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"pressed, and he was afflicted (s) yet "he opened (/) not his mouth: he is "brought («) as a Iamb to the slaugh"ter; and as a sheep before her

"shearers (x) is dumb, so he openetli "not his mouth. 8. He was taken from "prison (_y) and from judgment (2): "and who shall declare (a) his gener

(<) "Opened not his mouth." Though it was not to be expected that this was to be fulfilled to the letter, yet how nearly was it in our Saviour's instance? When the high priest said unto Jesus, "Answer"est thou nothing, he held his peace;" and though he gave an answer when adjured by the high priest in that solemn form, "I adjure thee by the living God," the reason probably was, because to a question so put, no Jew could innocently refuse an answer. See Matthew xxvi. 62 to 6*. Though he admitted to Pilate that he was the king of the Jews, when he was accused before him by the chief priests and elders, he "answered nothing, inso"much that Pilate marvelled greatly. "Matt, xxvii. 11 to 14. and Mark v. 2 "to 5." St. Peter says of him, "when he "was reviled, he reviled not again; when "he suffered, he threatened not. 1 Pet. "ii. 23." and instead of calling for vengeance whilst he was in the agonies of the cross, his language was, "Father, forgive '■' them, for they know not what they do. "Luke xxiii- 34."

(«) " He is brought, &c." the passage :be Eunuch was reading, when Philip oined and converted him. Acts viii. 26. o 38.

(x) "Shearers" or " slayers." See

Magee, note, No. 25.

(y) v. 8. "Prison," or " custody." )r. Hales.

(z) "From prison and from judgment," o that it was to be a judicial act, on liich the rulers would have time to delierate; it was not to proceed from accident r sudden passion. The chief priests, and ie scribes, and the elders of the people ssembled together, and consulted that ley might take Jesus, and kill him. latt. xxvi. 3, 4. When they took him, iey led him away first to Annas, and he '.at him bound to Caiaphas the high riest. John xviii. 13. 24. At Caiaphas's ie scribes and elders were assembled, id many witnesses were examined: from ence he was led bound unto the hall of dgment, where Pilate sat: Pilate shewed eat unwillingness to sentence him to •atli, but was repeatedly pressed to it by e chief priests and Jews: he went out

twice from the judgment hall to them to intimate that he found no cause of death in him; he sent him to Herod, that he also might examine him: and he was three times in the judgment hall, and at last in the judgment seat, in a place called the pavement, before he yielded to their importunities. John xviii. 28. 33. — John xix. 4. 9. 13. — Luke xxiii. 4 to 16. His crucifixion therefore was at the pressing instance of the rulers of the people, the result of consultation and plan, after he had been many hours in custody; their consideration was awakened by Pilate's opposition, and it was under a judicial sentence; so that it was by judgment that he was taken off': his crucifixion too followed immediately upon the judgment; there was no interval: so that in that respect also it is true of him, that he was taken " from judgment." Parkhurst reads, "he was taken off by the magistracy and "by a judicial trial."

(a) "Declare his generation." Many meanings are assigned to these words. Eusebius says, "for as no one knoweth "the Father, but the Son, so no one per"fectlv knoweth the Son, but the Father. "Euseb. Eccl. Hist. B. 1. c. 2." —Chrysostom, in commenting on Matthew i. 1. "«' The book of the generation, &c." says, •' How then does Isaiah say, "Who shall "declare his generation?" He indeed "pronounces his divine generation to be "inexplicable, but Matthew expounds "his generation according to the flesh. "2 Chrys. 722. Horn, on Matt. i. 1."— In 3 Chrys. 426. he again refers to this passage as intimating that how he was born " was inexplicable:" and see 5 Chrys. 1144. — Bishop Lowth understands by *' his generation," "his way or manner of "life," (as in Gen. vi. 9.) and thinks the meaning is, "Who would stand up in his "behalf? Who would justify his preten"sions by shewing the purity of his life, "the peaceable nature of his doctrines, "and the mighty works of benevolence "he had wrought." Dr. Lightfoot and others paraphrase it, "The wickedness of "the men of that generation who shall "describe?" See Dr. Hales.—Dr. Lowth. —and Parkhurst's Hebr. Diet.

ation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for (b) the transgression of my people (c) was he stricken. 9. And he made his grave (d) with the wicked (d), and with the rich (e) in his death, because (g) he had done no violence, neither was any deceit (h) in his mouth. 10. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make (») his soul (k) an offering for sin, he shall see his seed (/), he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord

shall prosper in his hand. 11. He shall see (m) of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge (n) shall my righteous servuit justify (o) many (j>); for he shall bear their iniquities. 12. Therefor? will I (q) divide him (r) a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong: because be hath poured (s) out his soul unto death: and he was numbered (/) with the transgressors, and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession (a) for the trangressors."

