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,. his gain, from (©) his quarter. '*} 12. Come ye, say they, I will fetch "wine (p), and we will fill ourselves <l with strong drink; and to-morrow "shall be as this day, and much more "abundant."

CHAP.LVII. (a)

1 He righteous perisheth, and no man layeth (r) it to heart; and merciful men are taken away, none considering that the righteous is (s) taken away from the evil to come. 2. He (t) shall enter (u) into peace: they (t) shall rest in their beds, each (*) one walking in his uprightness. 3. But (y)

draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress (z), the seed of the (a) adulterer and the whore. 4. Against whom do ye sport yourselves? against whom make ye a wide mouth and draw out the tongue? are ye not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood? 5. Enflaming yourselves with idols under every green tree {b\ slaying the children (c) in the valleys under the cliffs of the rocks? 6. Among the smooth stones of the stream is thy portion (d); they, they are thy lot (d): even to them hast thou poured a drink-offering, thoa hast offered a meat-offering. Should

(o) " From his quarter," or "from "every quarter;" rich and poor, old and young, all ranks and ages, without distinction or exception; ad unum omnes. Vitr.

(p) v. 12. "Fetch wine;" giving themselves up to sensual indigencies, without regarding threats or warnings, or looking to futurity.

(o) A strong remonstrance with the people for their idolatries; an intimation of pardon to those who repent, and a strong denunciation against those who do

not. , .

(r) v. 1. "Layeth it to heart,' I. e. •• looks upon it as a forerunner or presage "of approaching distress. See 2 Justin "M. 52." The last chapter ended with a censure upon the disregard of God's warnings; he here specifies as one warning, the death of righteous men, who are removed when judgments are at hand, to rescue them from the wretchedness of the

times.

(s) Mneas observes upon the death ot Anchises, "Heu tantis nequicquam erepte periclis. S JEn. 712.'

(J) v.,2. " He," and "they," i.e. "the «« righteous and merciful."

(u) " He shall enter, &c." God gives good men a peaceful death: they come to Their end in quiet in their beds: the death for which Balaam in vain wished, (Numb. xxiii. 10.) "the death of the righteous."

(x") "Each one, &c." i. e. "every one "that is righteous." See 2Tillots. 161.

(u) v. 3. "But, &c." After an intimation of mercy to the righteous, a remonstrance and denunciation against the wicked. .

(z) " Sons of the sorceress, &c. i.e.

"whoever resort to witchcrafts, divirr"ations, and enchantments." See ante, 653. Isaiah xliv. 25.

(a) "The adulterer, &c." meanm? those who have given themselves up to false idol worship, which is often treated as spiritual adultery.

(o) v. 5. " Under every green tree," and verse 7. "upon a lofty and high moun"tain;'' places of idolatrous worship, where they sacrificed and paid homage to the false gods, Ezek. vi. 13. — 2 Kings ivi. 4.— 2 Chron. xxviii. 4.

(c) " Slaying the children, Ac" Le. (probably) "sacrificing them to idofe." This is mentioned as one of the sins of the Israelites, Ps. cvi. 36, 37. "they oj"fered their sons and daughters unw "devils, and shed innocent blood, eTei) "the blood of their sons and of their "daughters, whom they offered unto the "idols of Canaan ;" and it was practised in Isaiah's time by Ahaz, who "burnt incense *« in the valley of the son of Hinnom, awl "burnt his children in the fire, after the "abomination of the heathen, 2 Cbrw. "xxviii. 4." See also Ezek. xvi. 20. and Ezek. xxiii. 39.

(d) v. 6. "Thy portion," "thy lot,' i. e. (probably) " the objects of your war"ship, your gods." In many passages God is said to be "the portion of h» "people," and the false gods might therefore be referred to by the words, "por"tion" and " lot:" thus, Ps. xvi. 6- " "* "Lord himself is the portion of mine in"heritance." Ps. lxxiii. 26. " God is the "strength of my heart, and my portion tot "ever." Ps. cxix. 57. "Thou art » «' portion, O Lord;" and Ps. cxlii. 6. "' I receive (e) comfort in these? 7. Upon a lofty and high mountain (b) hast thou set thy bed: even thither wentest thou up to offer sacrifice. 8. Behind the doors (g) also and the posts (g) hast thou set up thy remembrance (h): for thou hast discovered thyself (i) to another than me, and art gone up: thou hast enlarged thy bed (k), and made thee a covenant with them; thou lovedst their l>ed where thou sawest it. 9. And thou wentest to the king (/) with ointment (w), and didst increase thy perfumes (m), and didst send thy messengers (») far off, and didst abase thyself even unto hell. 10. Thou art wearied (o) in the greatness of thy way; yet saidst thou not, "There

