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17. But he had sent a man before them: even Joseph, who was sold to be a bond-servant (c);

18. Whose feet they hurt in the stocks: the iron entered into his soul;

19. Until the time came that his cause was known: the word (d) of the Lord tried (e) him.

20. The king sent and delivered him: the prince of the people let him go free.

21. He made him lord also of his house: and ruler of all his substance;

22. That he might inform his princes after his will: and teach his senators wisdom.

23. Israel also came into Egypt: and Jacob was a stranger (jg) in the land of Ham. (h)

24. And he increased his people exceedingly: and made them stronger than their enemies;

25. Whose heart turned so, that they hated his people: and dealt untruly with his servants.

26. Then sent he Moses his servant: and Aaron whom he had chosen;

(c) v. 17. " A bond-servant:" not likely, therefore, but through God's aid, to advance their interests, or supply their wants.

(d) v. 19. "The word, &c." i. e. (perhaps) "the power God gave him of inter"preting dreams."

(e) "Tried him," i. e. "distinguished "him," "brought him into notice," "proved his worth."

(g) v. 23. "Was a stranger," or "sojourned. B.T." (A) " The land of Ham," i. e. " Egypt." {»') v. 27. "Wonders." The propriety of these wonders with reference to the peculiar circumstances of the Egyptians and the objects of their idolatry, is well pointed out by Mr. Bryant in his observations on the plagues of Egypt. Bryant, 12 to 161.

27. And these shewed his tokens among them: and wonders (/) in the land of Ham.

28. He sent (&) darkness, and it was dark: and they were not obedient unto his word.

29. He turned their waters (/) into (m) blood: and slew their (n) fish.

30. Their land brought forth frogs: yea, even in their king's chambers.

31. He spake the word, and there came all manner of flies: and lice (o) in all their quarters.

32. He gave them hailstones (_p) for rain: and flames of fire in their land.

33. He smote their vines also and fig-trees: and destroyed the trees that were in their coasts.

34. He spake the word, and the (q) grasshoppers came, and caterpillars innumerable: and did eat up all the grass in their land, and devoured the fruit of their ground.

35. He smote all the first-born in their land: even the chief of all their strength.

(k) u.28. " Darkness," " which continued "for three days. Exod. x. 22." In disparagement of one great object of Egyptian worship, the Sun. Bry. 140 to 161.

(/) v. 29. "Their waters," which they worshipped. Bryant, 15 to 19.

(m) "Blood,' which they abhorred. Bryant, 21.

(n) "Fish," which they also worshipped. Bryant, 24 to 27.

(o) v. 31. " Lice," which, from their affectation of external purity in their idolatrous worship, were peculiarly offensive and disgraceful. Bryant, 4, 5. &c.

fj>) i). 32. " Hailstones:" calculated to raise the greatest astonishment, because in those parts it never hails or rains. Bryant, 109.

(q) v. 34. "Grasshoppers," or "locusts." Bryant, 120 to 140.

36. He brought them forth also with silver (r) and gold: there was not one feeble person among their tribes.

37. Egypt was glad at their departing: for they were afraid of them.

38. He spread out a cloud to be a covering: and fire to give light in the night-season.

39. At their desire he brought quails: and he filled them with the bread of heaven.

40. He opened the rock of

stone, and the waters flowed out: so that rivers ran in the dry places.

41. For why? he remembered his holy promise: and Abraham his servant.

42. And he brought forth his people with joy: and his chosen with gladness;

43. And gave them the lands of the heathen: and they took the labours of the people in possession;

44. That they might keep his statutes: and observe his laws.

(r) v. 36. " Silver and gold." They got from the Egyptians "jewels of silver, "and jewels of gold, and raiment. "Exod. xii. 35, 36." Our translation im

ports that they borrowed them, but it probably should be that they asked them as gifts. See post, note on Exod. iii. 22.— and on Exod. xii. 36.

Lessons for the Twentyfrst Day of the Month throughout the Year.

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4. Remember me, O Lord, according to the favour that thou bearest unto thy people: O visit me with thy salvation!

5. That I may see the felicity of thy chosen: and rejoice in the gladness of thy people, and give thanks with thine inheritance.

e. We have sinned with our fathers: we have done amiss, and dealt wickedly.

