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ation; ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the (rf) only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.

"trinea of devils, speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their conscience seared "with a hot iron." In 2 Thes. ii. 3. he lays, the day of Christ "shall not come, "except there come a falling atoayjirst;" and in 2 Pet. ii. 3. St. Peter says, "There "shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, "where is the promise of his coming/' It is to these apostates so spoken of before': Jiii that St. Jude here alludes.

(</) "The only Lord God, &c." rather, « our only Master, God, and Lord "Jesus Christ." The original is, T«» ^vo» <<n»Tij» But xai Ki/fJO» w$y 'Iijcrsi Xjuj-o*, and there being no article before ©*«» or iijat, those words must, according to the Greek language, refer to the same person to whom Jirwrnp refers. (See Middl. on the Greek article, 79, 80.) Autttotijv is a substantive, aod should be translated " Master" rither than "Lord," because it is immediately followed by Ktyiw, to which the term "Lord" is more appropriate; and ¥•«, though placed after Kvpiov, is equally applicable to all the three nouns. (Middl. on the Gr. article, 622.) This would be a text therefore to which the term "God" would clearly be applied to Christ, were it not that many authorities omit the word e«»,"God," (Middl. 658. Pole in loco); and then the-passage would only be, "Our "only Master and Lord Jesus Christ." There are two other texts, however, 2 Pet. i. 1. and Tit. ii.l 3. in which the word " God" seems plainly applied to Christ, though this is not so evident upon our version as in the original. The text in 2 Pet. i. 1. is Ts Su tpSr wxl <r«7>fjH>« 'Iijo-5 Xp«r», and the proper rendering, I apprehend, is, " Our "God and Saviour Jesus Christ." This is the translation in moat of the early English versions; and there being no article before »«sjjk, 6s« and auliwt, must, according to Dr. Middleton's Rules, refer to the same persoa. In the same chapter, verse 11. the same words occur, with the substitution only of Kvfh for Bta. T5 Kvpl* •/wxai adijtf "l^a-s Xp«r«: and how are they rendered?" Our Lord and Saviour "Jesus Christ," considering both terms "Lord and Saviour" as applying to the tame person; and would it not be strange 'hat, in sentences so nearly similar, and

5. I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land

occurring so close to each other, the former should be intended to apply to two persons, and the latter only to one? In 2 Pet. ii. 20. and iii. 2. Kvpla xa) o-ufijpoi; is rendered as it ought, "The Lord and Saviour," and refers to one and the same person, Jesus Christ. See Middl. 621 to 626. The original in Tit. ii. 13. is, npoo-o"«%o'fC£K>i Ttjv "/taxaptay eXii'Sa, not! inifdretciv Tij< Sofijf Ts" "itiyoXs Bie xxl ir&i7ijpo{ ty*5» 'Iijo-sXpij-S, ' the literal translation of which I take to be "Looking for that blessed hope, and (or "even) the appearance of the glory (i. e. "the glorious appearance) of our great "God and Saviour Jesus Christ.'* There being no article before O-wttj/o;, that word, according to Dr. Middleton's Rule, (Middl. 79, 80.) must refer to the same person to whom ©«« refers, and the context shews, that by Bta, God the Father could not be meant. The expected appearance of Christ in glory is continually referred to by St. Paul; but where is there a surmise of the expectation of an appearance of God the Father? No man had seen Him at any time, nor was there any intimation that He would be seen: but the coming of the Lord, the coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory, is part of Christ's prophecy, Matt, xxiv. 30.—Mark xiii. 26. and Luke xxi. 27.* and was matter of earnest expectation i; St. Paul's time. Chrysostora. mentions this passage, vol.iv. p. 32. in his 6th Discourse on the Philippians, and vol. vi. p. 962. in his Discourse upon the Trinity; and in both he considers it as clear, that peyi'/.n Bta "our great God," applies to; Christ, not to the Father ; and Dr. Whitby notices, that mfdntea never occurs in the New Testament but when applied to Christ, and some coming of his. See 2 Thes. ii. 8.—1 Tim. vi. H.—2Tim.i. 10. and iv. 1. & Dr. Middleton's Rule is illustrated by Col.i. 3. and Eph.v. 20. where by Bt$ n>) Uxlp.', "God and (or even) the Father," the same person must be meant by both terms. The rendering in the French edition at.Mons, 1672, of the text in Jude, is conformable to what seems the true sense of the original: "Et qui renoncent Jt'sus Christ, "notre unique Maitre, notre Dieu, et notre "Seigneur.

of Egypt, afterward destroyed them (e) that believed not. 6. And the angels (g-) which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgement of the great day. 7. Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them, in like manner giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. 8. Likewise also these filthv dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities.

