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that without any cause (g) is mine enemy;

5. Then let mine enemy persecute my (//) soul, and take (A) me: yea, let him tread my life down upon the earth, and lay mine honour (?) in the dust.

6. Stand up, O Lord, in thy wrath, and lift up thyself because of the indignation of mine enemies: arise up for me in the judgement that thou hast commanded.

7. And so (k) shall the congregation of the people come about thee: for their sakes (/) therefore lift up thyself again.

8. The Lord shall judge the people; give sentence with me, 0 Lord: according to my righteousness, and according to the innocency that is in me.

9. 0 let the wickedness of the ungodly come to an end: but guide thou the just.

10. For the righteous God: trieth the very hearts (m) and reins.

11. My help cometh of God: who preserveth them that are true of heart.

12. God is a righteous judge, strong and patient: and God is provoked («) every day (o).

13. If a man will not turn (p), he (y) will whet his sword (r): he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

14. He (s) hath prepared for him (s) the instruments of death: he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.

15. Behold, he (/) travaileth with mischief: he hath conceived sorrow, and brought forth ungodliness.

16. He hath graven and digged up a pit: and is fallen himself into the destruction that he made for other.

(g) "Without any cause," i. e. "in "him, whom I have carelessly treated as "mine enemy."

(A) v.5. " Soul," i.e. " Life," "me," or " it." B. T. 2. Till. 274.

(i) " Lay mine honour, &c." i. e. "dis"grace me, bring ignominy upon me."

(k) v. 7. " So, &c.'" i. e. "when it is seen "how thou protectest thy servants, the "people shall turn more zealously to "thee." Its influence upon others is often pressed as an argument to induce God to shew some token for good upon those who trust in him. See Ps. xxxii. 71.—Ps. lviii. Io.-pj. lxiv. 9, 10.

(0 "For their sakes," i. e. "to con"fince them; to bring them to thee.''

(w) v. 10. "The very hearts, &c." When God directed Samuel to select David, he •aid, » The Lord seeth not as man seeth; "for man looketh on the outward appear"ance, but the Lord looketh on the heart, "1 Sam. xvi. 7.:" and in Jer. xvii. 10. God "3TM. "I the Lord search the heart; I try "the reint, even to give every man accord'ing to his ways, and according to the "fruit of his doings." Well therefore did U>e wi»e man say, Prov. iv. 23. " Keep thy

"heart with all diligence; for out of it are "the issues of life."

(n) v. 12. "Provoked," i.e. " by the "conduct of the wicked."

(o) "Every day," i. e. "constantly "receiving provocation."

{p) v. 13. "Turn," i.e. "reform, de"part from evil."

(y) "He," i. e. " God."

(r) "Whet hi9 sword," i. e. "prepare "himself to take vengeance." In the song of Moses Deut. xxxii. 41. God is represented as saying, "If I whet my glittering "sviord, and mine hand take hold on "judgment, I will render vengeance to "mine enemies, and will reward them that "hate me;" and to this passage David might here allude.

(s) v. 14. "He," i. e. "God." "Him," i. e. " the man that will not turn."

(t) v. 15. "He," i. e. "mine enemy, "the person whose conduct induced David "to write this Psalm;" or, indefinitely, "any one," to intimate that God will bring upon the wicked the destruction they destine for others: "Look at any one. "that travaileth with mischief; it shall "come upon himself."

17. For his travail shall come upon his own head: and his wickedness shall fall on his own pate.

18. I will give thanks unto the Lord, according to his righteousness: and I will praise the Name of the Lord most High.

Psalm viii. («)

O Lord (x) our Governor (x), how excellent is thy name in all the world: thou that hast set thy glory above the heavens!

2. Out of* the mouth (y) of very babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength, because of thine enemies: that thou

(u) A spirited triumphal hymn, supposed to have been written by David after he had overcome Goliath, the giant of Gath, but probably looking forward prophetically to an event, of which that might be a type, our Saviour's victory over Satan, and his future power and glory. The 2d verse is referred to, (Matt. xxi. 16.) upon our Saviour's triumphant entry into Jerusalem; the 4th, 5th, and 6th are alluded to by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Heb. ii. 6, 7, 8.) with reference to our Saviour's ascension; and the 6th is referred to, with reference to our Saviour, Ephes. i. 22. and 1 Cor. xv. 25— 27. It is one of the Psalms for Ascension Day. Mr. Mede has written a learned discourse upon it; B. 1. Disc. 9. p. 36.

(x) v. 1,9. " Lord," Hebr. " Jehovah," •' Governor," Hebr. '« Adon."

(y) v. 2. "Out of the mouth, &c." When the chief priests and scribes were displeased, because the multitudes who met Jesus on his entry into Jerusalem, and the children in the temple, cried out unto him, " Hosanna to the Son of David," (hailing him as the Messiah,) our Saviour answered them, in allusion to this verse, "Have ye never read, " out of the mouths "of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected "praise. See Matt. xxi. 1—16." See also 1 Cor. i. 27. where it is said, " God "hath chosen the foolish things of the "world to confound the wise; and God "hath chosen the weak things of the world "to confound the things that are mighty." Mr. Mede considers the terms " babes and

mightest still the enemy and the avenger.

