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6. Then shall the earth bring forth her increase: and God, even our own God, shall give us his blessing.

7. God shall bless us : and all the ends of the world shall fear him.


Psalm lxviii. (n)

Let God arise (o), and let his enemies be scattered : let them also that hate him, flee before him.

2. Like as the smoke vanisheth, so shalt thou drive them away: and like as wax melteth at the fire, so let the ungodly perish at the presence of God.

(n) An animated triumphal hymn, probably upon bringing back the ark after some victory. It calls upon the people, in a spirited way, to join in praising God, refers to some of the signal instances of his interposition, (perhaps whilst they had the ark with them,) notices an assurance God had given them of further protection, describes the state in which the ark was carried, and looks forward \o the times when the heathen nations should be brought to the worship of God. It was probably sung in parts, some by particular divisions of the choir answering each other, some by single voices, and some by the whole choir. The different parts are supposed to have begun at the 1st, 4th, 7th, 11th, 15th, 19th, 24-th, 28th, and 32d verses. It probably had in view the times of the Messiah; and David, who perhaps understood himself to be a type of Christ, might, by some of the events of his own reign, rise to the consideration of the times of the Messiah. Dr. Hammond considers it as composed by David, in commemoration of the great deliverances to the Israelites, and the judgments on their enemies, especially in their coming out of Egypt, and mystically predicting the resurrection of Christ, and the exaltation of Christ's church. Rp. Lowth remarks of it, that " were it not for some obscurities," (which probably have arisen from errors

3. But let the righteous be glad, and rejoice before God: let them also be merry and joyful.

4. (p) O sing unto God, and sing praises unto his Name: magnify him that rideth (q) upon the heavens, as (r) it were upon an horse; praise him in his Name JAH (s), and rejoice before him.

5. He is a Father of the fatherless, and defendeth the cause of the widows : even God in his holy habitation.

6. He is the God, that maketh men to be of one mind (f) in an house, and bringeth the prisoners out of captivity : but letteth the runagates continue in scarceness, (w)

in transcribing), "it would be a singular "example of incredible sublimity." It is one of the proper Psalms for Whit-sunday.

(o) v. 1. " Let God arise, &c." When the children of Israel began the journeying out of the wilderness of Sinai, and the ark of God set forward before them, Moses addressed God in nearly the words with which this Psalm begins: "Rise up, "Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered; "and let them that hate thee flee before "thee;" and this beginning might be intended to bring to recollection the instances of protection there displayed.

(p) v. 4. Second part.

(y) "Rideth, &c." A highly poetical idea. So Ps. civ. 3. it is said of him, that he " maketh the clouds his chariot, and "walketh upon the wings of the wind." So Ps. xviii. 10.

(r) "As it were upon an horse.'' This is an addition, it is not in the Hebr. The literal translation of the Hebr. seems to be, "Magnify him that rideth upon the "heavens, by Jah, his name" and so is B.T.

(*) "Jah." See some admirable observations on the primitive names of the Deity in Dr. Hales's Dissertations.

(t) v. 6. "Of one mind," i. e. "unani"lnous," "without dissensions or Asa"greements."

(u) "Scarceness," i. e. " want." The

7. (j) O God (y), when thou wentest forth before the people: when thou wentest through the wilderness;

8. The earth shook, and the heavens dropped at the presence of God : even (z) as Sinai also was moved at the presence of God, who is the God of Israel.

9. Thou, O God, sentest a gracious rain (a) upon thine inheritance : and refreshedst it, when it was weary.

10. Thy congregation shall (b) dwell therein : for thou, O God, hast of thy goodness prepared for the poor.

11. (c) The Lord gave the word (rf) : great was the company of the preachers, (e)

12. Kings with their armies did flee, and were discomfited : and they of the household (g) divided the spoil.

13. Though ye have lien (A) among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove : that is covered with silver wings, and her feathers like gold.

14. When the Almighty scattered kings for their sake : then were they as white (?) as snow in Salmon.

15. (A:) As the hill of Ba

object probably is, to point out the difference between those whom God favours, and those he disregards; and this naturally introduces those great instances of God's favour to the Israelites, the deliverance from Egypt, and his protection in the wilderness.

