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unto them, "But whom say ye that I am?" 16. And Simon Pe

ter answered and said, "Thou "art the (q) Christ, the Son of

(y) v. 16. " The Christ, the Son," i X:»,-s-:» i i"ot: with the article in each place. It is probable our Saviour had never told this to his disciples in direct terms, but had left it to them to draw the conclusion from his life and works. Indeed there seems to have been great caution in our Saviour, especially in Judea, to avoid any such assertion: and his motives might have been, because it might have drawn around him such a concourse of people as would have interfered with the plan of his life, and the progress of his ministry; and because it might have exposed him to the Roman power as a person setting himself up against the established government: and then, his death, without some special intervention of Providence, might have been earlier than it was, before his ministry was complete, and might have appeared the act rather of the Roman governor than of the heads of the Jewish nation. Tiberius, the Roman emperor, was particularly jealous of any one who pretended to encroach upon his government; and as it was the expectation that the Messiah was to be a temporal prince, the Roman governor would not have dared to have left him unmolested, had Jesus assumed that character. With the example of Herod before him, in destroying the children in Bethlehem, and the coasts thereof, (Matt. ii. 16.) he would never have suffered Jesus to have continued at large, had he known that he claimed to be the Messiah. Our Saviour's preaching was, not that he was the Christ, but that "the "kingdom of Heaven was at hand, Matt.

"iv. 17 Mark i. 15." When he called

Peter and Andrew to be apostles, what he said was, not that he was the Messiah, but " Follow me, and I will make you "fishers of men, Matt. iv. 19. — Mark i. "17." To the other apostles, all he is recorded to have said is, "Follow me, "Matt. ix. 9." When he sent out the twelve apostles with power over unclean spirits, Sec. all that he commanded them to preach was, "The kingdom of Heaven "is at hand, Matt. x. 1. 7." The seventy he afterwards sent out, had no directions to preach more than this, "the kingdom "of God is come nigh unto you, Luke x. "1. 9." When he healed the leper, (Matt, viii. 3, 4. — Mark i. 43.) he said unto him, "See thou tell no man." When he saw

great multitudes about him at Capernaum, (Matt. viii. 18.) he gave commandment to depart unto the other side (i. e. of the sea of Galilee). When John the Baptist sent to ask him, "Act thou he "that should come, or do we look for "another?" he does not in terms say that he is, but he refers John to the miracles he was performing, Matt. xi. S. 5. When he healed multitudes, he charged them that they should not make him known. Matt. xii. 15, 16- and see Mark vii. 36. — Mark viii. 26. When the unclean spirits recognized him as the Son of God, he strictly charged them that they should not make him known. Markiii. 11, 12. and see Luke iv. 35. 41. When he raised the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue, he charged them straitly that no man should know it. Mark v. 42. — Luke viii. 56. When Peter had said to him, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of "the living God," he charged his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ. Matt. xvi. 16. 20.: and see Mark viii. 30. — Luke ix. 21. When Herod the tetrarch heard of his fame, and concluded it was John the Baptist, and that John had risen from the dead, Jesus departed by ship into a desart place apart. Matt. xiv. 1,2. 13. When he found that the Pharisees had heard that he made and baptized more disciples than John, he left Judea, and departed into Galilee. John iv. 1. 3. When he healed the impotent man, (John v. 13.) he conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place. John v. 8. 13. When he was pressed to go up to the feast of tabernacles, he refused, because the Jews sought to kill him, and his time was not yet full come: and though he did go up, it was in secret, not openly. John vii. 1. 10. When the Pharisees asked a sign of him, which would naturally have attached multitudes to him, he refused to give one. Matt. xii. 38, 39.—Mark viii. 11, 12.— Luke xi. 29. When they sought to destroy him, he withdrew himself. Mark iii. 6, 7. After his transfiguration, he charged the disciples who had been with him, "Tell the vision to no man, until the Son "of man be risen again from the dead.

