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« " Thou shalt be built (e)," and to the "temple, "Thy foundation shall be «laid."

CHAP. XLVI. (g)

iJEL(A)bowethdown, Nebo(A)stoopeth, their idols were upon the beasts, and upon the cattle: your carriages were heavy loaden, they are a burden («') to the weary beast. 2. They stoop, they bow down together, they could not deliver the burden, but themselves are gone into captivity. 3. Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, which are (£) borne by me from the belly (/), which are carried (Jc) from the womb (/). 4. And even to your old age (/) I am he, and even to hoar hairs will I carry (k) you: I have made, and I will (&) bear; even I will carry and will deliver you, 5. To whom will ye liken me, and make me equal and compare me, that we may be like? 6. They lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance, and hire a goldsmith, and he maketh it a god: they fall down, yea, they wor

(e) "Thou shalt be built, &c." God afterwards promised the Jews by Jeremiah, "after seventy years be accomplished at "Babylon, I will visit you, and perform my "good word towards you, in causing you "to return to this place. Jer. xxix. 10." See also Jer. xxv. 12, 13. Shortly before the expiration of this period, Darius the Mede, the father-in-law of Cyrus, took Babylon; and in the 70th year, 536 years before the birth of Christ, Cyrus authorized the Jews to return to Judea to rebuild the temple and the city, and ordered them supplies. Ezra i. 2 to 4.—Josephus, B. 11. c. 1. — 3 Hales, 108.

(g) "The weakness of idols contrasted with the power and foreknowledge of God.

(A) v. 1. " Bel," "Nebo." Two Babylonian idols.

(») "Burden." So far from being gods, they cannot move themselves, nor can they exempt from fatigue those who carry them.

(t) v. 3, 4. "Borne," and "carried." Expressions intimating God's kindness to

"ship. 7. They bear him upon the "shoulder, they carry him and set him "in his place, and he standeth; from "his place shall he not remove: yea, ow "shall cry unto him, yet can he not an"swer, nor save him out of his trouble. "8. Remember this, and shew your"selves men(m): bring if again to mini!, "O ye transgressors. 9. Remember "the former things of old, for I am God, "and there is none else; I am God, and "there is none like me, 10. Declaring(ii) "the end from the beginning, and from "ancient times the things that are not "yet done, saying, "My counsel shall "stand, and I will do all my pleasure:" "11. Calling a ravenous bird (o) from "the east, the man (o) that executed) "my counsel from a far country: yea, "I have spoken /'/, I will also bring it "to pass; I have purposed it, I wfll "also do it 12. Hearken unto me ye "stout-hearted, that are far from right"eousness. 13. I bring near my right"eousness (j>); it shall not be for off, "and my salvation shall not tarry: and "I will place (q) salvation in Son for "Israel my glory."

wards them, and pointing out a rtrone difference between God and idols: God supports his people — idols are a burthen to theirs.

(/) '« From the belly," and "from the "womb, and even to your old age, 4c "a constant superintendance 'frominfancy « to death.'"

(ro) o.8. "Men," " by using your reason,"

(n) v. 10. "Declaring the end, 4c."i.f"foretelling events before they happen: a decisive proof of divinity: God repeatedly refers to it as being so. See Isaiah xli. 25, 26. ante, 647.; Isaiah xliii. 10 to 12. aatt. 649.; and Isaiah xliv. 7,8.

(o) v. 11. "A ravenous bird," or "an "eagle,'' which was Cyrus's ensign. "The "ravenous bird," and " the man that eie"cuteth my counsel," both refer to Cyn*

(p) v. 13. " My righteousness,"i.e. "tte "deliverance I promised."

(q) "Place, &c." or « give aahration in Zion, and my glory to Israel." Dr. Lo«ftoJerom.