(*) v. 7. Third part.

(y) "O God, &c." This refers to what occurred when God led the Israelites through the wilderness in the time of Moses. Deborah and Barak allude to the same thing, in nearly the words here used, in their animated hymn after the triumph over Sisera. Judges v. 4, 5. "Lord, when "thou wentest out of Seir, when thou "marchedst out of the field of Edom, the "earth trembled, and the heavens drop"ped; the clouds also dropped water: the "mountains melted from before the Lord; "even thai Sinai from before the Lord "God of Israel." The Psalm might intentionally adopt the same expressions, to call into remembrance also that deliverance.

(z) v. 8. " Even, &c." or " Sinai itself "at the presence, &c." B. T. is so, and the Hebr. When God descended upon Mount Sinai, to deliver the ten commandments, the mount " was altogether on a "smoke, because the Lord descended "upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof "ascended as the smoke of a furnace; "and the whole mount quaked greatly, "Exod. six. 18."

(a) o. 9. " Rain," i. e. (probably) "of "manna," as the Lord said to Moses,

Exod. xvi. 4. " Behold I will rain bread "from heaven for you." And Ps. lxxviii. 25. " He rained down manna also upon "them for to eat."

(b) v. 10. " Shall dwell," or "dwelt;" had the means of living: "Thou prepar"edst for them a table in the wilderness."

(c) v. 11. Fourth part.

\d) " Gave the word," i.e. (probably) "encouraged them." This is a new subject.

(e) " The preachers," i. e. "those who "published or repeated it." Much of the force of this part of the Psalm is lost, because it is not known to what event it refers. It is not improbable that it referred to the triumph over the Midianites. God commanded the Israelites to attack them: five of their kings were slain; an immense booty was taken; and God ordered it to be divided into two parts, one for those who went out to the battle, and the other for the rest of the congregation. See Numb. xxxi. 2. 8. 27.

(g) v. 12. " Of the household," i. e. "ot those who stayed at home;" so abundant was the spoil.

(A) v. 13. "Lien," i. e. "lain." The vilest slaves used to lie on the stones upon which the pots were placed ; and the meaning is, though your state has been most abject, you shall be highly exalted.

(i) v. 14. " As white, &c." Dressed in their •whitest garments, their garments of joy: a figurative expression, to express their ecstacy.

(k) v. 15. Sixth part.

san (J), so is God's hill (m) : even an high hill, as the hill of Basan.

16. Why hop ye so (n), ye high hills? this is God's hill, in the which it pleaseth him to dwell (o) : yea, the Lord will abide in it for ever.

17. The chariots (/>) of God are twenty thousand, even thou

sands of angels : and the Lord is among them, as in the holy place (y) of Sinai.

18. Thou art gone up on high (r), thou hast led captivity (s) captive, and received (f) gifts for men : yea even for thine enemies, that (u) the Lord God might dwell among them.

(1) "Basan," where Og reigned, (Numb, xxi. 33.) not far from the place where the Midianites were overcome; a rich and fruitful hill. The literal rendering seems to be: "God's hill (is) a fruitful "hill, a hill of furrows, a productive hill." (ro) "God's hill, i.e. «' Sion." God calls it, Ps. ii. 6. " My holy hill of Sion." And it is called "his holy hill," Ps. xlviii. 1. The object here is, to set off the praises of Sion. Sion is elsewhere described as "a fair place, the joy of the "whole earth," Ps. xlviii. 2. the " per"fection of beauty,'' Ps. 1. 2.: but its highest merit is, that God has chosen it for himself, that he will abide in it for ever.

(n) v. 16. For " hop ye so," the reading should probably be, "exalt ye so yourselves:' why lift ye up yourselves, to vie with Sion? this at once decides your inferiority, that God hath chosen Sion, that he may dwell there. Whan can be more poetical, than to address the mountains, as if they could hear, and to impute to them pride and emulation, as if they had sense?