"Matt. xvii. 9 Mark ix. 9." He paid

tribute that he might not give offence. Matt. xvii. 27. When the chief priest

"the living God." 17. And Jesus answered and said unto him, "Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona "(r): for flesh (s) and blood "hath not revealed it unto thee, "but my Father which is in hea"ven. 18. And I say also unto "thee, That thou art (/) Peter; "and upon (w) this rock I will "build my Church; and the

"gates (x~) of hell shall not (y) "prevail against it. 19. And I "will give unto thee the (z) keys "of the kingdom of heaven: "and (a) whatsoever thou shalt "bind on earth, shall be bound "in heaven ; and whatsoever thou "shalt loose on earth, shall be "loosed in heaven."

and elders questioned him, by what authority he acted, and who gave him that authority, he evaded giving them an answer. Matt. xxi. 23. 27. — Mark xi. 28. 33. — Luke xx. 2. 8. When asked whether it was lawful to give tribute to Csesar, he answered in such a way as could furnish no ground of accusation against him. Matt. xxii. 17. 21.— Mark xii. 14.17.— Luke xx. 22. 25. When the Scribes and Pharisees brought to him the woman taken in adultery, that if he ventured to condemn her, they might have ground of accusing him for incroaching upon the civil power, his conduct was such as to induce the Scribes and Pharisees to leave him. John viii. 2 to 11. When he was desired to speak to a man's brother, to divide the inheritance with him, his answer was, "Who made me a judge or a divider over

you

? Luke xii. 13, 14." For observ

ations on these passages, see Locke on Christianity, 55 to 142. This cautious conduct of our Saviour corresponds with the character foretold of him, Is. xlii. 2. "He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause "his voice to be heard in the street." And the manner in which these passages are scattered in the Gospels, with scarce any allusion to the motive, contribute to a critical mind to shew the real character of the Gospels, an artless and genuine relation of the facts they contain.

(r) v. 17. " Barjona," i.e. " the son of "Jona;" he is called the son of Jona or Jonas, John i. 42.— xxi. 15, 16, 17.

(s) "Flesh and blood, &c." i. e. " you "have collected it, not from human testi"mony, but from the miracles I have "wrought, which are the testimony of "God. Hamm."

(t) v. 18. " Peter," i. e. "a rock, or "foundation stone:" he was at first called Simon only (see Matt. x. 4. — John i. 42.) •■ad when Jesus saw him, he said unto

him, " thou shalt be called Cephas," which is, by interpretation, "a stone." John i. 42.

(u) " Upon this rock," i. e. " upon "such faith, courage, and constancy, as "thine." In Eph. ii. 20. the church is considered as "built upon the foundation "of the apostles and prophets, Jesus "Christ himself being the chief corner"stone, in whom all the building fitly "framed together, groweth unto a holy "temple in the Lord."

(x) " Gates of hell," i. e. " the councils "and powers of darkness;" it was usual to hold councils over the gates of cities.

(y) " Shall not prevail,&c" This prophecy has been fulfilled near 1800 years, and is still fulfilling; and let mankind know assuredly that " The Lord will be "king, be the people never so impatient; "and with his own right hand, and with "his holy arm, will he get to himself the "victory. Ps. xcix. 1. — Ps. xcviii. 2."

(z) v. 19. "The keys, &c." The rules of admission or exclusion: the gospel.

(a) "Whatsoever, &c." In Matt.xviii. 18. our Saviour says to his disciples generally, not confining the power to any individual, "Verily, I say unto you, what"soever ye shall bind on earth, shall be "bound in heaven, and whatsoever ye "shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in "heaven;" and in one of his appearances to his disciples after his resurrection, be said unto them, "Whose soever sins ye "remit, they are remitted unto them, a»d "whose soever sins ye retain, they are "retained. John xx. 23." These passages do not imply that the apostles were to have either an arbitrary or a discretionary power to remit or retain sins, but that the gospel, according to which sins were or were not to be forgiven, the keys of the kingdom of heaven, to admit, or to exclude, were entrusted to their care.

Sixth Sunday after Trinity. The Collect. 0 God, who hast prepared for them that love thee such good things as pass man's understanding; Pour into our hearts such love toward thee, that we loving thee above all things, may obtain thy promises, which exceed all that we can desire, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle. Rom. vi. 3.

Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized (b) into his death? 4. Therefore we are (c) buried with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we

also should walk in newness of life. 6. For (d) if we have been

Elanted together in the likeness of is death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: 6. knowing this, that our old (e) man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. 7. For he that is dead is freed (jg) from sin. 8. Now if we be dead (A) with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him: 9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dieth (i) no more; death hath no more dominion over him. 10. For in that he died, he died unto (k) sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. ll. Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be

(4) v. 3. "Baptized into his death," i. e. "engaging, as far as they could, to for"ward all the objects of his death; and so "far identifying themselves with him, as "to be dead to whatsoever he was dead." The object of Christ's death was to turn man from future sin, and to redeem him from the consequences of the past: by his death he gained the victory over sin, and freed man from sin's bondage. To become the slaves again, therefore, of that sin orer which Christ has gained the victory, and to submit to that bondage from which he has freed us, to that enemy he has overcome, is to make that victory of his, as far as regards us, of none effect, and to place us in the same situation as if he had not died for us — and then, however baptized, we are not baptized into his death, we have not gained that victory over our own sins which he did over sin in general; we have not acquired, in the language of our catechism, " a death unto sin, and a "new birth unto righteousness."

(c) v. 4. " Buried with him, &c." St. Paul elsewhere considers the converts as identified with our Saviour in his crucifixion, his death, and his resurrection." Thus (Col.ii. U, 12, &c.) "Ye are circumcised "with the circumcision made without "hands, in putting off the body of the "sins of the flesh, by the circumcision "ofChrist: buried with him in baptism, "wherein also you are risen with him

"through the faith of the operation of "God, who hath raised him from the "dead." So (Col. iii. 1.) "if ye then be "risen with Christ, &c.;" and St. Peter states it as the object of our Saviour's suffering, (1 Pet. ii. 24.) "that we being "dead to sin, should live unto righteous"ness." See also Gal. ii. 20.

(d) ». 5. "If, &c." i. e. " if our figura"tive death unto sin is like Christ's death, "our resurrection, our future life, will be "like his, in holiness and purity. If we "have died so as to resemble his death, "our newness of life will be like his, en"tirely free from sin."

(e) v. 6. " Old man," i. e. "sinful pro"pensities."

(g) v. 7. " Freed from sin." "No longer "under its power: exempt from its do"minion: he that is dead, can no longer "commit sin." See page 193. Rom. vi. 20. 22.

{h) v. 8. "Dead with Christ," i. e. "if "our death unto sin resembles his: if we "are as dead unto sin as we ought."

(i) v.9. "Dieth no more, &c." As he "dieth no more, so must our death unto "sin be complete also: and as death hath «• no more dominion over him, we must "take care that sin hath no more do"minion over us." See ante, 136. notes on 10, 11.

(Ic) v. 10. "Unto," i. c. " on account "of; to satisfy the demands of."

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brother, "Raca," shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, "Thou fool," shall be in danger of hell fire. 23. Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, 24. leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled (0) to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. 25. Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 26. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no

(/) Part of that discourse of our Saviour, called his Sermon on the Mount. This sermon contains rules of such peculiar wisdom, so truly calculated to advance the happiness of man, that the late Mr. Soame Jenyns (who was no enthusiast) considers them as furnishing most satisfactory evidence that the Christian religion came from God. His chief grounds are these, that it contains a system entirely new, both with regard to the object and the doctrines, infinitely superior to any thing which had ever before entered into the mind of man; that it carries every moral precept founded on reason to a higher degree of purity and perfection than any system of the wisest philosophers of preceding ages; that it totally omits every moral precept founded on false principles; that it adds many new precepts, peculiarly corresponding with its object; and that it is such a system as could not possibly have been the work of man, and therefore must have derived its origin from God.

(m) v. 22. " Angry." Our Saviour meant that anger should be restrained, though it proceeded not beyond thoughts or words: if it proceeded to acts of violence, it was punishable before.

