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26 But the whole three Persons are co-eternal together: and (m) co-equal.

27 So that in all things, as is aforesaid: the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshipped.

28 He therefore that will be saved: must thus think of the Trinity.

29 Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation: that he also believe rightly the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

30 For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess: that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man;

31 God, of the Substance of the Father, begotten before (n)

"Out great God and Saviour Jesus Christ:' "whom therefore Paul calls great, call not •■ thou small." The original is in these

words: " pipuli ay Xtyt /xtyan xai piy.pov itcoy, u 'fLtrslsr IK EXXigyiir/xw. 'El yap u.np- ft-Mj u 0 it*f, ifstvit7au newXof Xiyay n3oa-8«xo/«vM "Tt)» fLMiapia» tXsriSa Ti)( fisfr,; piydka -jts "xai c-ulrjptf -^fuiy 'Iij<r8 Xpieh. t> & Ilaiv.aj "xsXei fieyar dcsv, av fuif xaXti /itxpoy. Sa

« rale's ed. vol. 6. p. 962." Our Saviour so plainly ascribes a superiority to the Father, John x. 29. "My Father is greater than "all:" and John xiv. 28. " My Father is "greater than I." (See also John xx. 17.: John v. 19. 30.: 1 Cor.xv. 27, 28.: and Eph. iv.) that nothing inconsistent with those texts could here have been intended. Dr. Waterland considers the Son as subordinate to the Father, but not inferior or unequal in nature. Waterland's Preface to Lady Mover's Sermons, xvii. So does Dr. Hales, 2 Hales on Trinity,

36* And see Pearson, 322. The truth

may be, that there is such sameness or equality of nature, with such subordination, as in the case of mortal sons and fathers. But let it not be forgotten, that this is the conjecture of man as to the nature of God. See Bp. Burgess's Easter Catechism, part 3. cap. 2. sect. 4.

(m) c.26. "co-equal." Our Saviour sap, (John x. 15.) " As the Father knowM eth me, even so know I the Father:" (John xiv. 9, 10, 11.) "He that hath "seen me hath seen the Father: I am "in the Father, and the Father in me:" (John xvi. 15.) "All things that the "Father hath are mine:" and (John x. 30.) "I and my Father are one." According to Philipp. ii. 6. he "thought it not rob"bery to be equal with God:" and he is called, (2 Cor. iv. 4.) " the image of God;" (Coloss. i. 15.) "the image of the in"visible God;" and (Hebr. i. 3.) "the "brightness of his glory, and the express "image of his person." And the co

equality both of Son and Holy Ghost may be inferred from our Saviour's command to his Apostles, Matt, xxviii. 19. to baptise " in the name of the Father, the Son, "and Holy Ghost."

(n) v.Sl. "before the worlds." This pre-existence of the Son is repeatedly noticed in St. John and in the Epistles. St. John says, (John i. 1. to 3.) "In the "beginning was the Word: the same "was in the beginning with God: all "things were made by nim, and without "him was not any thing made that was "made:" and in verse 14. he explains that by " the word," he means our Saviour Jesus Christ. In John iii. 13. our Saviour says, "No man hath ascended up to heaven, "but he that came down from heaven, even "the son of man." In John vi. 33. 35. 38. he says, "The bread of life is he which "cometh down from heaven, and giveth "life unto the world: I am the bread of "life, I came down from heaven." So John vi. 51. " I am the living bread, which "came down from heaven? Again, John vi. 62. " What and if ye shall see the son of "man ascending where he was before." So John viii. 42. "I proceeded forth and came "from God." And John viii. 58. " Before "Abraham was, I am." Again, John xvi. 27, 28. he says, " I came forth from the Fa"ther, and am come into the world: again, "I leave the world, and go to the Father." In John xvii. 5. he thus addresses the Father, " O Father, glorify me with thine "own self, with the glory which I had "with thee before the world was:" and John xvii. 24. "Father, thou lovedst me "before the foundation of the world? In 1 Cor. xv. 47. St. Paul says, " The second "man (i.e. Christ) is the Lord from heaven.'' In Eph. iii. 9. he speaks of God, "who "created all things by Jesus Christ." In Col. i. 15, 16, 17. it is said, "By him "(i. e. Christ) were all things created that "are in heaven, and that are in earth: all

the worlds: and Man, of the (o) Substance of his Mother, born in the world;

32 Perfect (p) God, and Perfect Man: of a reasonable soul, and human flesh subsisting;

33 Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead: and inferior to the Father, as touching his Manhood.