3. For (2) I will eonsiderthy heavens, even the works of thy fingers: the moon and the stars which thou hast ordained;

4. "What (a) is man that thou "art mindful of him : and the "Son of man, that thou visitest "him?"

6. Thou madest him lower (b) than the angels : to (c) crown him with glory and worship.

6. Thou makest him to have dominion of the works of thv hands: and thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet (d);

sucklings'' as referring to our Satioar and his disciples.

(z) v. 3. " For I will," or rather " when « I." It is so in B. T.

(«)».♦." What, &c" After looking, though but for a moment, to the wonderful works of God in the heavens, he puts the question which the comparative insignificance of man naturally suggests, and in answer bursts into ecstacy upon looking forward to Him who was to be made nan, to still the enemy and the avenger, and to be crowned with glory and worship.

(b) v. 5. " Lower," by making him "man." The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews introduces this and the next verse; and, after intimating that our Saviour had not yet arrived at the summit of his power, because all things were not yet put under him, adds, "but we "see Jesus, who was made a little tow "than the angels, for the suffering of "death, crowned with glory and honour.'

(c) " To crown him," 1. e. - in order "to crown him — for that very purpose."

(d) v. 6. " Under his feet." In speaking of Christ's glory, and exaltation, and superiority, (Ephes. i. 20—22.) St. Panl says, that God, " when he raised him from "the dead, set him at his own right hand "in the heavenly places, far above all "principality, and power, and might, "and dominion, and every name that is "named, not only in this world, but "also in that which is to come, and put "all things under his feet." See also 1 Cor. xv. 25—27.

7. All sheep and oxen: yea, and the beasts of the field j

8. The fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea: and whatsoever walketh through the paths of the seas.

9. O Lord our Governor : how excellent is thy name in all the world!

Psalm ix. (e)

I Will give thanks unto thee, O Lord, with my whole heart: I will speak of all thy marvellous works.

2. I will be glad and rejoice in thee : yea, my songs will I make of thy Name, O thou most Highest

3. While mine enemies are driven back : they shall fall and perish at thy presence.

4. For thou hast maintained my right, and my cause: thou art set in the throne that judgest right.

8. Thou hast rebuked the heathen, and destroyed the ungodly: thou hast put out their name for ever and ever.

6. 0 (g) thou enemy, destruc

(e) A spirited song of triumph and thanksgiving, extolling God's justice, and the protection he affords. St. Augustine thinks it looks forward to the Messiah, and describes the success of his kingdom, and the nature of his superintendance, by putting down or converting unbelievers, and affording protection and comfort to the meek and humble. Pole considers it as referring to the destruction of Antichrist.

ig) v. 6. " O, &c." rather, thine enemies 'are utterly destroyed: they are become "an everlasting desolation: thou hast 'overthrown their cities: their memorial 1 (i- e. every trace and remembrance of "them) is perished for ever." See Jerome and Edwards.

(A) t.9," A refuge, &c." In what classic writer can we find such comfortable and spirited assurances as in the I

tions are come to a perpetual end: even as the cities which thou hast destroyed; their memorial is perished with them.

7. But the Lord shall endure for ever : he hath also prepared his seat for judgement

8. For he shall judge the world in righteousness : and minister true judgement unto the people.

9. The Lord also wUl be a defence for the oppressed : even a refuge (A) in due time of trouble.

10. And they that know thy (/') Name (k) will put their trust in thee : for thou, Lord, hast never failed them that seek thee.

11. O praise the Lord, which dwelleth in Sion : shew the people of his doings.

12. For when he maketh inquisition (/) for blood, he remembereth them : and fbrgetteth not the complaint of the poor.

13. Have mercy upon me, O Lord; consider the trouble which I suffer of them that hate me: thou that liftest me up from the gates of death;

14> That I may shew all thy praises within the ports of the

scriptures ?" Look at the generations of "old, and see, did ever any trust in the "Lord, and was confounded? or did any "abide in his fear, and was forsaken? or "whom did he ever despise that called upon "him? Eccles. ii. 10." !< Be not afraid "of sudden fear, neither of the desolation "of the wicked when it cometh, for the "Lord shall be thy confidence, and "shall keep thy foot from being taken. « Prov. iii. 25—26." "When the enemy 41 shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of "the Lord shall lift up a standard against "him. Is. ix. 19."

(*) v. 10. "Thy Name." How spirited is this sudden turn to God!

(A) " Thy Name," i. e. "thy properties and attributes."

(/) v. 12. "Inquisition, &c." SeeGen.ix.5* s3

daughter of Sion : I will rejoice in thy salvation.

15. The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made: in the same net which they hid privily is their foot taken.