(o) "To dwell, &c." So Ps. cxxxii. 14s 15. "The Lord hath chosen Sion to "be an habitation for himself; he hath "longed for her: this shall be my rest "for ever: here will I dwell, for I nave a "delight therein."

(p) v. 17. " The chariots, oVc." So much does God's state surpass that of earthly monarchs, and so much does his dwelling on Mount Sion confer upon it greater distinction than could be conferred upon any other mountain by the residence of any earthly monarch.

(q) " As in the holy place, &c." i. e. " as "he was theretofore in the tabernacle *' upon Mount Sinai.'' See note on v. 8.

(r) v. 18. "On high," i. e. " into hea"ven;" alluding, probably, to our Saviour's ascension.

(*) "Led captivity captive," i. e. (per

haps) "overcome all the powers of dark"ness, bruised the serpent's head, and "gained the victory over sin, death and "Satan; having subdued and made cap"tives those who would put all mankind "under captivity." St. Paul refers to this passage, Eph. iv. 8. "Wherefore he saitb, "when he ascended up on high, he led "captivity captive, and gave gifts unto "men." And Bellarmine considers this passage in Eph. as a proof that the Psalm was referring to the Messiah, Bellarm. de Christo, lib. 1. c. iv. p. 282.: so does Justin M. Dial, cum Tryphone, 258. 313.; and Vaill. 34. The Messiah is spoken of, prophetically, as one who was "to pro"claim liberty to the captives, and the "opening of the prison to them that are "bound, Isaiah lxi. 1.'' "to say to the pris"oners, Go forth, Isaiah xlix. 9." referring to the power he should give mankind to extricate themselves from the dominion of Satan. In Isaiah xiv. ], 2. is a passage which has some resemblance to this: "The Lord will have mercy on Jacob, "and will yet choose Israel, and set them "in their own land: and the strangers "shall be joined with them; and they "shall cleave to the house of Jacob: and "the people shall take them captives, whose "captives they were;" and in the song of Deborah and Barak the same expression occurs : "Awake, awake, Deborah; awake, "awake, utter a song: arise, Barak, and "lead thy captivity captive, thou son of "Abinoam, Judges v. 12.''

(t) " Received gifts, &c." i. e. (perhaps) "been the means by which gifts have "been conferred upon man ;" alluding, probably, to all the benefits of Christ's death..

(a) " That, &c.r' That by turning the hearts of the disobedient (God's enemies) to the wisdom of the just, the dispositions of man might be so improved, that God himself might be considered as dwelling amongst them; ante, 167, 168. John xiv. 17. 23

19. {x) Praised be the Lord daily : even the God who helpeth us,andpourethhisbenetits upon us.

20. He is our God, even the God, of whom cometh salvation: God is the Lord, by whom we escape death.

21. God shall wound the head of his enemies : and the hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on (y) still in his wickedness.

22. The Lord hath said, "I "will bring (z) my (a) people "again, as I did from Basan: "mine own will I bring again, as "I did sometime from the deep "of the sea.

23. "That (b) thy foot may be "dipped in the blood of thine "enemies: and that(i) the tongue "of thy dogs may be red through "the same."

24. (c) It is well seen, O God, how thou goest : how thou, my God and King, goest in the sanctuary.

25. The singers go before; the minstrels follow after : in the midst are the damsels playing with the timbrels.

26. Give thanks, O Israel, unto God the Lord in the congregations (d) : from the ground of the heart, (e)

27. There (g) is little Benjamin their ruler, and the princes of Judah their council : the princes of Zabulon, and the princes of Nephthali.

28. (/*) Thy God (i) hath sent forth strength for thee : stablish (/t) the thing, O God, that thou hast wrought in us.

29. For thy temple's sake at

(*) v. 19. Seventh part.

(y) r.21. " Goeth on still in," i. e. "persisteth in."

(z) v. 22. " I will bring, &c." i. e. "I will work as signal deliverances for "them, and take such vengeance upon "their enemies, as when I brought them "up from Basan," (where they overcame 0g, the king of Basan,) "and when 1 led "them through the sea," (on their escape from Pharaoh).

(a) The literal translation seems to me, "The Lord hath said, " I will bring back, "I will bring back from Basan, from the "depths of the sea." "My people," or "my own," is not in the original.