(b) "For," or rather " by;" " it was to "be their sinful act;" the object of his sufferings/or the tins of men was sufficiently expressed before.

(c) "My people," i.e. "the Jews." {d) v. 9. "Made his grave," i. e. " died"

"with the wicked;" ana what is the history as to Jesus Christ?" Then were there "two thieves crucified with him, one on "the right hand, and another on the left. "Matt, xxvii. S8."

(e) "And with the rich, &c." or " but "with the rich was his tomb. Schindler "171. Dr. and Bishop Lowth and Dr. "Hales." And when our Saviour was crucified, Joseph of Arimathea, a rich man, begged the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock. Matt, xxvii. 57 to 60.

(<r) For " because" Dr. and Bp. Lowth ana Dr. Hales read "although," and connect this with the following verse, "although he had done no violence, nei"ther was there any deceit in his mouth; "yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him, "he put him to grief."

(h) "Deceit," or "rebellion."

(i) v. 10. "Thou shalt make his soul," or " his soul shall make;" the original adraits of either construction. 1 Magee, note, No. 27. 4th Ed. p. 227, 228.

(A) " Soul," i. e. " life."

(/) " His seed, &c." or rather "a seed, "that shall prolong their days."

(m) v. 11. " See," i. e. "see the fruits "of, the good effects."

(n) " His knowledge," i. e. "the know"ledge of him."

(o) "Justify," i. e. " put in the situation "of just men: of men who have no sins "for which to answer."

(/>) '« Many," not all mankind.

(q) v. 12. " I," i. e. " God."

(r) " Divide him, &c." or "allot him "multitudes for his portion, and he shall "have the mighty for his spoil," i. e. be shall have followers and worshippers without number.

(s) Read, "Because he poured, 4c." "and was numbered, &c." "and tore, 4c. "2 Hales 441." assigning the reason wh; God was to divide him a portion with the great, &c.

(t) "Numbered, &c." this passage oor Saviour distinctly applies to himself, Lake xxii. 37. "This that is written must jet "be accomplished in me," "and he w "reckoned among the transgressors."

(u) "Made intercession, &C." Ik first instance occurred whilst Chrst was yet upon the cross, "Father, forgire "them, &c. ante, note (t), Luke xxii"34." The whole of this account, so singular and so circumstantial, so utter|j impossible to be the effect of guess or conjecture, was accurately and to the letter fulfilled in Jesus Christ, and has it e«: been fulfilled in any other? and yet this u but one of the many prophecies which establish the proof that he was the tw Messiah. How then can it have happened that the Jews have resisted this evidence St. Paul, in the spirit of prophecy p'*8 the answer: because "blindness in p*1 "is happened to Israel, until the mines "of the Gentiles be come in. Rom. u "25." When they shall search the scriptures; when they shall turn to God, w seriously and with humility endeavorw find out the truth, we have the sure won! of scripture that " they shall look off "him whom they have pierced, Zech. »"• "10. and Rev. i. 7." and "aUIsnd®® "be saved. Rom. xi. 26."

CHAP. LV. (x)

Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters (y), and (z) he that hath no money, come ye buy and eat, yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. 2. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread (a)? and your labour for that which satisfieth (a) not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good (6), and let your soul delight itself in fatness (£). 8. Incline your ear and come unto me: hear, and your soul (c) shall live, and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David (rf). 4. Behold, I have given him (e) for a witness to the people (e), a leader and commander to the people (e). 5. Behold, thou (g) shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, and nations that knew not thee (g) shall run unto

(x) An invitation to all mankind, Genes as well as Jews, to faith and repentce; and assurances of pardon and blesses to all believers.

(y) u.I. "Waters," i.e. "of life; spiritual meat and drink; what will sup3ort and invigorate the soul." Our viour enlarges upon this idea, (John vi. .33.35.) "Labour not for the meat ffhich perisheth, but for that meat vliich endureth unto everlasting life. The bread of God is he which cometh iown from heaven, and giveth life unto he world. I am the bread of life: he hat cometh to me shall never hunger, ind he that believeth on me shall never hirst;" and see John vi. 53 to 58. and 'in vii. 37 to 39. So John iv. 14. Whosoever drinketh of the water that I hall give him shall never thirst." !«) " And," or "even," money is not :essary for this purchase, a) o. 2. "Not bread," and " satisfieth lot," "what hath no spiritual nourishnent, will not feed the soul." [b) "Is good," and "fatness," "what lath in it the true goodness, nutriment or the soul."

c) v. 3. " Your soul," it is for that I I provide.

