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"kingdom of God." 4. Nicodemus saith unto him, "How can "a man be born when he is old? "can he enter the second time "into his mother's womb, and be "born?" 5. Jesus answered, "Verily, verily, I say unto thee, "Except a man be born of water "and of the Spirit, he cannot "enter into the kingdom of God. "6. That which is born of the flesh "(/) is flesh; and that which is "born of the Spirit is (t) spirit. "7. Marvel not that I said unto "thee, "Ye must be born (u) "again." 8. The (x) wind {y)

««the lusts thereof." In Gal. iii. 27. he reminds them, that "as many of them as "had been baptized into Christ, had put "on Christ." And Gal. vi. 15. he says, "In Christ Jesus neither circumcision "availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, "but a new creature" And 2 Cor. v. 17. "If any man be in Christ, "he is a new "creature." So in the Old Testament, Ezek. xi. 19. " I will give them one heart, "and I will put a new spirit within you: "and I will take the stony heart out of "their flesh, and will give them a heart "of flesh.'' And, Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26. «' I "will sprinkle clean water upon you, and "you shall be clean, &c. a new heart also "will I give you, and a new spirit will I "put within you." So, Ps. li. 10. "Make "rae a clean heart, O God, and renew a "right spirit within me." Persons admitted proselytes into the Jewish church were considered as putting off all their former relations, so that they who were before of kin to them were no longer to be considered so, and they were looked upon as " new born."

(t) v. 6. "Is flesh," i. e. "is carnally "disposed." "Is spirit," i. e. " is spirit"natty disposed.*' So Gal. v. 17. "The "flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the "spirit against the flesh." And Rom. viii. 5. "They that are after the flesh, do "mind the things of the flesh, but they "that are after the spirit, the things of "the spirit; for to be carnally minded is « death." •

(a) v. 3. Sc 7. " Again," or " from above,"

"bloweth where it listeth, and thou "hearest the sound thereof, but "canst not tell whence it cometh, "and whither it goeth : so is every 41 one that is born of the Spirit" 9. Nicodemus answered and said unto him, "How can these things "be?" 10. Jesus answered and said unto him, "Art thou a mas"ter of Israel, and knowest not "these tKings? 11. Verily, verily, "I say unto thee, We speak that "(2) we do know, and testify "that we have seen; and ye re"ceive not our witness. 12. If "I have told you earthly (a)

a>i-TE>. Our Lord might intentionally use a word which would admit of both senses.

(*) 0. 8. " The wind," or " the Spirit." It is the same word (■wytSpd) as at the end of the verse and in verses 5 & 6. is rendered " Spirit." The French translation, (Monsedit. 1672,) is " l'Esprit souffle."

(y) " Bloweth, &c." The meaning probably is this: "Inability to account for a "thing, is no conclusive proof it does not "exist. You cannot account for the wind: "you know not whence it cometh, or "whither it goeth; yet its existence, its "power, its operations, are plain. You "cannot account for the Spirit, yet are "its effects and influences clear; and if "you cannot account for a man's being "born again, or being born of the Spirit, "do not conclude he is not so born. He "has powers which prove he is. The exist"ence of things depends upon God's will, "not upon man's apprehension." "The "effect,'' says Paley, " is obvious, though "the mode of producing it is not. Pal. "Serm. 381.*'

(z) v. 11. "That we do know, &c." Not upon conjecture, or with doubt; we have the assurance of knowledge and sight, and therefore speak with perfect confidence.

(a) v. 12. " Earthly things," i. e. (perhaps) "things to which you have some"thing on earth that bears a resemblance:'' as the notion of " being born again," prevailed upon the admission of a proselyte, and might therefore in this instance also be understood.

things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell you of heavenly things? 13. And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but (A) he that came (c) down from heaven, even the Son of man, which (d) is in heaven. 14. And (e) as Moses lifted up the (g-) serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be (A) lifted up; 15. that (*) whosoever (k~) believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life."

First Sunday after Trinity. The Collect. O God, the strength of all them that put their trust in thee, merci. fully accept our prayers; and because through the weakness of

(b) v. 13. " But he, &c." Therefore who but, or so well as, he can tell you of heavenly things, can know God's plans, the scheme of man's redemption, the necessity of being born again, &c.

(c) "Came down:" so that he existed there before. Bellarmine de Christo, 319.

(d) " Which is in heaven," or «' whose ■ proper home is heaven," or "who is in u heaven the self-existent Being: I £» iv 1$ "«»>i" Christ could hardly speak of himself as being in heaven at the time he was here on earth, but he might properly point to heaven as his domicile, and might well describe what his character there was. *Q» is the proper description of the selfexistent Being.

(e) v. 14. " As, &c." Our Saviour apprizes him that his crucifixion was part of God's scheme,— one of the "heavenly "things" mentioned in verse 12.

(g) "The serpent, &c." God had sent serpents amongst the Israelites, which bit them so that they died. Moses, at their instance, interceded with God, and by God's command he made a serpent of brass, *nd put it upon a pole; "and it came to "pass, that if a serpent had bitten any "man, when he beheld the serpent of "brass he lived, Numb. xxi. 7, 8, 9." As therefore the serpent had been lifted up

our mortal nature we can do no good thing without thee, grant us the help of thy grace, that in keeping thy commandments we may please thee, both in will and deed, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle. 1 John iv. 7.

