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Which can a vain and empty world defpife,
THE manners of a people are not to be found in the schools of learning, or the palaces of greatnefs, where the national character is obfcured, or obliterated by travel or inftruction, by philofophy or vanity; nor is public happiness to be estimated by the affemblies of the gay or the banquets of the rich. The great mafs of nations is neither rich nor gay. They whofe aggregate conflitutes the people, are found in the streets and the villages in the fhops and farms; and from them, collectively confidered, muft the measure of general profperity be taken. As they approach to delicacy, a nation is refined; as their conveniencies are multiplied, a nation, at leaft a commercial nation, muft be denominated wealthy.Johnson.
MANNERS are of more importance than laws. In a great measure the laws depend upon them. The law touches us but here and there, and now and then. Manners are what vex or foothe, corrupt or purify, exalt or debafe, barbarize or refine us, by a conftant, fteady, uniform, infenfible opera tion, like that of the air we breathe in. They give their whole form and colour to our lives. According to their quality, they aid morals, they fupply them, or they totally destroy them. Burke.
A WELL regulated militia is the proper, natural, and fure defence of a fiate.
Standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised, or kept up without confent of the legislature.
In all cafes and at all times, the military ought to be under ftri&t fubordination to, and governed by the civil power.
No foldier in time of peace fhall be quartered in any houfe, without the confent of the owner: and in time of war, fuch quarters ought not to be made but by the civil magiftrate, in a manner ordained by the legislature.-Conflitution of NewHump/bire.
A WELL-REGULATED militia is the proper, natural, and fafe defence of a free government.
Standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or kept up, without the confent of the legislature. In all cafes, and at all times, the military ought to be under strict fubordination to, and governed by the civil power.
No foldier ought to be quartered in any houfe, in time of peace, without the confent of the owner; and in time of wir, in fuch manner only, as the legislature fhall direct.Confitution of Delaware.
THE fure and certain defence of a free people is a well regulated militia; and as ftanding armies in time of peace, are dangerous to freedom, they ought to be avoided, as far as the circumflances and fafety of the community will admit; and in all cafes the military fhall be in ftrict fubordination to the civil authority.-Conflitution of Tenneffee.
THE militia of this country must be considered as the palladium of our fecurity, and the firft effectual refort, in cafe of hoftility. It is effential, therefore, that the fame system fhould pervade the whole; that the formation and difcipline of the militia of the continent, fhould be abfolutely uniform; and that the fame fpecies of arms, accoutrements, and military apparatus, fhould be introduced in every part of the United States. No one, who has not learned it from experience, can conceive the difficulty, expence, and confufion, which refult from a contrary fyftem, or the vague arrangements which have hitherto prevailed-Wafbington.
THE documents which will be prefented to you, will fhew the amount and kinds of arms and military (tores now in our magazines and arfenals; and yet an addition even to thefe fupplies cannot with prudence be neglected, as it would leave nothing to the uncertainty of procuring a warlike apparatus in the moment of public danger. Nor can fuch arrangements, with fuch objects, be expofid to the cenfure or jealoufy of the warmelt friends of republican government. They are incapable of abufe in the hands of the militia, who ought to poffefs a pride in being the depofitory of the force of the Republic, and may be trained to a degree of energy, equal to every military exigency of the United States.-Idem.
THERE is one circumftance in the conduct of the tory friends to abfolute faway, truly alarming to the champions of
liberty. They are always inclined, on the fmalleft tumult, to call in the military. They would depreciate the civil powers, and break the conftable's staff, to introduce the bayonet. In their opinion, the best executive powers of government are a party of dragoons. They are therefore conftantly founding alarms, and aggravating every petty difturbance into a riot or rebellion. They are not for parleying with the many-headed monfter; they fcorn lenient measures; and while their own perfons are in perfect fafety, boldly command the military to fire. What is the life or the limb cf a pɔor man, in their opinion? Not fo much as the life or limb of a favorite pointer or race-horfe. They are always eager to augment the army. They would build barracks in every part of the country, and be glad to fee a free country over-run, like fome of the enslaved nations of the continent, from east to weft, from north to fouth, with men armed to overawe the faucy advocates of charters, privileges, rights, and reformations.
Against principles fo dangerous in public life, and odious in private, every friend to his country, every lover of his fellow creatures, every competent judge of thofe manners, which sweeten the intercourfe of man with man, will fhew a determined oppofition. But how fhall he fhew it with effect? By ridicule. Nothing lowers the pride from which fuch principles proceed, fo much as general contempt and derifion. The infolence of petty defpots in private life should be laughed at by an Aristophanes, while it is rebuked by a Cato.-Spirit of Defpotifm.