CHAP. LI. (r)

: Hearken to me ye that follow after

righteousness, ye that seek the Lord:

look unto the rock (s) whence ye are

: hewn, and to the hole (s) of the pit

•whence ye are digged. 2. Look unto

Abraham your father, and unto Sarah

that bare you; forlcalled him alone (t),

'■ and blessed him and increased him.

5. For the Lord shall comfort Zion:

he will comfort all her waste places,

and he will make her wilderness like

: Eden («), and her desert like the garden

; of the Lord : joy and gladness shall be

found therein, thanksgiving, and the

voice of melody. 4. Hearken unto

me, my people (x), and give ear unto

me, O my nation (x): tor a law (y)

shall proceed from me, and I will

'■ make my judgment to rest (s) for a

; light of the people. 5. My righteous

; ness (a) is near; my salvation is gone

; forth, and mine arms shall judge the

; people (b): the isles (b) shall wait upon

(r) An exhortation to confidence in God, :alling to mind his works of former times, ind promises of deliverance.

{s) v. 1. " Rock," i. e. "Abraham," rom whom, on account of his age, there A as no more prospect of children, than of produce from the barren rock; and " hole 'of the pit whence ye are digged ;" referring to Sarah, from whom there was still less chance of offspring. The meaning is, if God could in that instance go so far beyond all human probability, he can do as ;reat things now. In Rora.iv. 19. there is i similar allusion to the state of Abraham Mid Sarah at the time when a son was promised them, (Gen. xviii. 10.) "he (Abraham) "considered not his own body, now dead, "when he was about an hundred years old, "neither yet the deadness of Sarah's womb, "but was strong in faith, being fully per"suaded, that what God had promised, he "was able also to perform." This miraculous conception by Sarah might be intended as a type, to lead the more readily to a belief in the miraculous conception by the Virgin Mary: each was equally against the course of nature. See 1 Chrys. Horn. 50.

(t) v. 2. " Alone," i. e. (probably) "when he had no child." («) v. 3. " Eden," i.e. " paradise."

me, and on mine arm shall they trust.

6. Lift up (c) your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner (d): but my salvation shall be for ever; and my righteousness shall not be abolished.

7. Hearken unto me, ye that know righteousness, the people in whose heart is my law; fear ye not the re* proach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings. 8. For the moth shall eat them up like a garment, and the worm shall eat them like wool: but my righteousness shall be for ever, and my salvation from generation to generation. 9. Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the Lord;

'awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it (e) that hath cut Rahab (f) and wounded the dragon (/)? 10. Art thou not it which hath dried the sea (g), the wa

(x) v. 4. For " my people," and " O my 1 nation," Bp.Lowth reads," O ye people," and " Oye nations;" and two of Dr. Kennicot's MSS. sanction the former reading, and nine the latter. He considers it as applying to the call of the Gentiles, to whom no doubt the latter part of this verse and verse 5. apply.

(y) "A law," i. e. " the gospel." "The "Christian covenant."

(z) "To rest," or " break forth;" "to "be a light to lighten the Gentiles."

(a) v. 5. " My righteousness," i. e. "the "deliverance I have promised; the gospel "dispensation."

(b) " The people," and "the isles," i.e. "the Gentiles," and "the places they in'< habit."

(c) v. 6. "Lift up, &c." a contrast between the frailty of all created things, and the stability of God's promises.

(d) "In like manner," or " as an insect."

(e) v. 9. "Art thou not it, &c." A spirited reference to the deliverance from Egypt, to remind them what God had done, and might still do.

(/) "Rahab," i. e. "Egypt." "The "dragon," i. e. " Pharaoh."

