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Lord God to grow every tree that is j pleasant to the sight, and good for food: | the tree (q) of life also in the midst of , the garden, and the (q) tree of know-! ledge of good and evil. 10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. 11. The name of the first is Pison (r): that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12. And the gold of the land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx-stone. 13. And the name of the second river it Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of (s) Ethiopia. 14. And die name of the third river is Hiddekel (t): that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. 15. And the Loud God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden, to dress it, and to keep it. 16. And the Loud God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden "tliou mayest freely eat: 17. But of "the tree of the knowledge of good "and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for "in the day that thou eatest thereof, "thou shalt surely die («)." 18. And the Lord God said, "It is not good "that the man should be alone: I will "make him an help meet for him." 19. And out of die ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, and brought

(q) v. 9. " The tree of life," and "the "tree of knowledge, &c." both (says Bp. Newton) figurative: the former signifying the means of living in all true enjoyments, and attaining a happy immortality; the latter, the risk of swerving from his duty. 1 Newt. 103.

(r) o. 11. *' Pison." There is a stream from the Euphrates to the Tigris, a short distance from the Persian Gulph; and from thence to the gulph the Euphrates had the name of Pison, the Tigris that of Gihon. This cross stream, therefore, from the Euphrates to the Tigris, is the river that watered the garden. 1 Well's Geography, c.i. p. 47.

(s) v. 13. «' Ethiopia," rather " Cush," in Asia. Patr.

(t) v. 14. *' Hiddekel," i. e. " the Tigris."

(«) v. 17. "Die," i. e. either, "incur

them unto Adam, to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. 20. And Adam gave names to all catde, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field: but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. 21. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. 22. And the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. 23. And Adam said, "This is "now bone of my bones, and flesh of "my flesh: she shall be called, Wo"man, because she was taken out ot "man." 24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and (r) the)' shall be one flesh (j/). 25. And they were both naked, the man and ht> wife, and were not ashamed.

CHAP. III.

.N ow the serpent (z) was more subtile than any beast of the field which the Lord God had mode: and he said unto the woman, "yea, hath God said. "Ye shall not eat of every tree of the "garden?' 2. And the woman said unto the serpent, "We may eat of the "fruit of the trees of die garden: "3. But of the fruit of the tree which

"a spiritual death," or, "become subject "to death, mortal." Moses could not mean to insinuate that they were threatened with immediate death, to die on the dajof eating, for that he knew had not happened

(x) v. 24. •• They," or " they tmo." It is so quoted by our Saviour, Matt, xix-5. — Mark x. 8. —and by St. Paul, 1 Car. vi. 16. —and Eph. v. 31.

(y) " One flesh :" "to have but one mind, "heart, and will; to agree in all things

(z) v. I. " The serpent." Not the natural animal, but the great eumj of mankind, spoken of in Rev. xii. 9. as " the "great dragon, that old serpent, caDed "the devil and satan." He might assume the appearance of a serpent, or this nap" be the symbol, or hieroglyphic, by which, in antient times, he was represented. I Newt. 108.

"it in the midst of the garden, God "hath said, "Ye shall not eat (a) of "it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye "die." 4. And the serpent said unto the woman, "Ye shall not surely die. "5. For God doth know, that in the "day ye eat thereof, then your eyes "shall be opened: and ye shall be as "Gods, knowing good and evil." 6. And when the woman saw (b) that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise; she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat. 7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked: and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves aprons. 8. And they heard the voice of the Lord God, walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves (c) from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. 9. And the Lord God called unto

Adam, and said unto him, "Where art "thou?" 10. And he said, "I heard "thy voice in the garden: and I was "afraid because I was naked; and I hid "myself." 11. And he said, "Who "told thee that thou wast naked? hast "thou eaten of the tree, whereof I com"manded thee, that thou shouldest not "eat?" 12. And the man(d)said, "The "woman, whom thou gavest to be with "me, she gave me of the tree, and I did "eat." 13. And the Lord God said unto the woman, "What is this that "thou hast done?" and the woman said, "The serpent beguiled me, and I did "eat." 14. And the Lord God said unto the serpent, "Because thou hast "done this, thou art cursed above all "cattle, and above every beast of the "field: upon (e) thy belly shalt thou "go, and dust shalt thou eat all the "days of thy life. 15. And 1 will put "enmity between thee and the woman, "and between thy seed and (g) her "seed: (h) it shall bruise (*) thy head, "and thou shalt bruise (h) his (t) heel."