7. Our fathers regarded not thy wonders in Egypt, neither kept they thy great goodness in remembrance: but were disobedient at the sea, even at the Red Sea.

8. Nevertheless, he helped them for his Name's sake (/): that he might make his power to be known.

9. He rebuked the Red Sea also, and it was dried up: so he led them through the deep, as through a wilderness;

10. And he saved them from the adversaries' hand: and delivered them from the hand of the enemy.

11. As for those that troubled

(0 v. 8. "Name's sake." See Psalm

XXT. 10.

(*) v. 12. "Sang praise." It was upon this occasion the triumphal hymn in Exod. xv., the most antient piece of poetry now extant, (A. C. 1551.) was written.

(c) v. 14. " Lust," to have Jlesk to eat, because they were tired of manna. See Numb. xi. 4. "The mixed multitude "that was among them fell a lusting, "and the children of Israel also wept "again, and said, Who shall give us flesh "to eat?"

(to) v. 15. "Gave them, &c." According to Numb. xi. SI. "There went forth a "wind from the Lord, and brought quails * from the sea," which they gathered up in large quantities.

(x) " Leanness, &c." See Numb. xi.

them, the waters overwhelmed them: there was not one of them left.

12. Then believed they his words: and sang praise (u) unto him.

13. But within a while they forgat his works: and would not abide his counsel j

14. But lust (») came upon them in the wilderness: and they tempted God in the desert.

15. And he gave them (w) their desire: and sent leanness (x) withal into their soul.

16. (y) They angered (z) Moses also in the tents: and Aaron, the saint of the Lord.

17. So the earth opened, and swallowed up Dathan: and covered the congregation of Abiram.

18. And the fire was kindled in their company: the flame burnt up the ungodly.

19. They made a calf (a) in Horeb: and worshipped the molten image.

20. Thus they turned their glory (£): into the similitude of a calf that eateth hay.

21. And they forgat God their

33. "While the flesh was yet between "their teeth, ere it was chewed, the "wrath of the Lord was kindled against "the people, and the Lord smote "the people with a very great plague: "and he called the name of that place "Kibroth Hattaavah, because there they "buried the people that lusted." See also Ps. lxxviii. 31.

(y) v. 16. See Numb. xvi. 1 to 35.

(x) "Angered" or "envied." 2.Hales, 216.

(a) v. 19. "A calf." See Exod. xxxii. 4.

(b) v. 20. "Turned their glory." St. Paul uses the same expression for idol worship, Rom. i. 23. " They changed the "gl°ry °f tne incorruptible God into an "image made like to corruptible man." So Jer. ii. 11. "Hath a nation changed

Saviour: who had done so great things in Egypt;

22. Wondrous works in the land of Ham (c): and fearful things by the Red Sea.

23. So he said, he would have destroyed them, had not Moses his chosen stood (d) before him in (e) the gap : to turn away his wrathful indignation, lest he should destroy them.

24. Yea, they thought scorn (g) of that pleasant land: and gave uo credence unto his word;

26. But murmured in their tents: and hearkened not unto the voice of the Lord.

26. Then lift he up his hand (A)

"their gods, which are yet no gods? but "my people have changed their glory for "that which doth not profit."

(c) v. 22. "Land of Ham," i. e. "Egypt."

(d) v. 23. "Stood, &c." See Exod. xxxii. 11, 12. " Moses besought the Lord "his God, and said, "Lord, why doth "thy wrath wax hot against thy people, «' whom thou hast brought forth out of "the land of Egypt, with great power, "and with a mighty hand? Wherefore "should the Egyptians say, "For mis"chief did he bring them out, to slay them "in the mountains, and to consume them "from the face of the earth?"

(e) "In the gap," a military metaphor. Where an enemy has made a breach in a besieged place, opposing him in the breach "is standing against him in the gap;" a critical and perilous situation! See note on Ezek. xiii. 5.

{g) v. 24. "Scorn, &c." See ante, 3. note on Psalm xcv. 8 to 11.

