --Lives of bury, Lib. II.
the British Saints, vol. I. p. 336, 4to.-And Hanmer's Chronicle, i Cambrie Descriptio, Chap. X.– For a farther account of the p. 60, fol. music of the Wellh ; see p. 35 of this book.-Lyttelton's Hift. of s Giraldus Cambrenhis, Chap. XII. Hen. II. book II. p. 68, 4to.
• Vinc. Galileo's Dialogue on Ancient and Modern Music, p. 3 Giraldus's Topog. of Ireland, chap. XI.
143, &c. folio edition, printed at Florence in 1582, and after * Probably this was St. Coemgen, Keivin, or Coemgenus, who that in 1602. Galilee was an admirable performer on the flourished about the latter end of the fifth century; scholar of Lute. St. Pedrock the Briton. Coemgenus founded the celebrated i Dante flourilhed about the year 1300.
are wont to let the nails of both their hands grow to a considerable length, trimming them with in the manner we see the quills on the jacks of the Spinnets. The number of strings are 54, 56, and as far as 60; whereas we read, that among the Jews the Cithara, or Psalterion of the Prophet, had only 10 strings. The distribution of the strings of one of these Harps, (which I obtained a few months ago, by means of a very obliging gentleman of Ireland,) I found, on careful examination, to be the same as that of the Harp with a double row of strings, which was a few years ago introduced into Italy ; although some (without a shadow of reason) affert, that they have lately invented it, endeavouring to persuade the vulgar, that none but themselves can play upon it, or understand its temperament, which they hold in such great estimation, that they have ungratefully denied it to many; in spite of whom, however, I will here describe it, for the sake of those who may desire it': The 8 strings, which are mounted on the Harp, contain four octaves, and one tone ; not major, or minor, as some have imagined, but of the measure which I have above fard to be contained in a key'd instrument. The lowest string, therefore, as well for a sharp as for a filar, is double C; and the highest string is D in alt: when they are to be tuned for B flat, the 16 lower Hrings on the left side are to be distributed according to the nature of the common diatonic, and the 14 that are in the opposite row to these, that is on the right side, (leaving apart the unison of D, and A,) must give, as we may fay, the chromatic kind, agreeable in its nature to the said diatonics. The 15 that follow next, ascending the scale, are to be tempered diatonically, according to the mode of the 16 lower ones, on the left side. The 13, that follow next above the first 16, are now to do the office of the lower ones on the right, as may be seen in the example. If then you want to play in B natural, let the flats of each diatonic be, altered, and tuned in one or the other of the chromatic, instead of the B flat ; and let these be arrang’d in the place of those in the diatonic, both on the right, and the left. This mode of proceeding was so ordered by its author for the convenience and facility of the fingers of both hands, particularly in making diminutions, and lengthening sounds. We find thus among the said strings; five times C, five D, four E, four F, four G, four A, four B flat, and four B natural. Four unisons of D, four ynisons of A. Four sharps of c, four sharps of f, four sharps of g, and the four flats of e; which in all make the number of 58 frings. But there are wanting, for the perfection of the diversity of harmony, the four sharps of d, and the four flats of a; for which, in those modes, or melodies, where thefe strings occur, their unisons which are among the chromatic strings, are accommodated to them; which unisons
produce a great facility in the diminutions, as appears manifestly in practice; which facility is the cause that they are generally distributed in the manner I have mentioned.”
The Harp is so similar to the Epigonium and the Simicum ?, that it may with reason be said to be one of them ; nor do I think he would be much mistaken, who should maintain, that the strings were tuned in the fame manner and proportion in the one as in the other instrument, seeing that these instruments were nor introduced till after they began to play in consonant parts ; and what distribution is best adapted to this, has been fully explained.” See more of the double stringed Harp, in page 99.
'Galileo continues as follows : “ And let all others of so bad | dental flats and sharps; the remainder were unifons in both a difpofition remember, that if those men distinguished in di- the rows. vers noble professions, had not with so much labour of their 3 - To tell you briefly what I think of the Epigonium, and own, and for the benefit of pofterity, left behind so many vo- the Simicum, I hold that the matter and form was a wooden lumes concerning those arts, they would now be perfe&ly ig- frame, in both somewhat similar to that of a Harp. However, norant of them, and the fame of those would now be wholly I submit to the bette: judgment of those who understand the obfcured. Whereas by means of the excellence of thei' writ- matter better than I do. The Epigonium was invented by Epiings, they live for ever in our memory, and every one may gonius of Ambracia, the head of a famous feet, a little before, or chereby become very skilful, and at the fame time (we may after, Socrates, as we are told by Porphirius, in his notes upon eruly fay) happy; if in fact happiness in this world consists in the music of Ptolemy. Which Epigonius (as is afserted by Julius nothing but to know and understand the truth of things. Pollux) was the firit who used to strike the frings with the finPrompted by whose example, the noble and virtuous minds of gers, instead of the ple&rum ; which manner of touching the our times readily take pains to learn the sciences, for no other itrings, together with the number of them, argues that he purpose but to facilitate and illustrate them by their writings, played in consonant parts ; which manner was afterwards (as without ever refusing, or concealing, any thing they know, to we learn from Suetonius Tranquillus) followed also by Nero; those who do not know it, and wilh to learn it. Those un- that author tells us, that Nero, having once appeared publickly grateful persons do not perceive, that the little they know, in the theatre, in the midst of several musicians, first played a they have learnt from the one and the other; who, if they very pretty prelude with his fingers, and then began to líng." had been tenacious, or unwilling to impart, these must needs Galileo's Dialogue on Music, p. 39.- As to the Simicum, fome have been very unbappy."
say it was invented by Simicus, and that it had 35 ftrings, that • In the plate, or scale of the strings of this Harp, described is, 22 diatonic notes, besides the unisons, and perhaps chromain Galileo, p. 144, it had 29 strings, in each of the two rows ; tics. Probably it musthave been invented prior to the Epi. that is, D. at top, and DD at bottom, in the right-hand row; gonium, which had 40 strings ; 20 of them are said to have apd Cat top, and CC at bottom, in the left-hand row. It seems been diatonics, and the others were unisons and chromatics. they were tuned in different keys, as occafions required them; Grafineau's Mufical Di&ionary, p. 149.
And Galileo, pp. 39 and part of one row, and part of the other, served for the inci. and 40.