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23. And the governor said, "Why? "what evil hath he done?" But they cried out the more, saying, "Let him be crucified."
24. When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, "I "am innocent of the blood of "this just person: see ye to it" 26. Then answered all the people, and said, "His (6) blood be on "us, and on our children."
26. Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged (c) Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.
27. Then the soldiers of the go. vernor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers.
28. And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe.
29. And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" 30. And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head. 31. And after
that they had mocked him, they took the robe off' from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him. 32. And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. 33. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say "A place of a skull," 34. they gave him (rf) vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof\ he would not drink. 35. And they crucified him, and parted (e) his garments, casting lots; that (g) it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the (/*) prophet "They parted my "garments among them, and "upon my vesture did they cast "lots." 36. And sitting down they watched him there; 37. and set up over his head his accusation written, THIS (i) IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 38. Then were there two thieves crucified with him; one on the right hand, and another on the left 39. And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, 40. and saying, "Thou "that (it) destroyest the temple,
(b) v. 25. "His blood be on us, and on "our children." And in the destruction of Jerusalem, and in the dispersed state of the Jews from that time to the present, was there no fulfilment of this imprecation? Has it not been in operation down to the present day? Have not the Jews been outcasts in all nations, to this very time?
(c) v. 26. " Scourged Jesus." And so verified Isaiah 1. 6. (post, 113.) "I gave "my back to the smiters."
(d) v. 34. " Vinegar mingled with gall." It has been supposed that this was a stupifying mixture to deaden the sense of pain, but that our Saviour refused it, because he would not shrink from the ordinary sufferings of crucifixion: but this is conjecture.
(e) v. 35. " Parted, &c." For a more full account of this transaction, see post, — John xix. 23. 24.
(g) "That it might be," i. e. "so that "it was." They had no intention of fulfilling the prediction. This, therefore, is a strong instance of stating as the object what was only the consequence. See ante, 49. note on Matt. ii. 15.
(h) " The prophet," i. e. " the writer of "Ps. xxii." The passage there (ti. 17, 18.) is, " They pierced my hands and my feet; "I may tell all my bones; they stand star"ing and looking upon me; they part my "garments among them, and cast lots "upon my vesture."
(i) v. 37. "This, &c." In derision!
(*) v. 40. "That destroyest, &c." Ac
"and buildest it in three days, "save thyself. If thou be the "Son of God, come down from "the cross." 41. Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, 42. "He saved others, himself "he cannot save. If he be the "King of Israel, let him now "come down from the cross, and "we will believe him. 43. He "(/) trusted in God; let him "deliver him now, if he will have "him: for he said, 'I am the "Son of God.'" 44. The (m) thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth. 45. Now from the sixth («) hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth (n)
cording to John ii. 19. when the Jews asked of our Saviour a sign, he answered and said unto them. " Destroy this temple, "and in three days I will raise it up." But he spake of the temple of his body; and it is to this saying they here referred. St. Matthew and St. Mark mention it as one of the grounds of accusation against our Saviour, Matt. xxvi. 61. Markxiv. 58. post, 112.
(/) t?. 43. "He trusted, &c." How exactly does this correspond with the prophetic declaration in Ps. xxii. 7, 8.? "All "they that see me, laugh me to scorn: '* they shoot out their lips, and shake their « heads, saying, 'He trusted in God that "he would deliver him; let him deliver "him, if he will have him.'"
(m) v. 44. "The thieves." According to Luke xxiii. 40. one of them rebuked the other for reviling him; this is therefore either an affirmation as to the two, though only true as to one; or both might at Jirtt revile, and one might be struck with some part of our Saviour's conduct, and then rebuke his companion.
(is) V. 45. " Sixth and ninth hour," i. e. "twelve at noon, and three in the after"noon; adopting the Roman computation.
(o) v. 46. " My God, &c." The beginning of Ps. xxii.— Our Saviour might intend to draw to their consideration how this
hour. 46. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is to say, "My "God (o), my God, why hast "thou forsaken me?" 47. Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, "This man "calleth for Elias." 48. And straightway one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with (p) vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. 49. The rest said, "Let be, let us see "whether (q) Elias will come to "save him." 50. Jesus, when he had (r) cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. 51. And, behold, the (s) veil of the temple was rent in twain from
Psalm was fulfilling in what he suffered. See the notes on v. 35. 43.
(p) v. 48. "Vinegar." In Ps. lxix. 22. (which probably referred prophetically to the Messiah,) it is said, "they gave me "gall to eat, and when I was thirsty, they "gave me vinegar to drink."