is no hope:" thou hast found the life of thine hand (p); therefore thou wast not grieved. 11. And of whom (q) hast thou been afraid or feared, that thou hast lied (r), and hast not remembered me, nor laid it to thy heart? have not I held (s) my peace even of old, and thou fearest me not? 12. I will declare (t) thy righteousness, and thy works, for they shall not profit (t) thee. IS. When thou criest, let thy companies (u) deliver thee: but the wind shall carry them all away, vanity shall take them: but he that putteth his trust in me shall possess the land, and shall inherit my holy mountain: 14. And shall say, "Cast ye up (x), cast ye up, prepare the way, take up the stumbling block

"cried unto thee, O Lord, and said, Thou, "art my hope and my portion in the land "of the living;" and Lam. iii. 24. "The "Lord is my portion, saith my soul, there"fore will I nope in him:" and see Deut. xxxii. 9. "The Lord's portion is his peo"pie, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance."

(e) *• Should I receive, &c.'' or (perhaps) "shall not mine anger be kindled "for these things, Sept."?" Shall not I "complain? &c." not unlike Jer. v. 9. "Shall I not visit for these things? shall "not my soul be avenged on such a na"tion as this?"

(g) v. 8. " Behind the doors," and " the "posts;" two of the places where they set up their idols in their private houses: not content to introduce them into public worship, but making them the objects also of private domestic devotion.

(A) " Thy remembrance," i. e. (probably) " thy idol;" instead of remembering God, and looking up to him; making the idol the only object of their thoughts and hopes.

(*') "Discovered thyself," i.e. (probably) "opened thy mind, made known thy "wants, applied for aid."

(k) "Enlarged thy bed," i. e. "to ad'< mit strange gods." Idolatry (which is infidelity towards God) is often expressed by terms used for infidelity towards husbands. See Jer. iii. 1 to 9. — Ezek. xvi. 26. 28. and Ezek. xxiii. 3 to 48.

(/) v. 9. "The king," or, differently pointed, "Moloch." It probably means .-ume distant idol. It seems to refer to

some event then well known; perhaps during the reign of Ahaz.

(m) " Ointment," and "perfumes," (perhaps) both "for your own persons," to shew your respect, and "for presents to "the idol."

(n) "Send thy messengers, &c." i. e. "to make obeisance before your own "arrival."

(o) D. 10- "Art wearied, &c." i. e. (probably) "such was your confidence in the "idol, the distance and difficulties of the "way did not dishearten you."

(p) "The life of thy hand," i.e. (probably) " the idol," from whom alone you look for life and strength :—ironically!

(q) v. 11. "Of whom, &c." So ante, Is. Ii. 12, 13.

"dealt falsely, by and by thy deeds

(r) "Lied," i. e. "turning to idols, "denying me."

(*) "Held my peace, &c." i.e. (probably) shewn forbearance; treated thee with mercy; tried what lenity would do: but this has had no effect.

(t) v. 12. "Declare," or "expose," "thy righteousness," i. e. " what you pre"tend so to call." See post, 670. Is. lxiv. 6. "They shall not profit thee," "I will "shew their worthlessness." "They shall "furnish you no ground for hope."

(u) v. 13." Companies," i.e. "the idola"irons powers: the forces you may get "from idolatrous nations."

(x) v. 14. "Cast ye up, &c." To make good the way, and remove every obstruction, that his worshippers may have easy "out of the way of my people." 15. For "thus saith the high and lofty One "that inhabiteth eternity, whose name "is Holy, "I dwell in the high and "holy place,- with him also (y) that is "of a contrite and humble spirit, to "revive the spirit of the humble, and "to revive the heart of the contrite "ones. 16. For I will not contend "for ever, neither will I be always "wroth: for the spirit (z) should fail "before me, and the souls which I have "made. 17- For the iniquity of his "covetousness was I wroth, and smote "him: I hid me, and was wroth (a), "and he went on frowardly in the way "of his heart. 18. I have seen his "ways, and will heal him: I will lead "him also, and restore comforts unto "him and to his mourners. 19. I "create (b) the fruit of the lips (c): "peace, peace (d) to him that is far oft" "and to him that is near, saith the Lord,

"and I will heal him. 20. But (e) "the wicked are like the troubled sea "when it cannot rest, whose waters "cast up mire and dirt. 21. TTierc "is no peace, saith my God, to the "wicked.