«l "The sure mercies of David," i. e. he gospel dispensation;" the blessings

thee, because of the Lord thy God» and for the holy One of Israel; for he hath glorified (h) thee. 6. Seek ye the Lord while he may be found (*), call ye upon him while (t) he is near. 7. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the Lord, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon. 8. For my thoughts are not your thoughts (£), neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord. 9. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher (/) than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts. 10. For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater:

to be procured for man by the Messiah, of whom David was a type.

(e) v. 4. " Him," i. e. "the Messiah.'' "The people," i. e. " the Gentiles ;'* "all "mankind."

(ff) v. 5. " Thou," and " thee," i. e. " the "Messiah." The nations who have not practised or known the true worship of God, shall be converted to Christianity, and embrace the true religion. See ante, 625. Is. ii. 2. and Is. ii. 10.

(h) " Hath glorified," i. e. "shall glo"rify," the perfect for the future; it being as certain as though it had already happened.

(«) v. 6. "While he may be found," and " whilst he is near;" to intimate, that if the opportunity is not seized when it occurs, it may never be again offered. The same intimation is given, Prov. i. 24. ante, 608. and in the parable of the ten virgins, Matt. xxv. 1 to 12.

{t) v. 8. "My thoughts are not your "thoughts," i. e. (probably) "upon the "subjects of mercy and pardon God "greatly differs from man: man cannot "easily grant a full and free forgiveness "to one who has offended him: God « can."

(/) v. 9. "Higher," i. e. "more excel"lent, more exalted, kinder, more bene"volcnt, more merciful."

"11. So (n) shall my word be that "goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall '' not return unto me void (o), but it "shall accomplish that which I please, li and it shall prosper in the thing "whereto I sent it. 12. For ye shall "go out with joy, and be led forth with "peace: the mountains and the hills "shall break forth before you into "singing (p); and all the trees of the "field shall clap their hands. 13. In"stead of the thorn shall come up the "fir-tree, and instead (r/) of the brier "shall come up the myrtle-tree: and *' it (r) shall be to the Lord for a "name (x), for an everlasting sign that "shall not be (/•) cut off."

(») v. 11. " So, &c." i. e. as "rain me"liurates the earth, and produces fruit in "the vegetable world, so shall my word im"prove the hearts of man, and bring forth "works of righteousness and goodness."

(o) "Void," i. e. "without producing •' fruit."

(p) v. 12. "Into singing;" highly poetical; implying a state of exalted happiness and exultation. So Virgil, (who had probably seen Isaiah,) "Ipsi "laetitia voces ad sidera jactant Intonsi "montes. 5 Eclog. 62." Milton advances a step higher, and makes the trees join in an act of devotion:

"And nave your tops, ye pines, With eTery plant, in sign ofworship wave."

(q) v. 13. "Instead, &c." figurative, to express a change to better times: perhaps, a spiritual change.

(r) " It, &c." or "the Lord shall be, "&c." and "shall not fail. 2 Just. M. 48."

(s) " For a name," i. e. perhaps, "a "topic of praise."

(t) An exhortation to justice, from the consideration that some signal deliverance by God was near. Encouragements to strangers and aliens to turn to God's worship and keep his commandments; with an intimation, on account of the indolence and misconduct of the rulers and teachers of the people, of some approaching judgment.

(u) v. 1. "Near to come;" so that whoever shall not have qualified himself to deserve it, shall be excluded for ever. See Is. lv. 6. The chance of sharing in blessings, and the risk of being included


"1 Hus saith the Lord, "Keep ye "judgment, and do justice: for m "salvation is near to come (*), and "my righteousness to be revealed.' "2. Blessed is the man that doeth this, "and the son of man that layeth hold "on it; that keepeth the sabbath frci "polluting it, and keepeth his hard "from doing any evil. 3. Neither let "the son of the stranger (x) that ha:h "joined himself to the Lord, speak. "saying, "The Lord hath utterly se

parated me (y) from his "neither let the eunuch (jt) say, "Be"hold, I am a dry tree (z)." t. For "thus saith the Lord unto the eunncb "that keep my sabbaths (o), and

in punishments, are both held oat as incentives in this chapter."