(a) v. 49. "Whether Elias, &c." This probably was said with a sneer; the Jews expected from the prophecy in Mai. iv. 5. that Elijah was to come in person before the Messiah appeared: they did not understand that John the Baptist, by coming in the spirit and power of Elijah, had fulfilled that prediction. The prophecy is, "Behold I send you Elijah the prophet "before the coming of the great and "dreadful day of the Lord: and he shall "turn the heart of the fathers to the chil"dren, and the heart of the children to the "fathers, lest I come and smite the earth "with a curse." Ante, 37. note on Johni. 21.
(r) v. 50. "Cried, &c." St. Luke has recorded what he said: "Father, into thy "hands I commend ray spirit."
(*) v. 51. " The veil, &c." The veil separated the holy place from the holy of holies; the latter was considered a type of heaven, into which none but the high priest could enter, and that only once a year. Abp. Kidder considers this rending
the top (t) to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; 52. and the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept, 53. arose, and came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. 54. Now when the centurion, and they that were with him watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, "Truly (u) "this was the Son of God."
it in twain, as importing that now, through Christ, the Holy of Holies, that is, the kingdom of heaven, is laid open, not to the high priest only, but to all people, and not once in a year only, but at all times. Kidd. 333. 335. See an admirable reading upon this chapter, 2 Porteus's Lectures, 266. Lecture 22.
(t) " From the top, &c." So that it was not the effect of the earthquake: that would have rent it from the bottom upwards, not from the top downwards: but this, perhaps, is hypercritical. Kidd. 333. 335.
(u) v. 5*. "Truly, &c." The Centurion must have known what his accusation was, viz. "that he claimed to be the Son of God," and this was an exclamation, that his claim was just. It was drawn from the Roman soldier, an impartial spectator, not only by the earthquake, and other circumstances, but by the conduct of our Saviour whilst upon the cross, and by his last words, commending his spirit into the hands of God. Saint Mark xv. 39. says, when the centurion saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, "truly, &c." attributing his exclamation to that act of resignation and devotion. The celebrated Rousseau, after contrasting the life and death of our Saviour with those of Socrates, concludes the comparison with this sentence: " Yes, if the life "and death of Socrates are those of a sage, "the life and death of Jesus are those of a "God." 2 Port. Lect. 298.
(x) A prophetic dialogue between the Messiah and the Israelites, looking forward to a time of extraordinary vengeauce upon his enemies, and of redemption and
Monday before Easter.
Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah(#)? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength ? (s) " I "that speak in righteousness, "mighty to save." 2. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the wine-fat? 3. " I "have trodden the wine-press "alone; and of the people there
deliverance to his faithful servants; perhaps the time of the destruction of Jerusalem. In the 1st and 2d verses the questions are put, Who is making the desolation, and what is the cause? The answers are at the end of verse 1. and ia the 3rd, 1th, 5th, and 6th verses. The rest of the chapter is in the mouth of the people; it calls to mind what God had in former times done for the Israelites, and prays anxiously for deliverance.
(y) v. 1. "Bosrah," "the chief city of Edom." Bosrah is supposed to have had its name from the number of wine-presses. Edom and Bosrah are probably named, as being often at war with the Israelites, and are therefore put for any enemies. In Isaiah xxxiv. 6. (where the prophet is perhaps referring to the same period as here,) he names the same place: "The Lord "hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great "slaughter in the land of Idumea," (i. e. Edom!)
(z) "I," i. e. (probably) "the Messiah, "the righteous Saviour." In Rev. xix. 11. 13. 15, 16. is a description of our Saviour, strongly corresponding with this chapter: "I saw heaven opened, and be"hold a white horse: and he that sat upon "him was called faithful and true, and in "righteousness he doth judge and make "war: he was clothed with a vesture "dipped in blood, and his name is called "' the Word of God:' and out of his "mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it "he should smite the nations : and he shall "rule them with a rod of iron: and he "treadeth the tuine-press of the fierceness "and wrath of Almighty God."
for I (a) mine anger,
"was none with me "will tread them in "and trample them in my fury; "and their blood shall be sprinkled "upon my garments, and I will "stain all my raiment 4. For the "day of vengeance is in mine "heart, and the year of my re"deemed is come. 5. And I "looked, and there was none to "(6) help; and I wondered that "there was none to uphold: there"fore mine own arm brought sal"vation unto me; and my fury, "it upheld me. 6. And I will ** tread down the people in mine "anger, and make them drunk in "my fury, and I will bring down "their strength to the earth." 7. I will mention the lovingkindness of the (c) Lord, and the praises of the (c) Lord, according to all that the (c) Lord hath bestowed on U3, and the great goodness toward the house of Israel, which he hath bestowed on them according to his mercies, and according to the multitude of his loving-kindnesses. 8. For he (d)
said, "Surely they are my people, "children that will not lie:" so he was their Saviour. 9. In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the (e) angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old. 10. But they (g) rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them. 11. Then he remembered the days of old, Moses and his people, saying, "Where "(A) is he that brought them up "out of the sea with the shepherd "of his flock? Where is he that "put his holy Spirit within him? "12. that led them by the right "hand of Moses with his glorious "arm, dividing the water before "them, to make himself an ever"lasting name? 13. that led them "through the deep, as an horse "in the wilderness, that they "should not stumble?" 14. As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the (c) Lord caused
(<z) v. 3. "Will tread." Should not this and the other verbs be in the past tense?