(a) t>. 3. " Eat, &c." "Eating of the "forbidden fruit (says Bp. Newton) is "nothing but a continuation of the hicro"g'yphic8, in whicli the history of the fall "was recorded before the use of letters: "what was the particular sin is not known: "it was violating a divine command, in"dulging an unlawful appetite, aspiring "after forbidden knowledge. 1 Newt. 109."

(6) o. 6. "Saw." The serpent probably eat of it in her sight. 2 Hales, 13.

(c) v. 8. «' Hid themselves." The first consequence of a sense of guilt!

(d) v. 12. "The man said, &c." Neither Adam or his wife aggravated their guilt by denying it. In the present more depraved state of man, the guilt of falsehood in denying the offence is in general added to the guilt of sin.

(<r) v. 1*. "Upon thy belly, &c." i. e. (figuratively ;) "in a wretched, despised, "and degraded state, abject, as one who "is forced to crawl upon the ground, and

miserable, as one who has no food but "dust." la Ps. xliv. 25. where the people are described as in the lowest state of misery, it is said, "our soul is brought "low, even unto the dust: our belly cleav"tth unto the ground." And Is. Ixv. 25. where the prophet is looking forward to the

success of Christianity, he says, (in allusion to this passage,) "and dust shall be the "serpent's meat."

(g) D. 15. "Her seed." So that she was not to die immediately: they were relieved from the dread of instant death. It is observable, that the Jews, in their genealogies, regarded principally the males ; and it would probably strike them as singular that in this passage the reference was made only to the woman's seed: but it would the better enable them to understand and apply the prophecies, (Is. vii. 14.) "a virgin "shall conceive and bear a son, &c." and (Jer. xxxi. 22.) "the Lord hath created a "new thing in the earth; a woman shall "compass a man." It would also prepare them the more readily to believe the miraculous conception.

(A) "It," or "he." The word in the original has both significations. The Sept.

translates it " he." See 2 Hales, 19.

"It," and " his." So that a single person only was referred to; viz. Christ.

(i) "Thy head," "his heel." The former a mortal part, the latter not. An intimation, therefore, that however man might be annoyed and harassed by the consequences of sin and the enmity and attacks of the devil, yet that at some time or 16. Unto the woman he said, "I will "greatly multiply thy sorrow, and (k) "thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt "bring forth children: and thy desire "shall be to thy husband, and he shall "rule over thee." 17. And unto Adam he said, "Because thou hast hearkened "unto the voice of thy wife, and hast "eaten of the tree of which I com"manded thee, saying, 'Thou shalt "« shalt not eat of it:' cursed is the "ground for thy (/) sake; (m) in sor"row shalt thou eat of it all the days

other, in some way God might think fit, some seed of the woman should gain the victory over Satan (signified by bruising his head), and open a way to deliverance from that death which had been denounced for their transgression: that, according to Rom. v. 12. 18. "as by one man (viz. "Adam) sin entered into the world, and "death by sin, even so by the righteous"ness of one (viz. Christ), the free gift of "eternal life might be ottered unto all." Though Adam and Eve might not understand when or how this deliverance was to be accomplished (and perhaps it was intentionally concealed from them), this promise would naturally raise them from absolute despair, and would encourage them and their posterity, with a view to their redemption, to look up to God, and perform the duties of religion. See the 3d of Sherlock's Discourses upon Prophecy, and 1 Horsley's Sermons, 289 to 310. 1 Newt. 162.

(k) v. 16. "And," or " in."

(/) v. 17. "Sake," or " sin;" "trans"gression."

(m) "In sorrow, &c." i. e. "thou "shalt be forced to use great pains and "labour to procure from it thy necessary "food."

(n) v. 19. "For out of it wast thou "taken," or, "from whence thou wast "taken." Patr.

(o) i'. 20. "Eve." which signifies " re"storing life, or living." The Sept. renders it " life." So 1 Lightf. 2. This name was probably given her by Adam, in thankful remembrance of the great promise in verse 15., because that promise relieved them from the dread of immediate destruction, softened the original denunciation "thou shalt surely die," and might give them still the prospect of life and immortality.