(4) v. 23. " That," i. e.»' so that." "In "such abundance shall the blood of thine "enemies be shed." So Ps. lviii. 9. a vengeance is spoken of, where the righteous " shall wash his footsteps in the blood "of the ungodly."

Mv. 24. Eighth part.

This probably refers to the state with *hich the ark, the type of God, was earned to the sanctuary. Among the wings which astonished the Queen of Sheba, was Solomon's " ascent, by which "be went up to the house of the Lord, '1 Kings x. 5." probably, on account of "* solemnity and magnificence.

(d) v. 26. "The congregations," i. e. "the religious meetings of the people." See ante, Ps. xxii. 25. — xxxv. 18. — xl. 11.

(e) " Ground of the heart," "to de"note its sincerity;" in opposition to what is complained of, Isaiah xxix. 13. "drawing near to God with the mouth, "and honouring him with the lips, whilst "the heart is removed far from him."

(g) v. 27. "There," i. e. " either in "the procession, or in the congregation, "the religious assembly." Benjamin and Judah, who were nearest to Jerusalem, and Zabulon and Nephthali, who were farthest off, to shew that all the tribes came, far and near: and Benjamin, which was Saul's tribe, and Judah, which was David's, to shew that there were no dissensions, but perfect unanimity. Zabulon and Nephthali were tribes of eminent learning.

(h) v. 28. Ninth part.

(i) "Thy God, &c." i. e. " it is he who "hath sent forth strength on thy behalf, "it is through him thou hast done thy "mighty acts." As in Ps. lx. 12." Through "God will we do great acts: for it is no "that shall tread down our enemies."

(A) " Stablish, &c" i. e. " confirm, "complete what thou hast begun in us."


Jerusalem : so (/) shall bring presents unto thee.

30. When (rri) the company of the spearmen and multitude of the mighty are scattered abroad among the beasts of the people, so that they humbly bring pieces of silver : and when he hath scattered the people that delight in war;

31. Then shall the princes come out of Egypt: the Morians' land (ri) shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.

32. (o) Sing unto God, O ye

Lessons for the Thirteenth Day

kingdoms of the (jp) earth : 0 sing praises unto the Lord,

33. Who sitteth in the heavens over all from the beginning: lo, he doth send out his voice (q), yea, and that a mighty voice.

34. Ascribe ye the power to God over Israel : his worship and strength is in the clouds.

35. O God, wonderful art thou in thy holy places : even the God of Israel; he will give strength and power unto his people; blessed be God.

of the Month throughout the Year.


(I) ante, 35. 87. (2) ante, 139. 142. (3) ante, 90. (4) ante, 138. 169. (5) ante, So. t>~(6) ante, 59. 61, 62. (7) ante, 44. 37. (8) ante, 179. (9) ante, 163. (10) ante, 1«.

(II) ante, 184.

(/) v. 29. B. T. omits "so."

\m) v. 30. " When, &c." The carrying up the ark naturally leads to the contemplation of the future glory of the temple, and properly introduces the prediction, that when God shall have given them the victory over their enemies, and established them in peace, the heathen shall become proselytes, and join in their worship.

(n) t>. 31. "Morian's land," i. e. (probably) " Ethiopia," put indefinitely for any heathen land. This is probably one of the many predictions which looked forward to the conversion of the Gentiles.

See note on Psalm xxii. 27 lxxxvi. 9.

According to Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. b. 2.

c. 1. through the preaching of the eunuch whom Philip baptized, (See Acts viii. 26 — 40.), Ethiopia w«6 the first of the Gentile lands that embraced Christianity.

(o) v. 32. Tenth part.

(») '* Kingdoms of the earth," i. e. "the Gentiles," such as before were without the true worship or knowledge of God; looking forward probably to the times when, according to Rev. xi. 15. "Tne "kingdoms of this world shall become the "kingdoms of the Lord, and of his Christ.

(q) v. 33. " His voice." Perhaps alluding to thunder, which is often called, particularly in Ps. xxix. "the voice of the '< Lord."

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