34 Who although he be God and Man: yet he is not (q) two, but one Christ;

35 One; not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh: but by taking of the Manhood into God;

36 One altogether; not by confusion of Substance: but by unity of Person.

37 For as the reasonable soul

and flesh is one man: so God and Man is one Christ;

38 Who suffered for our salvation: descended into hell, rose again the third day from the dead;

39 He ascended into heaven; he sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God Almighty: from whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

40 At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies; and shall give account for their own works.

41 And they that have done good, shall go into life everlasting: and they that have done evil, into everlasting fire.

42 This is the Catholic Faith: which except a man believe faithfully, he (r) cannot be saved.

"things were created by him, and for him: "and he is before all things, and by him all "things subsist." Again, in Hebr. i. 2. it is said, that "by himGod made the worlds." And Hebr. i. 8. 10. "Unto the Son he "saith, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast "laid the foundation of the earth ; and the "heavens are the works of thine hands."

(o) " Man, of the substance of his "mother." A sect, called " The Apolli"narians," pretended that Christ either had no human body, or that he brought it from heaven, and took it not of the Virgin Mary: And it was in answer to this heresy, that he is here described as "man of the substance of his mother." Anon, on this Creed, ed. 1735, p. 50.

M " Perfect God." A sect, called "The Arians," considered Christ as a created God : God in office only, not in nature: an imperfect God. It is in answer to them, therefore, that he is here described as " perfect God." Anon. 50.

(q) " Not two." The Apollinarians urged, because of the two natures of Christ, that the Church asserted two Christs, a divine Christ as to one nature, and a human Christ as to the other: this denies that conclusion. Anon. 51.

(r) "Cannot be saved." According to Mark xvi. 16. "He that believeth, and is "baptized, shall be saved: but he that

"believeth not, shall be damned." So John iii. 18. " He that believeth on him "(i. e. Jesus Christ) is not condemned: "but he that believeth not, is condemned "already, because he hath not believed "in the name of the only begotten Son "of God." The prelates, who in 1689 were commissioned to review and correct the Liturgy, of whom Abp. Tillotson was one, prepared a Rubric, in which one Part was, that the Articles of this Creed "ought to be received and believed, as "being agreeable to the Holy Scriptures," but that "the condemning clauses were "to be understood as relating to those "only who obstinately denied the sub"stance of the Christian Faith. Anon. "54,55." Dr.Waterland says, " he inclines "to the moderate opinion of those who "think the author of this Creed does not "here lay the stress upon every little "nicety of explication before given, but "upon the main doctrine of a co-equal "and co-eternal Trinity. Wat. Crit. Hist. "c. 10." Bp. Tomline says, "Great objec"tions have been made to the clauses "which denounce eternal damnation "against those who do not believe the "Faith, as here stated: and it certainly is "to be lamented, that assertions of so "peremptory a nature, unexplained and "unqualified, should have been used in

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son: and to the Holy Ghost;

As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be: world without end. Amen.

"any human composition. It is indeed "impossible to admit the divine authority "of the New Testament, and doubt the "necessity of faith in general: and surely "the faith thus required, must include the ■• leading and characteristic doctrines of "the Christian Religion: and though the "gospel has not particularly enumerated "these particular doctrines, none seem to "have a stronger claim to be so considered "than those which relate to the Three ■* Persons in whose name we are com"manded to be baptised, to the incarn'• ation of Christ, and to a future judg"ment. These are the doctrines of the "Athanasian Creed: and therefore it "would follow, that a belief in the doc"trim's of the Athanasian Creed is essen"tial to salvation." He adds however afterwards, "but since the gospel no "where informs us, what degree of error "will exclude from eternal happiness, I "am ready to acknowledge, that in my '• judgment, notwithstanding the authority "of former times, our Church would have "acted more wisely, and more consistently '• with its general principles of mildness "and toleration, if it had not adopted the "damnatory clauses of the Athanasian "Creed. Though I firmly believe that "the doctrines of this Creed are all foundu ed in Scripture, I cannot but conceive * it to be both unnecessary and presump"toous to say, that " except every one "do keep them whole and undefiled, with"out doubt he shall perish everlastingly. 2 Bp. Tomline's Theology, 219 to 222."