The Gospel. John xv. 17. (A)

"These things I command you, that ye love (/) one another. 18. Ir the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. 19. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are

(e) v. 5. "Destroyed them, &c." So that it will be no protection to these apostates that they once believed, that they were once within the range of God's favour. See ante, 196. note on 1 Cor. x. 1, &c.

(*•) c.6. " The angels,&c." The argument is this: As God would not spare his own angels, neither will he spare other apostates.

(h) Part of our Saviour's discourse at the last supper.

(i) v. 17. "Love, Ac." The two great duties our Saviour here enjoins, are, 1st, love and union amongst themselves; and, 2dly, a fearless contempt of persecution.

(k) v. 19. " Therefore, &c." It is, "be"cause you are not of the world, because "your motives are not worldly, and worldly "pursuits and pleasures are restrained, "that the world will hate you."

(/) v. 20. "The word, Ac." He had used this saying after this very Supper, upon his washing Peter's feet, (John xiii. 16.;) but he also used it when he first sent out his twelve disciples, and apprized them of the persecutions they should meet with, Matt. x. '2 V. It is to the latter, probably, he here alludes.

not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world,, therefore (Xr) the world hateth you. 20. Remember the word(/) that I said unto you, "The servant is not greater than his Lord." If they have persecute ed me, they will also persecute you: if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also. 21. But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not(m) him («) that sent me. 22. If(o) I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloke for their sin. 23. He that hateth me hateth my Father also (/?). 24 If (y) I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father. 25. But this cometh to pass, that (r) the word might be

(m) V. 21. " Because they know not,&c." Their disposition to sin is repeatedly noticed as the cause of their unbelief. Ante, 215. note on 2 Cor. iv. 3. Is not this also the foundation of infidelity, in some instances at least, at this day?

(») "Him that sent me," describing himself as sent bu the Father — and he is foretold, Mai. iii. 1. as "the messenger of "the covenant," in whom ye delight

(o) v. 22. " If, Ac." Ignorance might otherwise have excused; now it cannot.

(p) v. 23. " My Father also." There is no alternative.

(q) v. 24. '■ If, Ac." It is reasonable each man should be judged according to the opportunities he has had: where much has been given, it is not inconsistent that much should be required.

(r) v. 25. "That, &c." This is a strong instance of stating as the cause what was only a, consequence. See ante, 49,50. note on Matt. ii. 15. The passage, which is in Psalm xxxv. 19. had no allusion to our Saviour; it was merely a prayer of David that they who "hated him without a cause

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have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ: 19. whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things). 20. For (x) our conversation (y) is in heaven; from whence also we look (z) for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ; 21. who shall change (a) our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.

The Gospel. Matt.xxii. 15. Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. 16. And they sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, "Master, "we know that thou art true, "and teachest the way of God in "truth, neither carest thou for "any man; for thou regardest not "the person of men. 17. Tell us "therefore, What thinkest thou? "Is (V) it lawful to give tribute

might not triumph over him. And it is impossible to suppose that the opposers of Christianity should have been constrained to persecute its professors, that some words, in a passage which referred to quite a different thing, should be also applicable to them.

(*) v. 26. "The Comforter," i. e. "the "Holy Ghost or Spirit." Ante. 159. note on John xvi. 7- and ante, 164. note (m).

(/) "I will send," intimating that the sending was to be his act. See ante, 164. note (n) on John xv. 26.

(u) See ante, 165. note io).

(x) v. 20. "For, &c." This is the reason why, as he exhorts them in verse 17. they should be followers of him, &c.

(y) " Conversation," rather " establishment," or " home." The Greek is «o\ihvpa. u We look to heaven as our home, the place "where we are to settle, and have an "establishment, and this is a reason why "ye should walk, as ye have us for an

"example, according to the exhortation "in verse 17. Instead of minding earthly "things,(astheyinversesl8,19.)our hearts "and minds and all our thoughts are set "on heaven." See l.Tillots. 71.

(z) " Look, &c." probably referring to the period so often alluded to, under the expression of " the day," or " coming of "the Lord." See ante, 28. note on Rom. xiii. 11.

(a) v. 21. " Shall change, &c." "And "does not this imply divine power?" See ante, 73. note on 1 John iii. 2.

(b) v. 17. "Is it lawful, &c." The object was to induce him to deny submission tq the Roman power, and so to expose him to punishment by the Roman governor, The Messiah, according to their notions, was to be a temporal king — they did not expect, therefore, that he would encourage obedience to any other power: if he did, they would draw the inference that he was not the Messiah: if he forbade it, the power

"unto Cesar, or not?" 18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why tempt ye me, "ye hypocrites? 19. shew me "the tribute-money." And they brought unto him a penny. 20. And he saith unto them, "Whose is this image and su"perscription?" 21. They say unto him, "Cesar's." Then saith he unto them, "Render (c) "therefore unto Cesar the things "which are Cesar's, and unto "God the things that are God's." 22. When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

All Saints' Day.