(b) v. 5. "None to help," i. e. (perhaps) "no chance of deliverance by human "means."
(c) v. 7. 14. 16,17. "The Lord," in the Hebrew "Jehovah," in the Greek Kifyjo*. See ante, 29. note (m).
(d) v. 8. "He said," i. e. "there was a "time when he so said; when he had so "great a kindness towards them."
(*) v. 9. "The angel of his presence." A strong expression, to signify the peculiar protection he afforded them; as if an angel of especial rank attended to their preservation. In Matt, xviii. 9. 10. where our Saviour is speaking of the consideration God has of little children, he assigns as a reason why they should not be despised, "that in heaven their angels do always
"behold the face of my Father which is "in heaven." So Ps. xxxiv. 7. "the angel "of the Lord," is said to tarry round about them that fear him, and to deliver them.
(g) v. 10. "Rebelled, &c." See Ps. lxxviii. and cvi. an account of many of their rebellions and punishments, and of God's ultimate forbearance; when, according to Ps. lxxviii. 39. "many a time turned •' he his wrath away, and would not suffer "his whole displeasure to arise."
(h) «. 11. "Where is he, &c." These, to the end of v. 13. if not of v. 14. are put as the words of Moses and the people; as their expostulation with God. In Exod. xxxii. 11 to 13. and Numb. xiv. 13 to 19. there is a similar expostulation from Moses, to induce God to spare the people. It is often stated as a reason for God's forgive
him to rest; so didst thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name. 15. Look down from heaven, and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory: Where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy bowels and of thy mercies toward me? are they restrained? 16. Doubtless thou art our Father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer; thy name is from everlasting. 17. O Lord, why hast thouinade us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear? Return for thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine inheritance. 18. The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little
while: our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary. 19. We are thine: thou never barest rule over them; they were not called by thy name.
The Gospel. Mark xiv. 1.
After two days was the feast of the (i) passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death. 2. But they said, "Not on the feast-day, lest there "be an uproar of the people." 3. And being in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a (£) woman having an alabaster-box of ointment of spikenard, very pre
ness to the Israelites, or as a ground for imploring it, that his name should not be polluted among the heathen, and that the tieathen should not have the power of saying, "where is now their God." See Ezek. xx. 9. 14. 22. and Ps. lxxix. 10. and ante, 85. Joel ii. 17.
(i) v.l. "The passover." The first of the three great feasts at each of which every male was to appear before the Lord at the place which he should choose. (See Deut. xvi. 1.16.) Jews, therefore, from all parts of the earth, would be at Jerusalem at the time of our Saviour's apprehension and crucifixion. It is remarkable too, that it was at the second of these feasts, the feast of weeks, that the gift of tongues, the power of speaking languages they had never learned, was conferred upon the apostles. The same persons, therefore, who had witnessed the crucifixion, would be witnesses of the gift of tongues, and would naturally carry an account of both events to the countries from which they came. The passover was instituted to commemorate the preservation of their first-born, when all the first-born of the Egyptians were destroyed; and the feast of unleavened bread, which accompanied it, was to commemorate their deliverance from the land of Egypt. At the institution of the passover, each family was
directed to take a male lamb, without blemish, and to kill, dress, and eat it; and they were to take of the blood, and strike it on the side posts and the upper door posts of their houses, and God promised, that "when he passed through the "land, to destroy the first-born of the "Egyptians, he would pass over the houses "of the children of Israel." See Exod. xii. 3 to 28. One of the directions as to the Iamb was, that they should not break a bone thereof." (See Exod. xii. 46. — Numb. ix. 12.) The paschal lamb is considered a type of our Saviour; he was crucified at the time prescribed for killing the paschal lamb, and as the blood of the paschal lamb protected the Israelites from temporal death, so does the blood of Christ protect all real Christians from death eternal. The paschal lamb was to be killed on the fourteenth day of the first month, in the evening. Exod. xii. 2. 6.— Numb. ix. 1. S.—Levit. xxiii. 5. 6.
(k) v. 3. " A woman." Either Mary, the sister of Lazarus, who lived at Bethany, and is referred to John xi. 2. as "that "Mary, which anointed the Lord withoint"ment," (and see John xii. 3.) or Mary Magdalen. Grotius Pole, and Dr. Townson, (1 Towns.73.) think it was the former; Dr. Hales the latter. 2 Hales, 24!.