(§■) v. 10. "Dried the sea," i. e. "the "Red Sea, when the Israelites "through. Exod. xiv. 21."

passed "ters of the great deep; that hath made "the depths of the sea a way for the "ransomed (A) to pass over? 11. There"fore (»') the redeemed of the Lord "shall return, and come with singing "unto Zion, and everlasting joy shall "be upon their head: they shall obtain "gladness and joy, and sorrow and "mourning shall flee away. 12. I, even "I, am he that comforteth you : who art "thou that thou shouldest be afraid of "a man that shall die, and of the son of "man which shall be made as grass? "13. And forgettest die Lord thy "maker, that hath stretched forth the "heavens, and laid the foundations of "the earth; and hast feared continually "every day, because of the fury of the "oppressor, as if he were ready to "destroy? and where is (k) the fury "of the oppressor? 14. The captive "exile hasteneth that he may be loosed, "and that he should not die in the

(A) "The ransomed," i. e. "from the "Egyptian bondage," "the Israelites."

(i) v. 11. " Therefore," or "so, in like "manner. Pole."

(k) v. 13. "And where is, &c." An intimation that it should be of but short continuance.

(I) v. 15. " But I am, &c." "Let him "therefore turn to me."

(m) " The sea," i. e. "the Red Sea;" again alluding to that signal instance of his power and protection.

(n) v. 16. "Put my words, &c." i. e. "given thee my law;' another instance of peculiar favour. "What nation was "there so great, that had statutes and "judgments so righteous, as the law God "set before his people? Deut. iv. 8." The superiority of the Mosaic law, the wisdom of its regulations, and their peculiar fitness for the then state of the Israelites, is admirably illustrated in Dr. Greaves's excellent lectures upon the Pentateuch.

(o) "Covered thee, &c." " in thy march "to Canaan." A strong mode of expressing God's protection! So Isaiah xhx. 2. "In the shadow of his hand hath he "hid me."

(p) "May," or " might." The allusion seems to be to the original establishment of the people of Israel after their deliver

"pit, nor that his bread should faiL "15. But I am (I) the Lord thy God, "that divided the sea (m\ whose waves "roared: the Lord of hosts is his "name. 16. And I have put my "words (n) in thy mouth, and have "covered thee (o) in the shadow of "mine hand, that I may (p) plant the "heavens and lay the foundations of the "earth, and say unto Zion, "Thou art "my people." 17. Awake, awake (a), "stand up, O Jerusalem, which hist "drunk at the hand of the Lord the "cup of his fury; thou bast drunken "the dregs of the cup (r) of trembling, "and wrung them out. 18. There a "none to guide her among all the "sons (s) whom she hath brought forth: "neither is there any that taketh ber "by the hand, of all the sons that she "hath brought up. 19. These two "things are come unto thee: who shall "be sorry for thee? desolation, and

ance from Egypt. "Planting the hea"vens," and "laying the foundation of "the earth," are figurative expressicus for establishing a government. Mede, 446, 449. 616.

(g) v. 17. "Awake, awake, 4c." After suggesting the true way of obtaining deliverance, an animated appeal to rouse them to resort to it. "Does the captive "exile hasten that he may be loosed, &c. "let him then awake, and turn to him "from whom alone come punishment and "deliverance."

(r) " The cup, &c." Bishop Lowth observes, " The bold image of the cup of "God's wrath is no where handled with "greater force than in this passage, 17— "23. Jerusalem is represented in persea "as staggering under the effects of it, "destitute of that assistance she might "expect from her children: not one of "them able to support or lead her: TbeT. "abject and amazed, lie at the head of "ever}' street, overwhelmed with the "greatness of their distress: like the "oryx (or wild bull) intangled in a net, "in vain struggling to rend it and escape. "This is poetry of the first order, wh"limity of the highest proof."

(a) t>. 18. " None to guide her amongst "all the sons, &c." It is from God dot therefore she can have deliverance.

"destruction, and (t) the famine, and "the sword: by whom (u) shall I "comfort thee? 20. Thy sons have "fainted, they lie at the head of all "the streets, as a wild bull in a net: "they are full of the fury of the Lord, "the rebuke of thy God. 21. There"fore hear now this, thou afflicted, "and drunken, but not with wine (x); "22. Thus saith thy Lord the Lord, "and thy God that pleadeth the cause "of his people, "Behold, I have "taken {y) out of thine hand the cup "of trembling, even the dregs of the

(0 v. 19. "And," or "even," "deso"lation by famine," and "destruction by "the sword." («) "By whom," or "how." (x) p. 21. " Not with wine," but with misery and the cup of trembling: overpowered with distress, as a drunkard is with wine.

