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"roar all like bears, and mourn sore
"like doves: we look for judgment,
"but there is none; for salvation, but it
"is far off from us. 12. For our
"transgressions are multiplied before
"thee, and our sins testify against us:
"for our transgressions are with us, and
"as for our iniquities, we know them;
"13. In (i) transgressing and lying
"against die Lord, and departing
"away from our God, speaking op
"pression and revolt, conceiving and
"uttering from the heart words of
"falsehood. 14. And judgment is
"turned away backward, and justice
"standeth afar off: for truth is fallen
"in the street, and equity cannot enter.
"15. Yea, truth faileth (k), and he
"thai departeth from evil maketh him
"self a prey (/): and the Lord saw it,
'' and it displeased him that there was
"no judgment. 16. And he saw that
"there was no man (ot), and wondered
"that there was no intercessor: there
"fore his arm (n) brought salvation
"unto him, and his righteousness, it
"sustained him. 17. For he (o) put on
"righteousness as a breastplate, and an
(>) v. 13. "An enumeration of the sins they acknowledge.
(A) v. 15. " Faileth," i.e. (probably) can"not stand against the opposition it finds."
(/) " Maketh himself a prey," i. e. «»ex"poseth himself to plunder or persecution."
(ra) v. 16. " No man, &c." An intimation that more than human means were to be employed. So Is. Ixiii. 5. (where the Messiah is considered as speaking): " I "looked, and there was none to help, and "I wondered that there was none to up"hold: therefore mine own arm brought 'salvation unto me, and my fury, it
* upheld me." Both passages, no doubt, •efer to the times of the Messiah.
(a) "His arm." Sols. liii. 1. "Who 'hath believed our report, and to whom
• is the arm of the Lord revealed?" (o) v. 17. " He," i.e. "the Messiah." (p) v. 18. " Repay, &c." There is the
ike prediction of vengeance in the mouth f the Messiah, Is. Ixiii. 6. "I will tread
down the people in mine anger, and ; make them drunk in my fury, and I will
briny down their strength to the earth." y; "Islands,'' i. c. (perhaps) "distant
'helmet of salvation upon his head; and 'he put on the garments of vengeance 'for clothing, and was clad with zeal as 'a cloke. 18. According to their deeds, 'accordingly he will repay (p), fury to 'his adversaries, recompence to his 'enemies; to the islands (q) he will • repay recompence. 19. So shall they 1 fear the name of the Lord from the 'west, and his glory from the rising of 'the sun (r): when the enemy shall come 'in like a flood, the spirit (s) of the Lord 'shall lift up a standard against him. '20. And the Redeemer shall come to 'Zion, and unto them that turn from 'transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord, '21. As for me, this is my covenant 'with them (t) saith the Lord, my 'spirit (u) that is upon thee, and my 'words which I have put in thy mouth, 'shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever."
CHAP. LXIV. (x) "Oh that thou wouldest rend the hea
(r) v. 19. «•' The rising of the sun,'' i. e. "the east."
(s) "The spirit, &c." An animated mode of intimating that God would himself stand up for his people and his religion, and bear down the strongest efforts of human opposition.
(t)v. 21. "Them," i.e. "those that "turn from transgression," " the converts "of the true religion."
(a) "My spirit, &c." i. e. (perhaps) "God's spirit and his promises shall on the "one hand aid and attend his church to "the end of time; but on the other hand "his church must take care to follow the "dictates of his spirit, and obey his com"mands." The same meaning probably with Jer. xxxi. 33. "This shall be the "covenant that I will make with the house "of Israel, saith the Lord: I will nut my "law in their inward parts, and write it in "their hearts, and will be their God, and "thev shall be my people."
(xj An earnest prayer to God for deliverance, acknowledging their unwortliiness, and describing the misery to which they were reduced. B. C. 698.
