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at the great spectacle of her most gra- colonel, and offered him an appointcious Majesty's coronation last year. ment as regimental surgeon in that At the completion of his academic service. His father-in-law advanced course he took a longer journey, pre- money for this purpose ; but the coloceded by a winter spent at Jena, where nel turned out a swindler, and Erhard he formed the acquaintance of Rein- was ruined. He speaks of this blow hold, Schiller, and Wieland, and of with great bitterness. His fortunes a Baron Herbert, who formed a close however, began, not long afterwards, friendship with him, and afterwards to improve. In the year 1795 he rendered him the most essential ser- gained an introduction to the wellviccs. From Jena he proceeded by known minister, Baron von Harden. Goettingen, Hamburg, and Kiel, to berg, who at the time presided over Copenhagen, and thence by sea to the administration of the Franconian Memel and Koenigsberg, where he principalities; and after being employattained the great object of his travels, ed by him to write, for a handsome personal knowledge of his great stipend, in defence of the claims of the teacher, Kant.

" He seemed sur- House of Brandenburg, was recomprised at my mode of speaking of his mended by him to settle as a physician works to him. I asked no explana- in Berlin, where he finally took up his tions; but merely thanked him for the residence, and was admitted to pracpleasure they had afforded me, with- tise in the year 1800. His reputation out another word of compliment. gradually increased, and brought him The facility of understanding him, his share of the polysyllabic honours which this implied, seemed to make so dear to his countrymen. He was him doubt at first whether I had read successively a member of the Medicithem, but we soon came to an under. nal-Upper-Examination-Commission, standing, and found our society suitable and Upper. Medicinal Councillor, and to each other.” After his return to from the King of the Netherlands he Nuremberg, Kant wrote to him in received the order of the Belgian Lion. terms of which he is justly proud. In 1827 he died, “ with the consola“ Of all men whom I have learned to tion," says Varnhagen, “ of the just. know well, I should like no one for Devotion to the will of the Supreme daily intercourse better than you.'

." had always accompanied him on his In fact, the respect and regard which way." Erhard through life received from In many of the events of his life, others, is his best claim to our esteem. Erhard exemplifies the distinguishing We only know half a man's character virtue of the national intellect, appreif we read how he thought and acted, ciation of principles, and its great dewithout knowing how he was thought fect, disregard of empirical rules. Gerof and dealt by. The proofs of at- mans are often so deeply impressed by tachment which Erhard received from their intuition of the unity of truth, his immediate friends, and the notice that they consider the actual variety which he received from the great men of its manifestations as an obstacle to of his time, may counterbalance many be removed or disregarded, and not as of the foibles which he unintentionally its condition and counterpart. They or indifferently discloses.