CHAP. LVIII. (g)

(^ry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and shew Bit people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins. 2. Yet (i) they seek me daily, and delight («") to know my ways, as a nation that did righteousness, and forsook not the ordinance of their God: they ask of me the ordinances of justice: thev take delight (;') in approaching to God. 3. " Wherefore have we feted," say they, "and thou seest not' wherefore have we afflicted our souL and thou takest no knowledge?' Behold (£), in the day of your fast

access to God's temple. So Is. lxii. 10. and xl. 3.

(y) v. 15. " With him also, &c." "He "is the object of my special care." "A "broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou "wilt not despise." Ps. li. 17. Our Saviour speaks of God's making his abode with those who love him. (John xiv. 23.) "If a man love me, he will keep my words: "and my Father will love him, and we "will come unto him, and make our abode "with him."

(x) v. 16. "The spirit should fail," i.e. (perhaps) "it would be more than man "could bear."

(a) v. 17. " And was wroth, &c." or, "and he was grieved, and went on sor"rowing on account of his ways." See Sept. This suggests a reason, consistent with God's justice, why God should heal him, and why he should still continue the denunciation in verse 21.

(b) v. 19. "I create, &c." i.e. (probably) "I will furnish grounds, by offers of "peace and pardon, for thanksgiving and "praise:" perhaps looking forward to the Christian dispensation.

(c) "The fruit of the lips," i. e. according to Heb.xiii. 15. "The sacrifice "of praise." Let us offer the sacrifice of "praise to God continually, that is, the "fruit of our lips, giving thanks to his "name." It is called, Hos. xiv. 2. "The

"calves of our lips," in allusion to tk "subjects of sacrifice.

(d) "Peace, peace, &c." If this were not intended as a prophecy of the deliverance by Christ, it is at least applicable to it, and is accordingly so applied. Eph. ii. 14. 17. "He is our peace, Mil "came and preached peace to you which "were afar off," (i. e. the Gentiles,) " and "to them that were nigh," (i. e. the Jews.)

(e) y. 20. "But, &c." Though the offer of this peace is to all mankind, they who persist in their wickedness are not to expect it; it will be confined to the umtriit and humble.

(g) Of the service God requires, of the heart, not of the lips: such as shews itself in acts of reverence towards God, and af benevolence towards man: of the insufficiency of external ceremonies and outward acts of devotion, with great promises to real goodness. B.C. 698.

(h) v. 2. " Yet, &c." either an admission that they practise all the outward ceremonies of religion, or an insinuation that this is what they assert, viz. that "they seek "me early, and delight to know nj "my ways, &c.

(i) "Delight," i. e. "make a shew of "delighting."

(k) v. 3. -«' Behold, &c." this is God's answer.

"you find pleasure (/), and exact all "your labours (m). 4. Behold, ye '* fast for strife and debate, and to "smite with the fist of wickedness; "ye shall not fast as ye do this day, to "make your voice to be heard on high. "5. Is it such a fast that I have chosen? "a day («) for a man to afflict his soul? "Is it to bow down his head as a bul"rush, and to spread sackcloth and "ashes under him? wilt thou call this "a fast, and an acceptable day to the "Lord? 6. Is not this the last that "I have chosen? to loose (o) the "bands of wickedness, to undo the "heavy burdens, and to let the op"pressed go free, and that ye break "every yoke? 7. Is it not to deal "thy bread to the hungry, and that "thou bring the poor that are cast out "to thy house? when thou seest the "naked, that thou cover him ; and that "thou hide not thyself from thine own "flesh (p)? 8. Then shall thy light break "forth as the morning, and thine health

shall spring forth speedily: and thy righteousness shall go before thee; the glory of the Lord shall be thy rereward (q). 9. Then shalt thou call, and the Lord shall answer; thou shalt cry, and he shall say, "Here I am." If thou take away from the midst of thee the yoke, the putting forth of the finger (r), and speaking vanity (s); 10. And if thou draw out thy soul (t) to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall thy light rise (u) in obscurity, and thy darkness be as the noonday. 11. And the Lord shall guide thee continually, and satisfy thy soul in drought (x), and make fat thy bones: and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not. 12. And they that shall be of thee (y) shall build the old waste places: thou shalt raise up the foundations of many generations (z); and thou shalt be called, "The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to

(/) "You find pleasure and exact, "&c." "you take pleasure yourselves, "whilst ye deny it to those who are "under your control."

(m) "Labours," i. e. (probably) " from "your debtors; insolvents, delivered up "to their creditors to work out their debts "in prison." Blayney on Lam. iii. 34. p. 469. This practice is alluded to in Matt, xviii. 30. 34.

(n) v. 5. "A day, &c." or "for a man « to afflict his soul for a day. Bp. Lowth.— "Grotius."