The Collect.

O Almighty God, who hast knit together thine elect in one communion and fellowship, in the mystical body of thy Son Christ our Lord; Grant us grace so to follow thy blessed Saints in all virtuous and godly living, that we may come to those unspeak

of the Roman governor would be raised against him. They did not know, that though he were a king, his kingdom was not of this world.

(c) v. 21. " Render, &c." This answer is from the determination of the schools, where this doctrine was taught, that whereever the coin of any king was current, the inhabitants were to consider that king as their sovereign. St. Paul also recommends submission to the temporal powers, Rom. iii. 1. 7. "Let every soul be subject to the "higher powers; for there is no power but "of God. 4c." "Render therefore to all "their dues ; tribute to whom tribute, &c."

Id) v. 3. " Sealed, &c."' "To protect "from the four angels; that they might ■• be preserved from the destruction." In Exod. xii. 23. when the first-born of the Egyptians were slain, the lintels and door

able joys, which thou hast prepared for them that unfeignedly love thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

For the Epistle, Rev. vii. 2.

And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having die seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, saying, 3. "Hurt not the earth, "neither the sea, nor the trees, "till we have sealed (rf) the ser"vants of our God in their fbre"heads." 4. And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand (e) of all the tribes of the children of Israel.

5. Of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand.

6. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand.

posts of the houses of the Israelite* wen to be marked with the blood of the pa»chal lamb, that they might be exempted from the destruction, that "the Lord "might pass over their doors, and not "suffer the destroyer to come into their "houses to destroy them." And in EiAix. 4. before God sent the five destroyer* into Jerusalem to slay utterly old and young, &c. he commissioned one to "set • mark "upon the foreheads of the men that "sighed and cried for all the abomin"ations that were done in the midst « "Jerusalem," and he forbade the dertroyers, (verse 6.) from "coming near any "man upon whom was the mark." See ante, 221. note on Eph. iv. 30.

(e) v. 4. " 144,000," i. e. •' a '"?* "number:" the same number as in Re*xiv. 1. ante, 49.

Of the tribe of Nepthalim were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand.

7. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand.

8. Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand.

Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand.

9. After this I beheld, and lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb (g~), clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands; 10. and cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation to our "God which sitteth upon the "throne, and (h) unto the "Lamb." 11. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped

God, 12. saying, "Amen: Bless"ing, and glory, and wisdom, "and thanksgiving, and honour, "and power, and might, be unto "our God for ever and ever." Amen.

The Gospel. Matt. T. 1.

Jesus seeing the multitudes, went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: 2. and he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, 3. "Blessed (i) are the poor in "spirit: for theirs is the kingdom "of heaven. 4. Blessed are they "that mourn: for they shall be "comforted. 5. Blessed are the "meek: for they shall inherit "the earth. 6. Blessed are they "which do hunger and thirst "after righteousness: for they "shall be filled. 7. Blessed are "the merciful: for they shall ob"tain mercy. 8. Blessed are the "pure in heart: for they shall "see God. 9. Blessed are the "peace-makers: for they shall be "called the children of God. "10. Blessed are they which are "persecuted for righteousness' "sake: for theirs is the kingdom

(|) v. 9. «« The Lamb," i. e. " our Sa"viour Jesus Christ."

(A) v. 10. " And unto the Lamb;" so that he is associated with God in this •ddress. See ante, 92. note (*).

(i) o. 3. - Blessed, &c." The beginning of the Sermon on the Mount. It is supposed to have been delivered A. D. 31. about two years before the Crucifixion. The peculiar character of our Saviour's precepts, and their decided tendency to promote the comfort of individuals, and the welfare of society, has been already noticed. They forward no worldly views, and therefore are not the doctrines of an impostor: they advance only God's glory, and peace and good-will upon earth ; and would correct the mistaken notion, that

the Messiah's kingdom would be attended with temporal honours, and national distinction. They correspond also with what had been foretold of the Messiah. According to Isaiah ix. 6. he was to be " the "Prince of Peace." According to Isaiah xi. 6. " the wolf was to dwell with the "lamb, &c.;" •' and they were not to hurt "or destroy in all his holy mountain, be"cause the earth was to be full of the "knowledge of the Lord, as the waters "cover the sea." There are many other prophecies which refer to the peaceable character of the Messiah's religion.—Is. ii. 4.—ix. 6—lxv. 25.—Ps. Ixxii. 7.—Zech. ix. 10. See Bishop Porteus's Sermons, Maltby, 210. and post, 235. note on Jer. xxiii. 5.

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