AS, in time of peace, armies are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be maintained, without the confent of the legiflature; and the military power fhall always be held in exact fubordination to the civil authority, and be governed by it.-Conftitution of Maffachusetts.
NO ftanding army fhall, in time of peace, be kept up, without the confent of the legislature; and the military fhall, in all cafes, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power. Conflitution of Pennsylvania.
NO foldier fhall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the confent of the owner, nor, in time of war, but in a manner to be prefcribed by law.-Idem.
STANDING armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raifed or kept up, without confent of the legislature.. -Conftitution of Maryland.
IN all cafes, and at all times, the military ought to be under ftrict fubordination to and control of the civil power.Idem.
NO foldier ought to be quartered in any houfe, in time of peace, without the confent of the owner; and in time of war, in fuch manner only, as the legislature shall direct. —Idem.
NO ftanding army fhall, in time of peace, be kept up, without the confent of the legiflature; and the military fhall, in all cafes, and at all times, be in ftrict fubordination to the civil power. Conflitution of Kentucky.
NO foldier fhall, in time of peace, be quartered in any houfe, without the confent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prefcribed by law. - Idem.
OVERGROWNMILITARY ESTABLISHMENTS, UNDER ANY FORM OF GOVERNMENT, ARE INAUSPICIOUS TO LIBERTY, AND ARE TO BE REGARDED AS PARTICULARLY HOSTILE TO REPUBLICAN LIBERTY —Washington.
WHAT is more refpectable, or more facred, than true modefty; who will dare bring a blush on the cheek of chaite beauty, ignorant of the myfteries of which the has not even an idea! Who will dare to blemish the carnation of a chafte countenance and a pure mind; break the feal of virtue, and a peaceful heart, that fhame has not yet affected! even the depraved man feels his fchemes die away; he retrains the emotions of his empoifoned tongue, and his bold hand; he is difarmed by the glance where modeft affurance (hines; he turns afide, as the most brutal wretch would turn the wheel of his carriage, when it threatened to cruth an infant ftretched on the road-Mercier.
AS great refpect is due to the office of the fupreme magif trate, fo alfo is great affection due to his perfon, while he conducts himself with propriety, and confults the happiness of the people. The molt decorous language fhould be ufed to him, the most refpectful behaviour preferved towards him; every mode adopted of fhewing him proofs of love and honor, on this fide idolatry. Arduous is his talk, though honourable, It thould be fweetened by every mode which true and fincere
loyalty can devife. I would rather exceed, than fall fhort of the deference due to the office and the man.-Spirit of Defpotifm.
ALL powers refiding originally in the people, and being derived from them, the feveral magiftrates, and officers of government, vefted with authority, whether legislative, execu tive, or judicial, are their fubftitutes and agents, and are at all times accountable to them.-Conflitution of Massachusetts.
ALL perfons invefled with legislative or executive powers of government are the trustees of the public, and, as fuch, accountable for their conduct; wherefore, whenever the ends. of government are perverted, and public liberty manifeftly endangered, and all other means of redrefs are ineffectual, the people may, and of right ought, to reform the old or establish a new government. The doctrine of non-refiflance, against arbitrary power and oppreffion, is abfurd, flavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind.—Conflitution of Maryland.
MINISTERS of STATE.
I HAD formerly upon occafion difcourfed with my master pon the nature of government in general, and particularly of our own excellent conftitution, defervedly the wonder and envy of the whole world. But having here accidentally mentioned a minister of state, he commanded me fome time after to inform him, what fpecies of yahoo I particularly meant by that appellation.
I told him, that a chief or first minifter of ftate, who was the perfon I intended to defcribe, was a creature wholly exempt from joy and grief, love and hatred, pity and anger; at least makes ufe of no other paffions, but a violent defire of wealth, power, and titles; that he applies his words to all ufes, except to the indication of his mind; that he never tells a truth but with an intent that you fhould take it for lie; nor a lie, but with a defign that you should take it for a truth; that those he fpeaks worft of behind their backs, are in the fureft way of pre. ferment; and whenever he begins to praife you to others, or to yourfelf, you are from that day forlorn. The worst mark you can receive is a promife, efpecially when it is confirmed with an cath; after which every wife man retires, and gives over all hopes-Swift.
MINISTERS and favorites are a fort of people who have af te prifoner in their cuftody, the whole management of wl.feu ́d:^a dag in luitions they can cafily ergrifs. This