16. The Lord is known to execute judgement: the ungodly is trapped in the work of his own hands.

17. The wicked shall (m) be turned into hell: and all the people that forget God.

18. For the poor shall not alway be forgotten : the patient abiding of the meek shall not perish for ever.

19. Up, Lord, and let not man have the upper hand : let the heathen be judged in thy sight.

20. Put them in fear, O Lord: that the heathen may know themselves to be but men.

Psalm x. (n)

Vvhy standest thou so far off, O Lord : and hidest thy face in the needful time of trouble?

2. The ungodly for his own lust doth persecute the poor : let them be taken in the crafty wiliness that they have imagined.

3. For the ungodly hath made boast of his own (o) heart's de

(m) v. 17. "Be turned into hell," i.e. "be cut off: come to an untimely end.''

(n) Upon the oppressions of the wicked, and their atrocities and contempt of God. It appeals to God for deliverance, and concludes triumphantly, as if God had instantly heard the appeal, and granted the deliverance. In some writers, St. Augustine for instance, it is considered as part of the preceding Psalm.

(o) v. 3. " Own heart's desire," i. e. "his sinful inclinations: boasting of what "he ought to be ashamed: so bold is his "impiety!"

(p) v. 5. "Alway,'" i. c. "never other"wise."

sire : and speaketh good of the covetous, whom God abhorreth.

4. The ungodly is so proud, that he careth not for God : neither is God in all his thoughts.

5. His ways are alway (p) grievous (y) : thy judgements are far above (r) out of his sight, and therefore defieth he all his enemies.

6. For he hath said in his heart, "Tush, I shall never be cast "down : there shall no harm "happen unto me."

7. His mouth is full of cursing, deceit, and fraud : under his tongue is ungodliness and vanity.

8. He sitteth lurking in the thievish corners of the streets: and privily in his lurking dens doth he murder the innocent; his eyes are set against the poor.

9. For he lieth waiting secredy; even as a lion lurketh he in his den : that he may ravish the poor.

10. He doth ravish the poor: when he getteth him into his net

11. He falleth down (s), and humbleth himself : that the congregation of the poor may fall into the hands of his captains.

12. He hath said in his heart, "Tush, God hath forgotten : he

(q) "Grievous," i. e. " mischievous.

(r) " Far above." The distance to which God's judgments are removed is elsewhere described as influencing mans conduct: "because sentence against an "evil work is not executed speedily, "therefore the heart of man is fully set in "them to do evil. Eccles. viii. 11. But "when God's judgments are in the "earth, the inhabitants of the world will "learn righteousness. Is. xxvi."

(*) v. 11. " Falleth down, &c" Omitting no means which may advance his purpose.

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(t) v. 14. "Blaspheme." By insinuating that God regardeth not his acts.

(u) o. 15. "Beholdest, &c." i. e. " there "is no ungodliness or wrong thou dost "not see."

(x) t. 16. "The helper, &c." The Scriptures abound with comfort to the poor: one of God's injunctions to the Israelites was, '•' Ye shall not afflict any "Kiddie or fatherless child: if thou ar"flict them in any wise, and they cry at "all unto me, I will surely hear their cry; "and my wrath shall wax hot, and I will "kill you with the sword, and your wives "shall be widows, and your children fa"therless. Exod. xxii. 22 to 24." Solomon says, " Rob not the poor, because "he is poor, neither oppress the afflicted; "for the Lord will plead their cause, and "spoil the soul of those that spoiled "them, ProT. xxii. 22, 23.;" and again, "Enter not into the fields of the Jhther"less, for their Redeemer is mighty, "Prov. xxiii. 10.:" and Isaiah gives as a reason for God's entering into judgment with the antients of his people, and the princes thereof, " The spoil of the poor "is in your houses. What mean ye that "ye beat my people to pieces, and grind

Psalm xi. (c)

In the Lord put I my trust : how say ye then to my soul, "That "she should flee as a bird unto "the hill?

2. (d) " For lo, the ungodly "bend their bow, and make ready "their arrows within the quiver: "that they may privily shoot at "them which are true of heart.

3. " For (e) the foundations

"the faces of the poor? saith the Lord of "Hosts. Is. iii. 14, 15.'' See also Ps. xii. 5, 6.—xxxv. 10.—cxl. 12 cxlvi. 6 to 9.

(y) v. 17. "And thou shalt find none," i. e. "till thou leave none remaining; "taking it away utterly."

(?) v. 18. "The heathen," i. e. "the "wicked;" such as knew not God, neither had God in all their thoughts; v. 4.

(a) v. 19. " Thou preparest, &c." or, "thou hast prepared thine ear, to hearken "unto their prayer." Jerome.

(A) v. 20. " The man of the earth," i. e. "the oppressor, the man who careth not "for God."

(c) A spirited hymn of David's, disdaining to seek safety by flight, because of his confidence in God. It was perhaps written, when Saul first began to conceive ill-will against him. (See 1 Sam. xviii. 9. 11. &c.)

(d) v. 2, 3. The arguments used to induce him to fly. In the following verses he states his grounds for rejecting the advice.

(e) " For, &c." or " the foundations are "cast down, and what can the righteous "do?" The meaning probably is. If the foundations (i. e. of Justice and Govero

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