Beloved, let us love one another: for love is of God; and every (/) one that loveth, is born (m) of God, and knoweth God. 8. He that loveth not, knoweth not God; for God is love. 9. In (n) this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world, that we might (o) live through him. lo. Herein (p) is love, not that we loved God, but

to save from temporal death, so should Christ be lifted up to save from death eternal.

(h) "Be lifted up." A prediction which his crucifixion verified!

(i) v. 15. " That, &c." i. e. "to extri"cate true believers from destruction: to "procure for them eternal life."

{k) "Believeth," i. e. "has such a be"lief as thoroughly influences his con"duct." See ante, 160. note on James i. 22.

(1) v. 7. " Every one, &c." This is a test: no one can be altogether " of God,'' such as God would have him, who has not perfect love and benevolence to man.

(to) - Born of God," i. e. " a child of "God, with his temper and disposition; "walking in his steps."

(n) v. 9. "In this, &c." St. John points out this transcendant instance of God's benevolence to man, to inforce the duty of benevolence from one man to another, and he accordingly draws the conclusion in verse 11.

(o) "Live," i. e. " have life; be res"cued from the curse of death."

(p) v. 10. " Herein, &c." This sets his love in a striking light, that when by sin we had shewn our enmity to God, he sent his Son to redeem us from the punishment of sin. According to Rom. v. 8. " God

that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.

11. Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another.

12. No man hath (y) seen God at any time. If (r) we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us.

13. Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his (*) Spirit.

14. And we have (t~) seen, and do testify that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world. 15. Whosoever shall («) confess that Jesus is the (#) Son of God, God dwelleth in him, and

he in God. 16. And we have (y) known and (z) believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him. 17. Herein (a) is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of (Z>) judgement: because as he is, so are we in this world. 18. There is no (c) fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear; because fear hath torment He that feareth, is not made perfect in love. 19. We love him, (d) because he first loved us. 20. If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a (e)

"commended his love towards us, in that "while we were yet sinners, Christ died "for us."

(y) v. 12. "Hath seen, &c." So that attachment to God cannot proceed from what causes attachment amongst men — acquaintance and personal knowledge: obedience to his commands is the only test. One of his chief commands is, that we love one another: he therefore that keeps this commandment shews, in the only way he can, that he loves God : he that does not keep it, shews the reverse, that he does not love God. See ante, 167. note on John xiv. 15.

(r) "If, &c." Though we have not seen God, yet if we have perfect love to man, God fills our hearts: his love has its perfection in our minds: he makes our hearts his dwelling-place: we are animated by his Spirit; our conduct is what his Spirit would suggest. So, Rom. viii. 8. " Ye "are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if "so be that the Spirit of God dwell in "you : now if any man have not the Spirit "of Christ," (i. e. the temper he would inspire,) "he is none of his."

(s) v. 13. " Spirit," i. e. "of universal "love and benevolence." So 1 John iii. 24. post, 179. " Hereby we know that he "abideth in us, by the Spirit which he "hath given us.''

(t) v. 14. "Have seen, &c." So that we have the fullest assurance of this great instance of God's love: it admits of no doubt. See ante, 46. note on 1 John i. 1.

(u) v. 15. - Shall confess," i.e. "inde"fiance of all danger;" making this return for God's love. This is another test. See ».2.

(i) "The Son," i iilf, with the article, even though it follows the word i^-ai.

(y) v. 16. " Have known," i. e. "have "had the most perfect proof:'' so that we ought boldly to stand by him, as he has stood by us: to suffer for his sake, as he suffered for ours.

(z) " Believed," or "placed our confi"dence upon." Belief is less than knowledge, and St. Paul could not mean to express the less, after he had expressed the greater; but he might mean, that the love he had before experienced and known, gave him the surest grounds for future confidence : (yvuxaiAtv xat vmrtivxaiut.

(a) v. 17. " Herein, &c." The meaning seems to be this: this is perfect love to God, to be bold before earthly tribunals for his sake, and in his cause; to avow Christianity in defiance of all danger: to allow nothing to deter us.

(b) "Of judgment," i.e. (perhaps) "of "trial, of danger."

(c) v. 18. "No fear in love," i. e. "the "two are inconsistent: perfect love is "above all fear; disregards all danger." He whom dread of peril would deter, has not reached the standard of love.

{d) v. 19. "Because, &c." i. e. "a "strong inducement for bold and fearless "attachment." It is a debt of gratitude, a mere return for previous love in God.

(e) v. 20. "A liar," i. e. "advance*

liar; for he (g) that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen? 21. And this commandment have we from him, "That he who loveth God love his brother also."

The Gospel. Luke xvi. 19.

There (/«) was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: 20. and there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores, 21. and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover, the dogs came and licked his sores. 22. And it came to pass that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried; 23. and in hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom:

24. and he cried and said, "Fa"ther Abraham, have mercy on "me, and send Lazarus, that he "may dip the tip of his finger in "water, and cool my tongue; for "I am tormented in this flame."