(y) v. 22. "I have taken, &c." this may refer to times not yet arrived: when the Jews shall turn with their whole hearts unto God. See Isaiah xi. 11.

(z) A prophetic account of the backwardness of man to believe that Christ was the Messiah, of the simplicity of his appearance, his rejection treatment and passion, of the cause and object of his sufferings, (to make an atonement for the sins of man, and to procure man's redemption,) of his burial, and future exaltation. The account is so plain and circumstantial that it looks almost like a history of what was past, rather than a prophecy of what was future, and yet is there no doubt of its existence long before our Saviour's appearance. Dr. Hales lias ;;iven a new translation of it with Notes, 2 Hales, 440. and many parts of it are :ommented upon, explained and illustrated n Dr. Magee s valuable work upon Atonenent and Sacrifice. See 1 Magee, notes, ^o. 42- Dr. Magee says of it, "That it 'not only seems designed to disclose 'the whole scheme and essence of the 'Christian atonement, but from the fre1 quent and familiar references made to it ; by the writers in the New Testament, appears to be recognised by them as furnishing the true basis of its exposition." See also 2 Justin M. Basil ed. age 42. (a) v. I. "Who hath believed;" an

"cup of my fury, thou shalt no more "drink it again; 23. But I will put it "into the nand of them that afflict "thee: which have said to thy soul, "" Bow down, that we may go over:" "and thou hast laid thy body as the "ground and as the street to them "that went over."

CHAP. LIII. (z)

"Who hath believed (a) our re"port (b)? and to whom is the arm of "the Loud (c) revealed? 2. For (rf)

intimation that there would be a disinclination, not a readiness, to believe. This passage is referred to by St. John, (John xii. 37, 38.) and by St. Paul, (Rom. x. 16.) "Though he had done so many miracles "before them, yet they believed not on "him, that the saying of Isaiah the pro"phet might be fulfilled, which he spake, "Lord, who hath believed our report, and "to whom hath the arm of the Lord been "revealed?" and Rom. x. 16. "But they "have not all obeyed the gospel, for "Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed "our report?"

{b) "Our report," i.e. "the gospel," "the report" mentioned, Isaiah lii. 7., "of "him that bringeth good tidings, that "publisheth peace, that bringeth good "tidings of good, that publisheth salva"tion, that saith unto Zion, "thy God "reigneth." See Rom. x. 15.

(c) "The arm of the Lord." "The "means God should use to bring salvation "unto man." u alludes to a passage in the preceding chapter, Isaiah lii. 10. announcing the deliverance by the Messiah, "The Lord hath made (or makes) bare "his holy arm in the eyes of all the nations, "and all the ends of the world shall see "the salvation of our God." The meaning therefore is, who will believe at his coming that in Jesus Christ is fulfilled the report "thy God reigneth?" and who will understand, or to whom will it be known, that in him hath the Lord made bare his holy arm, to display his salvation to the ends of the earth?

(d) v.2. "For, &c." The reasons why belief is not readily given; because he has no grandeur pomp or outward marks of greatness, nothing the worldly-minded think attractive.

u u

"he (c) shall grow up (g) before him as "a tender plant [h), and as a root (A) "out of a dry ground: he hath no ** form (h) nor comeliness: and when "we shall shall see him, there is no "beauty (k) that we should desire him. "3. He is despised (»') and rejected of "men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted "with grief: and we hid (k) as it were "our races from him; he was despised, "and we esteemed him not 4-. Surely "he hath borne (/) our griefs, and

"carried our sorrows: yet we did "esteem him stricken, smitten of God, "and afflicted (/»). 5. But he "w "wounded for (n) our transgressions, "he was bruised for our iniquities: the "chastisement of our peace (o) wis "upon him, and with {p) his stripes "we are healed. 6. All we (?) like "sheep have gone astray: we hare '• turned every one to his own way; and "the Lord hath laid on him (r) tk "iniquity of us alL 7. He was (i) op

(e) " He," i. e. " the Messiah," referred to in the preceding chapter, Isaiah lii. 13. "Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, "he shall be exalted and extolled and "be very high."