reject an action, or class of actions, as From Koenigsberg he travelled with limited and fragmentary, in favour of his friend Herbert to Klagenfurt, and an arbitrary symbol of some general afterwards through the north of Italy law, as Erhard regarded not his owner. and the Tyrol to Nuremberg, when ship of the house, but the fire-lighting he proceeded with little eclat to his which represented to him abstract doctor's degree, though, from a know- ownership; and within the limits of ledge or belief of his unpopularity that law they seek to produce correthere, he had determined to practise in sponding unity of outward things, or, some other locality. About this time if that is impossible, an emblematic he married, and employed himself in unity which may satisfy the imaginaperiodical writing on subjects connect- tion; wherein they are in reality breaked with the principles of jurisprudence. ing up the one great law into many, He wished in vain to obtain some while they deceive themselves by the university position, and thought of re- substitution of larger component units moving to Poland, when he met with for smaller, of secondary generalizaa man named William Pearce, who tions for individual objects and acrepresented himself as an American tions. Yet every action is, as Fichte taught of every particle of matter, but sult is an occasional appearance of the point of intersection of a thousand singular contradiction between his laws, each of which is severally satis. principles and his actions-appearfied and realized in it for that place ance we are convinced it was; but and time, while their co-existence and men who will not use the means which necessary reciprocal action makes an nature provided them, by supplying entire empirical realization of any one rules to mediate between the particuimpossible ; for the perfect fulfilment lar and universal—who try to make of an independent law is at once a ne- watches by the laws of motion, and gation of the unity of the supreme to buy a horse according to the eternal law. If a political course of conduct, principles of justice, must expect to or an individual rule of life, fails to make errors in their subsumptions of correspond in itself to our ideal of the facts so very small, to classes so very state or of personal character, it may large, and must bear with the increnevertheless be required of us, if it dulity of the world, if it fails to pertends to the practice of some general ceive the attempt to subsume them. rule which experience has suggested We suspect Erhard neither of peas tending to the production of the culiar selfishness, nor of want of filial ideal of a still higher law; not that affection; but we may compare his one can contradict the other, but that prolix discussions on his infantine our perception of one may be enlight. musical propensities, with his account ened by our clearer perception of the of the death of his mother:-“ After other. The great philosopher whom long indisposition, I found her one we have just quoted, fell into the error morning with an eruption on her head of seeking unity short of universality and face like St Anthony's fire, in In his Geschlossener Handelstaat, bed, without recollection, and my (close-trading state,) he lays down the efforts to recall it were vain-she died conditions under which the economic the same day." Now for the son's relations of a state may be subordina- reflections :-“ I have never seen a ted to perfect legislation. The perfect patient in the same state, and theregovernment must have absolute power, fore I cannot say whether I took the and dealings with foreigners must be right steps or not. I tried leeches, partially independent; therefore, let blisters," &c. all dealings with foreigners be prohibited, except to the government itself

“ Physician art thou ? one all eyes? for the supply of necessary imports to

Philosopher ? a fingering slave

One who would peep and botanize its subjects. The deduction is irrefragable, but the major of the implied

Upon his mother's grave ? syllogism, the hypothetical assertion Yes, and anatomize, too, if the inteof the existence of a perfect govern. rests of science required it: yet was ment in a portion of the earth, is false. Erhard no fingering slave. The existence of neighbours is the We have the authority of his biogralimit of its power, and therefore of its pher, and the fact of his reputation, in perfection. The problem of the prac- favour of the belief that his profestical reason is the perfect subordina- sional talents and attainments were tion of all existence to law, as the aim considerable ; yet he met with diffiof the speculative reason is to see the culties in passing the examinations,coincidence of formal law with reality. first for his Doctor's degree at Altorf, Formal law is but a shadow, to repre- and afterwards for admission to pracsent its realization to the mind, and tice at Berlin. At the latter place, those who leap past the difficulties and the board required him to re-write the obstacles of the universe which is to anatomical essay which he had delibe subjected to it, or select a portion vered to them, “because much im. to take the place of the whole, have portant and necessary matter belongonly avoided the task of which they ing to the subject is not brought formight have performed a part, by mis- ward ; much is said that is untrue, and, taking its nature and meaning. They on the other hand, many things ir. reject the discrepancies which they are relevant to the essay are entered into.” called upon to harmonize. “ Solitu- How he was likely to receive this redinem faciunt, pacem appellant.". proof, we may judge from his modest

The haste to realize laws which remarks on a similar rebuke from the Fichte displayed in political economy, Doctors at Altorf. I can only," he Erhard carried into life; and the re- says, "attribute to my melancholy state of mind at the time, which pre- monarchy may satisfy all the wants vented me from reflecting on circum- of the moral man; but we have given stances calmly, the fact, that I derived sufficient proofs of his total want of less instruction from my examination, that common sense, accompanied with than from my dispute with my grand- latent humour, which is happily to mother about the ghosts; and that it Englishmen a national Socratic dai was only lately" (query, at the Berlin póvrov, cui plerumque parent, nunquam examination ?) " that I learned that, as impellenti sæpe revocanti. He tells us, superstition is not to be overcome by indeed, that his unpopularity at Naexperience, so the vanity of learning remberg originated in the exercise of is not to be defeated by sound criti- a certain humorous disposition which cism of the pretended experience he derived from his father, and we which it brings forward.”