(x) v. 3. "The stranger," and "& "eunuch, &c." This encouragement to the strangers and the eunuchs (wbo stand here for the Gentiles) intimates that tins are referred to when the great diatketwa between Jew and Gentile should no longs exist; when the blessings of God's kingdom should be equally open to all; «d when, as it is expressed in verse 7. God; "house should be called an house « "prayer for all people'' According !» the Mosaic law, eunuchs were nerer to enter into the congregation of the Lord, Moabites or Ammonites not until the tend) generation, nor Edomites or Egyptiw-' until the third. (See Deut. xxiii. 1.5. H The old distinction between Jew and Gentile Christ destroyed. See Acts x. H, & — Rom. iii. 29, 30. — Gal. iii. 28. - Ef4 ii. 11 to 16.

(y) "Separated me," i.e. "by those "Mosaic institutions which forbad th<* "entering into the congregation."

(z) " A dry tree," i. e. " excluded fan "the blessings;" in the situation of a tree without moisture to support it, or of an* without son or daughter. It was looked upon as a signal blessing and a man« God's favour, to have sons and daughters to perpetuate the father's name and* mily: it gave him an interest upon earo beyond his own life. See verse 5.

(a) v. 4. "My sabbaths;" one of" distinguishing marks of God's people, ao» a constant acknowledgement of hi* tops'* intendance and rule; the whole subject« choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant (6); 5. Even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls, a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off. 6. Also the sons of the stranger that join themselves to the Lord to serve him, and to love the name of the Lord, to be his servants, every one that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and taketh hold of my covenant: 7. Even them will I bring to my holy mountain (c), and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt-offerings (d) and their sacrifices (d) shall be accepted

e 4th commandment, and the foundation a special promise, Is. Iviii. 13, 14. "If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." An intimation so expressed how in man neglect!! See also note on Isaiah iii. 13.

(A) "Take hold of my covenant," e. "take to my religion, follow my commandments, walk in my laws, and look up to my promises."

(c) ». 7. "My holy mountain," i. e. the place for worshipping me: my church," the mountain of the Lord's house, which is to be established in the top of the mountains, and to be exalted above all the hills; unto which all nations shall flow; Isaiah ii. 2." i. e. "the church of Christ."

(d) " Burnt offerings," and " sacrifices," e. " their worship;'' "their prayers and praises."

(e) "Mine house, &c." this passage is sferred to by our Saviour, Matt. xxi. 13. -Mark xi. 17. and Luke xix. 46.

(g) "All people,'' Gentiles as well as ews.

(A) e. 8. "Others," i. e. "the Gentiles:" "those that are gathered," i. e. the Jews." So says our Saviour, (John

upon mine altar; for mine house (<■) shall be called an house of prayer for all people (g). 8. The Lord God, which gathereth the outcasts of Israel, saith, "Yet will I gather others (h) to him, besides those that are gathered (A) unto him." 9. All ye beasts of the field, come to devour (»), yea, all ye beasts in the forest, 10. His (/<■) watchmen (I) are blind: they are all ignorant; they are all dumb dogs (m), they cannot bark: sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber. 11. Yea, they are greedy (n) dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand (m): they all look to their own way, every one for

x. 16.) " Other sheep I have, which are "not of this fold: them also I must bring, "and they shall hear my voice: and there "shall be one fold, and one shepherd."

(i) v.9. " Come to devour;" an intimation of heavy judgment upon those who should disregard the offers he had been making: whether it refers to any judgment in particular, or to judgments God should from time to time inflict, cannot well be known. The Jews experienced dreadful visitations in little more than a century, when they were attacked by Pharaoh Nechoh, (2 Kings xxiii. 33.) by the Chaldees, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, (2 Kings xxiv. 2.) and were at length carried captive into Babylon, (2 Kings xxiv. 25.); and they had a still heavier visitation within 40 years after our Saviour's crucifixion, when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans. In our own times too there have been such visitations, as bore strong marks of being "God's judgments." A similar invitation to the beasts during the Babylonish captivity occurs, Ezek. xxxix. 17 to 22.; and another, Rev. xix. 17.; so that if Isaiah's was not intended to reach to our times, that in the Revelations may.

(k) v. 10. " His," or " the."

(1) "Watchmen," i. e. (probably) " the "governors in church and state; they "who ought to see what is approaching "and to give warning." •

(m) "Dumb dogs," who give no alarm when thieves approach.

(n) v. 11. "Greedy," "too intent upon "gain:" " cannot understand," i.e. "have "no understanding."

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