Mr. Wheatley, in his observations on this creed, says, " We are not required, by the "words of this creed, to believe the whole "on pain of damnation: for all that is re"quired of us, as necessary to salvation, is, "that before all things voe hold the catholic "foith: and the catholic faith, by the 3d "and 4th verses, is explained to be this, "that vie worship one God in Trinity, and "Trinity in Unity; neither confounding "the persons, nor dividing the substance. "Tin's therefore is declared necessary to "be believed; but all that follows, to the "26th verse, is only brought as proof "and illustration, and therefore requires "our assent no more than a sermon does, "which is made to prove or illustrate a "text." He notices also, that it was a primitive custom, after a confession of the orthodox faith, to pass an anathema or curse against all who denied it. The damnatory clauses therefore may be considered as the denuntiation of the writer, or as his opinion only; and it does not follow, because the creed is introduced into our liturgy, that our church takes upon itself to pass this denuntiation, or even to intimate its opinion, that the belief of every particular here stated is indispensable. It probably adopted this creed for its general merit in illustrating these doctrines, and to shew how they were understood in early times; and then it would not omit the damnatory clauses, because that would have mutilated the creed.

THE LITANY,

OR

GENERAL SUPPLICATION,

TO BE SUNG OR SAID AFTER MORNING PRAYER,

UPON SUNDAYS, WEDNESDAYS, AND FRIDAYS, AND AT OTHER TIMES, WHEN IT SHALL BE COMMANDED BY THE ORDINARY.

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of heaven: miserable

O God the Father have mercy upon sinners.

O God the Father of heaven: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Son, Redeemer of the world: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Son, Redeemer of the 'world: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three Persons and one God: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three Persons and one God: have mercy upon us miserable sinners.

Remember not, Lord, our offences, nor the offences of our forefathers; neither take thou vengeance of our sins: Spare us, good Lord, spare thy people, whom thou hast redeemed with thy most pre

cious blood, and be not angry with us for ever.

Spare us, good Lord. From all evil and mischief; from sin, from the crafts and assaults of the devil; from thy wrath, and from everlasting damnation,

Good Lord, deliver us.

From all blindness of heart; from pride, vain glory, and hypocrisy; from envy, hatred, and malice, and all uncharitableness, Good Lord, deliver us.

From fornication, and all other deadly sin; and from all the deceits of the world, the flesh, and the devil,

Good Lord, deliver us.

From lightning and tempest; from plague, pestilence, and famine; from battle and murder, and from sudden death, Good Lord, deliver us.

From all sedition, privy conspiracy, and rebellion; from all false doctrine, heresy, and schism; from hardness of heart, and contempt of thy Word and Commandment,

Good Lord, deliver us.

By the mystery of thy holy Incarnation; by thy holy Nativity and Circumcision; by thy Baptism, Fasting, and Temptation, Good Lord, deliver us.

By thine Agony and bloody Sweat (a); by thy Cross and Passion; by thy precious Death and Burial; by thy glorious Resurrection and Ascension; and by the coming of the Holy Ghost, Good Lord, deliver us.

In all time of our tribulation; in all time of our wealth; in the hour of death, and in the day of judgement,

Good Jjord, deliver us.

We sinners do beseech thee to hear us, O Lord God; and that it may please thee to rule and govern tny holy Church universal in the right way;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to keep and strengthen in the true worshipping of thee, in righteousness and holiness of life thy servant GEORGE, our most gracious King and Governor;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to rule his heart in thy faith, fear, and love; and that he may evermore have affiance in thee, and ever seek thy honour and glory;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to be his defender and. keeper, giving him the victory over all his enemies;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

(a) " Agony and bloody sweat." This was just before he was betrayed, when he had been praying to God to remove that cup from him; and, "being in an "agony, he prayed more earnestly, and

That it may please thee to bless and preserve all the Royal Family;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to illuminate all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, with true knowledge and understanding of thy Word; and that both by their preaching and living they may set it forth, and shew it accordingly;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to endue the Lords of the Council, and all the Nobility, with grace, wisdom, and understanding;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to bless and keep the Magistrates; giving them grace to execute justice, and to maintain truth;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to bless and keep all thy people;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to give to all nations, unity, peace, and concord;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to give us an heart to love and dread thee, and diligently to live after thy commandments;

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord.

That it may please thee to give to all thy people increase of grace,

"his sweat was as it were great drops of "blood falling to the ground." Luke xxii. 44. See post, — note on Luke xxii. 44.

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