25. But Abraham said, "Son, re"member that thou in thy life "time receivedst thy good things, "and likewise Lazarus evil things:

"but now he is comforted, and "thou art tormented. 26. And "beside all this, between us and ** you there is a great gulf fixed: "so that they which would pass "from hence to you cannot; "neither can they pass to us "that would come from thence." 27. Then he said, "I pray thee "therefore, father, that thou "wouldest send him to my "father's house; 28. for I have "five brethren: that he may "testify unto them, lest they also "come into this place of tor"ment." 29. Abraham saith unto him, "They have Moses and the "prophets; let them hear them." 30. And he said, "Nay, father "Abraham: but if one went unto "them from the dead, they will "repent." 31. And he said unto him, "If (i) they hear not Moses "and the prophets, neither will "they be persuaded though one "rose from the dead."

Second Sunday after Trinity.
The Collect.

O Lord, who never failest to help and govern them whom thou dost bring up in thy stedfast fear and love; Keep us, we beseech thee, under the protection of thy good providence, and make us to have a perpetual fear and love of

* inconsistent propositions." So St. James ay«i (James iii. 14.) "If ye have bitter "envying and strife in your hearts, glory "not, and lie not against the truth," i. e. do not say you are Christians; you are not

\g) "For he that loveth not, &c." See w*e (r) on v. 12.

(A) v. 19. "There was, &c." This follows the parable of the unjust steward, •here our Lord had recommended such a disposition of wealth, as would ensure a 'eward in the life to come: and this

parable might (in part) be intended to intimate, that the application of riches to a man's own luxuries, with a total disregard of the necessities of the poor, was not innocent, and would not be unpunished.

(i) t>. 31. "If, &c." The common grounds for confidence in God, and obedience to his commands, are so strong, that it could hardly be expected that any thing would operate where these did not: but admitting that other means might have a greater influence, it is for God alone to decide what means he will supply. N

thy holy Name, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle. 1 John iii. 13.

Marvel not, my brethren, if the world {k) hate you. 14. We know that we have passed from (/) death unto life, because (iri) we love the brethren. He that loveth not his brother, abideth in (n) death. 15. Whosoever hateth his brother is a (o) murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him. 16. Hereby (jp) perceive we the love of God, because he (q) laid down his (r) life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. 17. But whoso hath this world's good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels

of compassion from him, how dwelleth (s) the love of God in him? 18. My little children, let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed and in truth.

19. And hereby (7) we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts («) before him.

20. For if our heart condemn us, God is greater (.r) than our heart, and knoweth all things. 21. Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence toward God: 22. And (y) whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight. 23. And this is his commandment, "That "we should believe on the name "of his Son Jesus Christ, and

(k) v. 13. " Hate." He had just been stating as the reason why Cain slew Abel, that. Cain's works were evil, and Abel's righteous: he insinuates, therefore, that it will be no wonder if the world, that is, the wicked, hate them for the same reason.

(/) v. 14. "From death,&c."i.e. "from "an unchristian to a Christian state." From what would terminate in death, to what will lead to life.

(m) " Because," i. e. " this convinces us; "this is our assurance." So v. 24. and ch. iv. v. 13.

(«) "In death," i. e. "in an unchristian "state; the same state as if our Saviour "had not appeared: without the benefits "of his mediation."

(o) v. 15. •'Is a murderer," i. e. "has a "disposition which would lead to murder: "is as bad as a murderer in the sight of "him who forbids the first step towards "sin, and foresees all its consequences."

(p) v. 16. " Hereby, &c." St. John presses the same argument here as in ] John iv. 9—11. (ante, 175,176), that the transcendency of God's love to man should make men love one another. If God has demonstrated in so strong a way that mankind in general, the whole human race, is £0 much the object of his love, how can we justify making any one of that race the fixed object of our hatred ?" If God so

"loved us, we ought also to love one "another. 1 John iv. 11."

(q) "He laid down, &c." So that our Saviour is here distinctly referred to by the name of " God." Bellarmine de Christo lib. 1. c. 7. p. 314.—So 1 Tim. iii. 16. "God was manifest in the flesh, &c." And Acts xx. 28. "The church of God, which "he hath purchased with his own Mood.

(r) "His life," or "his own life." fy dyavq* 75 ScS, oh lxc7ye< iirip ^/*»» ly fyffl Ccvts f^yptt.

(*) v. 17. "How dwelleth, &c." If. according to t>. 16., we ought even to lay down our lives for the brethren, how far short does he fall, who will not even supply their necessities?

(t) t>. 19. "Hereby," i.e. "by loving "in deed and in truth." _ n

(u) "Assure our hearts before him. i.e. as expressed in v.21. shall "havecon"fidence towards God:" "give our hearts "assurance."

(x) v. 20. "Greater," i.e. "he knows as "completely, and judges more correctly.

(y) i). 22. •' Whatsoever, &c." If ve keep his commandments, he rewards us by granting what we ask; but then (according to v. 23.) it is one of his commandments that we should believe on Christ, ana love one another: we cannot expect the reward, unless we perform the condition

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