(g) "Grow up, &c." Referring perhaps to (as it was undoubtedly verified in) the humility of his birth parentage and early life: the reputed son of a carpenter, Matt. xiii. 56. — Mark vi. 3.; laid in a manger upon his birth, because there was no room in the inn, Luke ii. 7.; and afterwards living with Joseph the carpenter and Mary, and subject unto them. Luke ii. 51.

(h) " As a tender plant;" "a root out "of a dry ground;" "no form or come"liness;" "no beauty, &c." All figurative expressions to denote the want of external show and attraction.

(i) v. 3. "Despised." This is not the only prophecy which foretells the scorn the Messiah should experience; he is referred to Isaiah xlix. 7. as "him whom man "despiseth, him whom the nation abhor"reth;" and in the prophetic Psalm (Ps. xxii. 6.) he is represented as saying of himself, "I am a worm and no man, a "very scorn of men, and the outcast of the "people, &c."

(k) "We hid, &c." i. e. " he was treated •« as one of whom men are ashamed, from "whom they turn their face." The mar

final reading in the Bible (which Bishop ,owth and Dr. Hales follow) is, " He hid "as it were his face from us," i. e. "he "was as one who was ashamed to shew "his face."

(/) v. 1. "Borne," i. e. "taken upon "himself." Dr. Magee and Dr. Hales think the reading should be, "removed "our diseases," which would make the reference to it in Matt. viii. 17. much more natural; (" He healed all that were sick, "that it might be fulfilled which was "spoken by Esaias the prophet," "him

"self took our infirmities, and bare our "sicknesses, (or sorrows).") 1 Magee, 4-13 to 436; and then it calls into notice his miraculous power in removing the diseases oi the body, and his greater mercy in taking upon himself the sins of our souls.

(m) "Smitten of God, and afflicted,* or "smitten and afflicted of God, Dr. Hale.." "That it was God's visitation; that bt "had deserved by his own sins all he "suffered."

(n) v. 5. St. Paul speaks of Christ :■ him, " who was deliveredybr our offences. "(Rom. iv. 25.)" "who gave himself fir "our sins, (Gal. i. 4.)" who "died/or ov "sins, (1 Cor. xv. 3.);" and St. Peter an of him, that he "bare our sins ia his <m "body on the tree, that we being de*i "to sin, should live unto righteousness; "by whose stripes ye were healed: for "ye were as sheep going astray. 1 Pet«ii.24."

(o) "Of our peace," i. e. "by which "our peace, our reconciliation to God. "was to be obtained."

(p) "With," rather " by," "by means "of."

(q) v. 6. "We," i. e. "mankind," "the "whole human race."

(r) " Laid on him, &c." By the Lwtical law, the high priest was to take a f* and lay his hands upon the goat's hmand confess over him all the iniquities0' the people, and then the goat was to be» upon him all their iniquities. See Lef.w. 21, 22. The Jews therefore would «li understand what was meant by %«^m the Messiah the sins of all the world.

(s) v. 7. "He was oppressed, and be "was afflicted," or, (according to Vitringa, Bishop Lowth, Pole, and others.) "it «* "exacted, and He was made to answer; i. e. "justice made her call: satisfacf* "(or suffering) for sin was required, »» "he was made the victim." See rw" xl. 8 to 10. See 1 Magee, Notes, No. 4

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