"of thy life. 18. Thorns also and "thistles shall it bring forth to thee: "and thou shalt eat the herb of the "field. 19. In the sweat of thy face "shalt thou eat bread, till thou return "unto the ground; (n) for out of it wast "thou taken: for dust thou art, and "unto dust shalt thou return." 20. And Adam called his wife's name (o) Eve, because she was (p) the mother of all (y) living. 21. Unto Adam also, and to his wife, did the Lord God make costs (r) of skins, and clothed them. 22. And

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(q) "Of all living," i. e. either " of all "mankind," or "of all who were to be "rescued from the curse of death, all who "were to be partakers of eternal life;" or the rendering might be, "of all life," viz. "of that seed from whom all life was to "come," who was to "abolish death, and "to bring life and immortality to light "through the gospel, 2 Tim. i. 10." For "as in Adam all die, even so in Christ "(this promised seed) were all to be made "alive. 1 Cor. xv. 22." And he only "that hath the Son hath life; and he that "hath not the Son of God hath not U/e. "2 John v. 12." Our Saviour says of himself, John xi. 25. "lam the resume"tion and the life." St. Paul says, Col. iii. 4. "when Christ, who is our life, shall "appear." And St. John personifies the life, 1 John i. 2. " The life was manifested, "and we have seen it, and bear witness, "and shew unto you that eternal lift, "which was with the Father, and was "manifested unto us." See 1. Newt 113.

(r) v. 21. "Of skins." As it does wi appear that man was as yet permitted to kill animals for food, (see Gen. i. 29.)i i' has been conjectured, that they had been instructed by God to offer them as an art of religious worship; that God had appointed them as vicarious expiations lor sin, as types or prophecies in action, as representations of the great sacrifice to be offered in after times for the sins of the world, and that atonement by the death and sacrifice of animals was instituted from the time of the fall, to prepare men's miDil.5 to understand the great atonement by the death and sacrifice of Christ. It is difficult to suppose how the practice of sacrifice came to prevail so universally as it did, and that amongst nations of all withe Lord God said "Behold (r) the "man is become as one (■?) of us, to "know good and evil. And now, lest "he put forth his hand and take also "of the tree of life, and eat and live for "ever:" 23. Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. 24. So he drove out the man: and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden, Cherubims, and a naming sword, which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.

CHAP. VI.

And it (/) came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 2. That the (u) sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. 3. And the Lord said, "My spirit shall not always (x) "strive with man (y) for that he also is "flesh: (z) yet his days shall be an hun"dred and twenty years." 4. There were (a) giants in the earth in those

gions, if it was not instituted by the express command of God. See 2 Lightf. 1327.

— I Lightf. 2. — 1 Newt. 113. 163 2

Hales, 24. It is probable, too, from this passage, that the fall of man was not until some time after his creation; until the animals, whose skins they used, had had time to breed.

(r) v. 22. " Behold, &c." ironically. 2 Chrys.281. Horn, on Matt. ix. 13. and 2 Chrys. 134. Horn, on Matt. v. 3.

(f) «' One of us." Another plural; as if the speaker were not alone. See note (h) on Gen. i. 26.

(0 v. I. "Came to pass." A. M. 1536. B.C.2468.

(u) v. 2. "Sons of God," and "the daugh"ten of men." "The former," (as many suppose,! "the descendants of Seth, who "had hitherto adhered rightly to the wor"ship of God; the latter, the descendants "of Cain, who had turned to idolatry. 1 "Shuckf. 13.— 1 Lightf. 995. - Van Mild. "40." Another rendering is, "that the "sons of the great saw the daughters of the "poor that they were fair, and they took "them women of all which they chose,'' referring to an unlawful and forced concubinage. (1 Wall, 9 to 12. and see Schind

days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them: the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. 5. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. 7. And the Lord said, "I will "destroy man, whom I have created, "from the face of the earth, both man "and beast, and the creeping thing, and "the fowls of the air: for it repenteth "me that I have made them." 8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord. 9. These are the (b) generations of Noah: Noah was a just man, and perfect in (c) his generations, and Noah walked with God. 10. And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Jnpheth. 11. (d) The earth also was corrupt before God; and the earth was filled with violence. 12. And God looked upon the earth, and behold, it was corrupt:

ler, 79.) and this violence would naturally call forth the denunciation in v. 3.

(x) v. 3. "Strive with," i. e. (perhaps) "labour to correct." To the same effect as Is. i. 5. " Why should ye be stricken any "more; the whole head is sick, &c." See post. Or it may mean, "bear with," put up with their iniquities. See 2 Hales, 37, 38.

(_y) "For that he also is flesh." Or, " be"cause he is wholly given up to sensual "sins."