(o) v. 6. "To loose, &c." "to shew "mercy, to relax from their demands "upon debtors and slaves.'- By the Mosaic law, if they bought an Hebrew servant, he was to serve six years only, and the seventh he was to go free. (Exod. xxi. 2. —Deuter. xv. 12.) and (according to Levit. xxv. 39, 40.) if an Israelite, who had waxen poor, was sold to an Israelite, he was not to be compelled to serve as a bond servant, but as a hired servant and as a sojourner was he to be, and was to serve to the year of jubilee only. These laws however were in many instances disregarded. See Jer. xxxiv. 13 to 17. and Neli. v. 2 to 5.

(p) ti.7. " Thine own flesh," i. e. either "thy kindred and countrymen," or generally, "any man;" all mankind being of the same flesh and blood.

(a) v. 8. " Thy rereward," i. e. "behind "thee."

(r) v. 9. "The putting forth of the "finger," i. e. "in scorn and derision;" "scornful habits." (*) "Vanity," or "falsehood." {t) v. 10. "Draw out thy soul," i. e. "open thy heart;" "liberally and cheer"fully supply his wants."

(u) "Rise in," or " burst forth from." (x) v. 11. "Drought," or "scarcity." (y) v. 12. "They that shall be of thee," i. e. "thy children;" or, "they shall build "in thee the old waste places," i. e. "all "the ruins within thy territories shall be "repaired."

(z) "The foundations of many gene"rations," i. e. "buildings of ancient "times, that have gone to decay.'* In Is. lxi. 4. amongst the promises of future joy and comfort, this is one, "They shall "build the old wastes, they shall raise up "the former desolations, and they shall "repair the waste cities, the desolations "of many generations."

dwell in." 18. If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath (a), from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: 14. Then shalt thou delight thyself in (b) the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride (c) upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with die heritage of Jacob thy father: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it."

CHAP. LIX. (d)

"Behold, the Lord's hand is not ■" shortened, that it cannot save : neither "his ear heavy, that it cannot hear. "2. But your iniquities have separated "between you and your God, and your "sins have hid his face from you, that *i he will not hear. 3. For your ** hands are defiled with blood, and "your fingers with iniquity, your lips ■" have spoken lies, your tongue hath *l muttered perverseness. 4. None ** calleth for justice, nor any pleadedi

(a) v. 13. "The Sabbath." The observance of the sabbath is pressed, Isaiah lvi. 'I. i. <>.: and the prosperity of the nation is made to depend upon it, Jer. xvii. 24 to 27. "It shall come to pass, if ye diligently "hearken unto me, saith the Lord, to "bring in no burden through the gates of "this city on the sabbath day, but hallow "the sabbath day, to do no work therein; "then shall there enter into the gates of «' this city kings and princes sitting upon "the throne of David, &c., and this city "shall remain for ever, &c. but if you "will not hearken unto me to hallow the "sabbath day, and not to bear a burden, "even entering in at the gates of Jeru"salem on the sabbath day, then will I ** kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and "it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem, "and it shall not be quenched." See note on Isaiah lvi. 4. ante, 662.

(b) v. 14. "Delight thyself in," i. e. (probably) "have many supplies and "sources of delight from; he shall give « you abundance of joy."

for truth: they trust in vanity and speak lies; they conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity. 5. They hatch (e) cockatrice-eggs (g), and weave the spider's web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth, and tkal which is crushea breaketh out into a viper. 6. Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works: their works are works of iniquity, and the act of violence is in their hands. 7. Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood: their thoughts are thought* of iniquity, wasting and destruction are in Uieir paths. 8. The way of peace they know not, and there is Do judgment in their goings: they hare made them crooked paths: whosoever goeth therein shall not know peaoe. 9. Therefore is judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us: we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness. 10. We grope for the wall like the blind, and we grope (h) as if we had no eyes: we stumble at noonday as in the night; we are in desolate places as dead men. 11. We

(c) "Ride, &c." figuratively, to denote great exaltation and prosperity; so in the song of Moses (Deuter. xxxii. 13-) the Lord "made him ride on the hi$b "places of the earth, that he might eat the "increase of the fields, and he made him to "suck honey out of the rock, and oil "out of the flinty rock,** or "bed of «• flint."

(d) Sin the obstacle to God's assistance: an acknowledgment by the people of their sins, and a promise by God of interference by the Messiah, when signal vengeance should be executed upon God's opponents, and protection shewn to his people. B.C. 698. just upon the close of Heiekiah'i reign.

(e) v.5. "Hatch cockatrice eggs," i.«'• put into practice the most mischieroos "designs."

(g) "Cockatrice eggs,'" which poison those who eat them, and, if hatched, produce venomous serpents.

(A) v. 10. "Grope," or "wander."

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