(n) "The judgment," "the council," and "hell fire;" i. e. Either, first, Jewish punishments, gradually increasing in seve

rity (the first, the' being put to death by the sword; the second, being stoned to death, which was worse; and the last, the being burnt alive in the valley of Hinnom, Grotiusin loco); or, secondly, Jewish tribunals, competent to inflict these punishments. The object seems to be, to mark the difference between divine and human justice: the latter being necessarily confined to offences committed, and not being always able to proportion the punishment exactly to the guilt, whereas the former extends to offences which are conceived only but not executed, and is suited to the degree of guilt with the most accurate nicety. If it rest in anger only, and is confined merely to the inward workings of the mind, subjecting to one degree of punishment; if it advances and breaks forth into words, increasing that degree, and even varying that increase, according to the character of the words, making it more penal to say "thou fool" than "raca," because "thou fool" was the more opprobrious.

(0) v. 24. "Be reconciled," i. e. "ob'« tain reconciliation from." The case supposed is, that thy brother hath something against thee. And this is the Scriptural meaning of the phrase, "avert the dis"pleasure of," not giving up our own indignation, but allaying that which is against us. 1 Magee, 26. 28. and note 20.

"means come out thence (p), till "thou hast paid the uttermost "farthing."

Seventh Sunday after Trinity.
The Collect.

Lord of all power and might, who art the author and giver of all good things; Graft in our hearts the love of thy Name, increase in us true religion, nourish us with all goodness, and of thy great mercy keep us in the same, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle, ltom. vi. 19.

I Speak (q) after the manner of men, because of the infirmity of your flesh: for as ye have yielded (r) your members servants to uncleanness and to iniquity unto («) iniquity; even so now yield your members servants to righteousness unto (s) holiness. 20. For when ye were the servants of sin, ye were free from righteousness (/). 21. What fruit had ye then

(p) e. 26. "Come out thence." The meaning probably is this, if you make no concession, do nothing to bring your adversary to reconciliation, but stand upon itrict right, you must look for nothing beyond strict right: as law is invariable, admitting no relaxation, you must expect no relaxation; you can receive nothing but •hat the strictness of law allows, and you must pay whatever the strictness of law requires.

(?) r. 19. "I speak, &c." i. e. "I adopt "a similitude from common life, the obe"dience of servants, because your under"standings are at present weak as to these "matters: I shall therefore be more intelligible."

(r) •' As ye have yielded, &c.'' i. e. "Serve God to the same extent to which "you heretofore served sin."

(«) "Unto," i. e. " in the practice of."

0 v. 20. "Free from righteousness,'' '•e. "owning no submission to it, paying "it no regard."

in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? for the end of those things is death. 22. But now being made free from («) sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness; and the end, everlasting life. 23. For the wages (x) of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

The Gospel. Mark viii. 1. (y)

In those days, the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and saith unto them, "2. I have compassion on the "multitude, because they have "now been with me three days, "and have nothing to eat: 3. and "if I send them away fasting to "their own houses, they will faint "by the way:" for divers of them came from far. 4. And his disciples answered him, "From '* whence can a man satisfy these "men with bread here in the wil"derness (2)?" 5. And he asked

(u) t. 22. " Free from,'.' i. e. " discharged "from the service of."

(*) v. 23. "Wages, &c." Sin brings death, as a debt of justice: Righteousness produces eternal life, as the free gift of God: the former, death, due as of right, the latter, eternal life, conferred gratuitously: the former corresponding exactly with our demerits, the latter abundantly exceeding all we can deserve.

(y) A similar miracle is recorded, ante, 96. John vi. 1. The two miracles are detailed, Matt. xiv. 15. and Matt. xv. 32. and referred to, Matt. xvi. 9, 10. "Do "ye not remember the five loaves of the "five thousand, and how many baskets ye "took up? neither the seven loaves of "the four thousand, and how many baskets "ye took up?'' St Matthew was probably present at both miracles, and St. John at that which he records. If so, we have the testimony of two eye-witnesses.

(2) v. 4. "The wilderness.'' According to Matt. xv. 29. near the sen of Galilee

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