(z) "Yet his days, &c." "I will never"theless still forbear 120 years; I will «' spare him for that time." St. Peter notices that "the long-suffering of God "waited in the days of Noah, whilst the "ark was preparing. 1 Pet. iii. 20."

(a) v. 4. "Giants," i. e. either "apos* "tates," deserters of the worship of God, or men of extraordinary strength and unrestrained violence; giants in stature and iniquity.

(b) «.9. "Generations," or "particu"lars ;' " this is an account of, &c."

(c) "In his generations," or "in his "xvays, or manners."

(d) v. 11. Read, "But the earth was "corrupt, &c."

for all flesh hail corrupted his way upon the earth. 13. And God said unto Noah, (e) "The end of all flesh is come "before (g) me: for the earth is filled "with violence through them: and be"hold, I will destroy them (h) with the "earth. 14. (i) Make thee an ark of "(k) Gopher wood: rooms shalt thou "make in the ark, and shalt pitch it "within and without with pitch. 15. And "this is the fashion which thou shalt "make it of: the length of the ark shall *' bethree hundred(/) cubits,the breadth "of it fifty cubits, and the height of it "thirty cubits. 16. A window shalt thou "make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt "thou finish it above; and the door of "the ark shalt thou set in the side "thereof: with lower, second, and third "stories shalt thou make it. 17. And "behold, I, even I do bring a flood of "waters upon the earth, to destroy all "flesh, wherein is the breath of lite, from "under heaven: and every thing that "is in the earth shall die. 18. But with "thee will I establish (m) my covenant: "and thou shalt come into the ark; "thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and "thy sons' wives with thee. 19. And of

(<) v. 13. «' The end," i. e. (probably) "the destruction," "the thought of bring"ing it to an end."

(g) " Before me," i. e. (probably) " under "my consideration."

{h) "With," or, rather, "from."

(i) o.l*. "Make, &c." Berosus, in his History of the Chaldeans, gives a similar account of the flood, and of God's intimation to Noah (whom he call Xisuthrus) to prepare a vessel for himself, his kindred and friends, and for fowls and beasts; and this tends to shew, that the Chaldean History places the creation at the same time as Moses. 1 Shuckf. 15,16. — 3 Hales, 18.

(k) "Gopher," i. e.««Cypress." 1 Newt. 166. Hales, 327.

(/) v. 15. "Cubits." A cubit is a foot and half, or a foot and three quarters. So that at the lowest the length would be 150 yards, the breadth 25, and the height 15. Dimensions fully sufficient to hold all the living things to be preserved with food for their subsistence, allowing the domestic animals hay, the carnivorous ones, sheep. 1 Wells, 36 to 48.— 1 Hales, 328.

"every living thing of all flesh, two of "every sort shalt thou bring into the "ark, to keep them alive with thee: "they shall be male and female. 20. Of "fowls after their kind, and of cattle "after their kind, of every creeping "thing of the earth after his kind: two "of every sort shall come unto thee, to "keep them alive. 21. And take thou "unto thee of all food that is eaten, and "thou shalt gather it to thee; and it "shall be for food for thee, and for "them." 22. (») Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.

CHAP. IX. — to verse 20

And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, "Be fruitful, and "multiply, and replenish the earth. "2. And the fear of you, and the dread "of you, shall be upon every beast of "the earth, and upon every fowl of the "air, upon all that movelh upon the "earth, and upon all the fishes of the "sea; into your hand are they deli"vered. 3. Every moving thing that "liveth, shall be (o) meat for you; "even as the green herb have I given

(m) v. 18. "My covenant," i. e. (probably) " the promise (Gen. iii. 15.) that the "seed of the woman should bruise the "serpent's head: that this promise, thorn:') "not yet fulfilled, should still be accooi"plished in some descendant from Noah."

(«) v. 22. "Thus did Noah." Noah a supposed to have lived in an inland situation. And this act of building a vessel of such extraordinary dimensions and construction, equal in capacity or stowage to eighteen first rate men of war of the present day, 1 Hales, 328. would naturally attract the notice of all his neighbourhood, and operate as a warning to all who saw or heard of it. It was also a proof of his oiedience and faith, and is noticed as such with approbation, Heb. xi. 7. "ByfaiA "Noah, being warne dof God of things not '• seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared "an ark to the saving of his house.''

(p) v.3. "Meat." This is the first licence for eating animal food; and it is followed with injunctions calculated to prevent savage habits and dispositions, to shew that the blood, even of animals, was still

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