will not deny him the faculty, though We wish some divine had drawn a we should scarcely have discovered similar rebuke upon himself, by cri- its existence. Still less would we say ticising, as in the Eigendünkel der that his countrymen in general are Gelehrsamkeit he might perhaps have without humour. We know that some been tempted to do, a plan which he of their writers possess it in a high deformed in conjunction with Goeschen, gree; but in their common literature, a bookseller, during a pedestrian jour- it rather concerns itself with the opney from Jena to Würzburg, “ of a positions of custom and reason, than translation of the Bible as a popular with those of caprice or ignorance book ( Toilettenbuch). The translation and custom, so that they direct the was divided between us, and we saw laugh against the rule which violates in the spirit the fruits of this our un- a principle, and we against the indidertaking to communicate this history vidual who, in pursuit of a supposed more widely to mankind_fruits which principle, breaks through the rule. this book produces not so much through After all, men who are not afraid of the narrations, as through the manner being laughed at, and have no tribu. of narration, and the comprehensive nal of humoristic conscience within representation of all situations into themselves, are most likely to possess which man, as a being of nature, must that self-confidence, which is the first, come.” We had thought that “this second, and third requisite for success book" had been translated into some in life. We have seen the prosperous two hundred languages, and, amongst course which Erhard's fortunes took others, into the mother tongue of one in the latter half of his life, and it is Martin Luther. We had even sup- but fair to show, in the words of his posed the manner of narration had biographer, how he deserved and how been tolerably preserved, and that it he bore them. was the “ toilettenbuch" of every toi. “ On his personal character, one let table from Berlin to the Sandwich voice prevails from all who knew him. Islands ; but in this new and wonder- As the foundation of all his views, of working publication, we recognise his exertion and action, we must point one remarkable element;—one of the out the strictest morality, to which he translators certainly, and the other referred every thing. All his thoughts probably, was profoundly ignorant of and his conduct continued, under all the original. Erhard, who knew on- circumstances, to be devoted, in the ly Latin enough to read modern works first instance, to truth and justice, of science, had little or no Greek; and combined with the purest philanof Hebrew, he had, forall that appears, thropy, which he felt and displayed never so much as heard. What of kindly and disinterestedly, but without that? “ The road was made by these any hypocritical affectation, for all his thoughts as pleasant as a road to brethren-thousands of whom hoeverlasting blessedness. Nothing, in- noured in him not only the skilful deed, has come of the proposal, but physician, but also the tried friend it was sufficiently rewarded by the and counsellor, the generous benefacpleasure it gave us at the time." tor. His great understanding, bis

We might quote other instances of inexhaustible learning, his kindly, oddity ; such as his complaining by unpretending, and yet one might say, letter to Washington of the pseudo- proud character, made his society as colonel who cheated him, or the treat- instructive as it was attractive." ise which he, a republican from in- And so, with much regard and refancy, wrote to prove that absolute spect, we bid him farewell.

THE VISION OF CALIGULA.

A FRAGMENT.

BY B. SIMMONS.

" Incitabatur insomnia maxime ; neque enim plus quam tribus nocturnis horis quiescebat; ac non his quidem placida quiete, sed pavida miris rerum imaginibus ; ut qui, inter cæteras, PELAGI QUANDAM SPECIEM colloquentem secum videre visus sit."

SUETONIUS, in Vit. Calig.

I.

The night is over Rome_deep night intense-
Cloudlessly blue in its magnificence;
There is no moon, but holy starlight there
Shoots its soft lustre through the lucid air ;
The trophied shrines along old Tiber's stream
Fling their dim shadows with a solemn gleam;
While, in its far supremacy above,
Like dawn's white glimmer, towers the Fane of Jove.*

II.

The city's roar hath died, and far away
Died the gay discords of the jocund day;
Long hours ago the proud Theatre's yell
Sank fiercely glad as the last fencer fell ;
And silent long, through every echoing path,
Lie the broad Forum and the mighty Bath;
Even Love, the watchful, shrouds his voiceless lute
In precincts now where all but Power is mute.