(h) v. 26. "Lift he up his hand," i. e. "sware." In the Israclitish mode of swearing, the hand was lifted up, and there are several passages in which the expression of " lifting up the hand" signifies "swearing." Sec Gen. xiv. 22, 23. "1 have lift up mine hand unto the Lord, "that I will not take any thing that is "thine." So Ezek. xx. 15. 23. "I," (i. e. God) "lifted up my hand unto them "in the wilderness, that I would not

against them: to overthrow them in the wilderness;

27. To cast out their seed among the nations: and to scatter them in the lands.

28. They joined themselves unto Baal-peor (i): and ate the offerings of the dead.

29. Thus they provoked him to anger with their own inventions: and the plague was great among them.

30. Then stood up Phineas, and prayed (k): and so the plague ceased.

31. And that was counted unto him for righteousness: among all posterities for evermore.

"bring them into the land which I had "given them, and that I would scatter "them among the heathen, and dispene "them through the countries." Ami Rev. x. 5. "The angel lifted up his hand "to heaven, and sware." See also Eiek. xx. 5. 28. 42. —Dan. xii. 7. —Pa- xliv.SI. — cxliv. 8. and xcv. 11.

(i) v. 28. "Unto Baalpeor." See Numb. xxv. 3. " And Israel joined him"self unto Baalpeor; and the anger of "the Lord was kindled against Israel."

(*) v. 30. "Prayed," or, «' executed "judgment (B. T.):" Dr. Hammond readi. "made an atonement," either of which seems right. The Bible gives no account of any prayer by Phineas, but when Zimri brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman, and God destroyed 24,000 of the people for joining themselves unto the daughters of Moab, and unto Baalpeor, Phineas slew Zimri and the woman; ''and "the Lord spake unto Moses, sajing. "Phineas hath turned my wrath away "from the children of Israel, while he "was zealous for my sake among them, "that I consumed not the children of "Israel in my jealousy: Behold, I filrt "unto him my covenant of peace, and he "shall have it, and his seed after him. "even the covenant of an everlasting "priesthood, because he was zealout for "his God, and made an atonement for »* "children of Israel." See Numb. u*. 10 to IS.

32. They angered him also at the waters of strife (/): so that he punished Moses for their sakes.

33. Because they provoked his spirit : so that he spake unadvisedly (m) with his lips.

34. Neither destroyed they the heathen («) : as the Lord commanded them;

35. But were mingled among the heathen : and learned their works.

36. Insomuch that they worshipped (o) their idols which turned to their own decay: yea, they offered their sons and their ] daughters unto devils;

37. And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters : whom they offered unto the idols of Canaan, and the land was defiled with blood.

38. Thus were they stained with their own works : and went a whoring with their own inventions.

39. Therefore was the wrath of the Lord kindled against his people : insomuch that he abhorred his own inheritance.

40. And he gave them over (o) into the hand of the heathen:

(/) t).32. "Of strife," so called, because the children of Israel strove with the Lord for want of water. See Numb. xx. 13.

(m) v. 33. " Unadvisedly, &c." God had ordered Moses and Aaron to speak unto the rock before the eyes of the assembly, and it should give forth water; they did so, and Moses struck the rock with his rod twice, and the water came out abundantly; but Moses used some expressions which implied a distrust in the water's being produced, and were ill calculated to put the minds of the people into a proper temper to give the miracle its proper effect: " Hear now, ye rebels, "must we fetch you water out of this

and they that hated them were lords over them.

41. Their enemies oppressed them : and had them in subjection.

42. Many a time did he deliver them : but they rebelled against him with their own inventions, and were brought down in their wickedness.

43. Nevertheless, when he saw their adversity : he heard their complaint.

44. He thought upon his covenant, and pitied them according unto the multitude of his mercies: yea, he made all those that led them away captive, to pity them.

45. Deliver us, O Lord our God, and gather us from among the heathen : that we may give thanks unto thy holy Name, and make our boast' of thy praise.

46. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting, and world without end: and let all the people say, Amen.


Psalm cvii. (p)

O Give thanks unto the Lord;

"rock?" and "God spake unto Moses "and unto Aaron, "Because ye believed "me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of "the children of Israel, therefore ye shall "not bring this congregation into the land "which I have given them." Numb. xx. 8. 10, 11, 12. Numb. xiv. 26. Deut. iii. 2. Hales, 217, 218.

(n) " Destroyed they the heathen." See Judges i. ii.

(o) v. 36.40.'«Worshipped," and " gave "them over." See ante, 356. note on Psalm lxxviii. 59.

(p) A beautiful alternate hymn, by two sets of singers, each endeavouring to surpass the other. It animates the people

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