III.

Bright through yon groves of plane and cedar shine
The lamps' gold radiance from the Palatine ;
Now lost, now lambent, as their circling ward,
The mail'd Pretorians pace, in ceaseless guard-
Theirs the high charge to keep unbroken still
The slumbering echoes of that haughty hill ;
For, worse than treason's step or traitor's eye,
Who breaks the silence with a sound must die
A silence sterner than the stillness spread
In Mizraïm deserts round her sceptred dead.

IV.

There, in its far immensity outrollid,
The Cæsars' Palace lifts its domes of gold,
Or nobly stretches through the olive shades,
In marble coolness, its superb arcades ;
Or rears its soaring porticoes, that throw
A lustrous gloom on the tall groves below,
And porphyry founts, whose graceful waters gush
With clearer tinkle through the azure hush ;

*“ In the midst, to crown the pyramid formed by such an assemblage of majestic edifices, rose the shrine of the Guardian of the Empire—the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, on a hundred steps, supported by a hundred pillars, adorned with all the refinements of art, and blazing with the plunder of the world.”-Eustace.

† The Imperial residence was fixed by Augustus on the Palatine Hill. It was here, too, that the Aurea Domus, the golden house of Nero, stood, which was afterwards destroyed by the order of Vespasian, as too sumptuous even for a Roman Emperor.

White shine the pillar'd terraces, and long
Bright hosts of gods in many a sculptured throng,
Whose breathless life, in the calm starlight hours,
Casts a chill loveliness upon the flowers-
The thousand-banded flowers that, wide and far,
From the deep beauty of bell, cup, and star,
Their fragrance fling to heaven, though not an air
To kiss the lily's languid lips is there-
Even the sweet rose, that leans its tender cheek

Against yon shaft of rare Synnada's stone,
Seems sculptured from the marble's purple streak,

So deep night's dread solemnity is thrown.

V.
Say, to what Spirit's gentlest sway is given
This hour delicious 'neath the lull of heaven?
Steal its pure influences down to steep
The revel-wearied in the bath of sleep-
To waft adoring sounds to beauty's pillow,
And stir with song her bosom's dazzling billow-
Or breathe deep quiet through the lonely room
When the pale sophist, in his reasoning gloom,
Or dreaming lyrist-ah, less happy sagel-
Bends thoughtful o'er the lamp-illumined page?
Heed not, but hasten where the starlight falls,
And burns in gold on yon refulgent walls ;
Glance through the Augustan chambers-even there

Where the still myrtles look like spectres in-
And see black Night slip from their wolfish lair

On murderous Power the dogs of Hell and Sin.

VI.

Far down the radiant galleries He came,
Where the soft cresset's duskly-curtain'd flame
Lent the voluptuous loneliness an air,
As Death and Pomp for mastery struggled there.
Onwards he came, and the tall Thracian slave,
That kept the portals with unsheathed glaive,
Stiffen'd with horror, till his glassy eye
That dared not look, froze in perplexity.
He came-the Cæsar dread - Earth's awful lord-
The all-tremendous One, whose whisper'd word
Fill’d, like pervading Nature, land and flood; †
And, if but syllabled in wrathful mood,
Had the swift lightning's soundless power to pierce,
Rending and blasting, through the universe !

VII.

Breathe there no splendours from that august brow?
Forth from his presence does no halo glow?

Throng not around glad parasites to bask
In the stray smile their servile faces ask ?

* The most precious marble of the Romans was that brought from Synnada ; it was of a white colour, tinged with a delicate purple.

+ The arbitrary power of the emperors was as complete as it was despotic. For the victim who incurred their displeasure, "to remain," says Gibbon, “was fatal, and it was impossible to fly; he was encompassed by a vast extent of sea and land, which he could never hope to traverse without being discovered, seized, and restored to his irritated master.” “ Wherever you are,” said Cicero to the exiled Marcellus,“ remember that you are equally within the power of the conqueror."

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