"vens, that thou wouldest come down, "that the mountains might flow down "at thy presence, 2. As "when (y) the "melting fire burneth, the fire causeth "the waters to boil, to make thy name "known to thine adversaries, that the "nations may tremble at thy presence. "3. When thou didst terrible things "which we looked not for, thou earnest "down, the mountains flowed down at "thy presence. 4. For since the be"ginning of the world men have not "heard (z) nor perceived by the ear, "neither hath the eye seen, O God, "besides thee,what he hath prepared (a) "for him that waiteth for him. 5. Thou "meetest (6) him that rejoiceth (c) and "worketh righteousness, those that re"member thee in thy ways: behold, "thou art wroth, for we have sinned (r/): "in those is continuance, and we shall "be saved. 6. But we are all as an "unclean thing, and all our righteous"nesses (e) are as filthy rags, and we all
"do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, "like the wind, have taken us away. "7. And there is none that called) upon "thy name, that stirreth up himself to "take hold of thee: for (g) thou hast "hid thy face from us, and hast con"sumed us because of our iniquities. "8. But now, O Lord, thou art our "father: we are the clay, and thou our "potter, and we all are the work ofthv "hand. 9. Be not wrodi very sore, 0 "Loun. neither remember iniquity for "ever: behold, see (A), we beseech thee, "we are all thy people. 10. Thy holy "cities are a wilderness, Zion («') is a "wilderness, Jerusalem (»') a desolation. "11. Our holy and our beautiful house "where our fathers praised thee, is "burnt (k) up with fire: and all Out "pleasant things are laid waste. 12. Wit "thou refrain thyself for these things, "O Lord? wilt thou hold thy peace, "and afflict (/) us very sore f
(y) o. 2. "As when, &c." i. e. "that "the mountains would flow down as metals "the fire melts, or as water when it boils "over." The idea of the mountains flowing down or melting at God's presence, occurs in the song of Deborah and Barak, and in other passages : "Lord, when thou wentest "out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of "the field of Edom, the earth trembled, "and the heavens dropped, the clouds "also dropped water. The mountains "melted from before the Lord, even that "Sinai from before the God of Israel. "Judges v. 5." So Ps. xcvii. 5. "The "hills melted like wax at the presence of "the Lord, at the presence of the Lord of "the whole earth:" and Mic. i. 4. " Be"hold the Lord cometh forth out of his "place, and will come down, and tread "upon the high places of the earth, and "the mountains shall be molten under him, "as wax before the fire."
(z) 0.4. "Not heard, &c." So 1 Cor.ii.9. "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither "have entered into the heart of man, the "things which God hath prepared for them "that love him."
(a) " He hath prepared," or "is pre"pared."
(b) v. 5. " Meetest," i. e. *4 advancest
"to meet," "pressest forward to assist," giving him blessings for which he never asked.
(c} " Rejoiceth and worketh," i.e. "re"joiceth in working."
(d) Read, "wroth, because we have "sinned, yet is it ever in thy ways, (i.e.it "is in unison with the mercy thou hast "always shewed,) " that we shall be saved; "Truly, &c." See Pole.
(e) v.6. "Our righteousnesses,"i.e."our "best works."
(g) v. 7. " For," or " therefore, &c." (h) v.9. " See," or " look upon us.' It) O.10. "Zion," and "Jerusalem," different parts of the same city.
(A) 0.11. "Is burnt." This probably alludes prophetically, either to the burning of the temple by Nebuzaradan, a serrant of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,about 586 years before the birth of Christ, when he burnt the house of the Lord, and the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem: (see 2 Kings xxv. 9.—Jer. iii.li — Ps. lxxvi. 8.) or to the burning of the second temple by the Romans, within 40 years after the crucifixion.
(/) v. 12. " And afflict, &c." or "and "still grievously afflict us."
CHAP. LXV. (tn)
"1 Am sought of them that asked not "for me (n): I am found of them that "sought(o) me not (n): I said, "Behold "me, behold me," unto a nation that "was not called by my name. 2. I "have spread out my hands all the day "unto a rebellious people (p), which "walketh in a way that was not good, "after their own thoughts: 3. A peo"pie that provoked me to anger con"tinually to my face, that sacrificeth in "gardens (q), and burneth incense upon "altars of brick (r): 4. Which remain "among the graves and lodge in the "monuments (s), which eat swine's "flesh (r), and broth of abominable "things(u) is in their vessels: 5. Which "say (x), "Stand by thyself, come not "near to me, for I am holier than thou." "These are a smoke (y) in my nose, a
(m) The call and zeal of the Gentiles foretold : the rejection of the Jews justified on account of their rejection of God their apostacy and spiritual pride: an intimation however, that of them some should be excepted: the severest denunciations against those who should continue in their apostacy and sins, and promises of new times and great blessings to the righteous. The chapter looks to the times of the Messiah, and possibly in some parts to times not yet arrived. B. C. 698.
In) v. 1. " Them that asked not for me," "them that sought me not," i. e. "the "Gentiles." St. Paul quotes this passage Rom. x. 20. "Esaias is very bold, and "saith, " I was found of them that sought "me not; I was made manifest to them w that asked not after me."
(o) "Sought,'' contrasting the conduct of the Gentiles with that of Jews: the former seeking God of their own impulse, the latter, disregarding all God's calls, though he spread out his hands unto them, and anxiously invites them.
(p) v. 2. "A rebellious people,'' i. e. "the Jews."
(y) v. 3. "In gardens," a heathen idolatrous practice.
(r) "Of brick," which was contrary to the Mosaic ordinance; (Exod. xx. 24,25.) their altars were to be of earth, or of unhewn stone.
(s) v. 4. "Remain among the graves, "and lodge in the monuments," i.e. "sleep
"fire (z) that burneth all the day. "6. Behold, it is written before me; I "will not keep silence but will recom"pense, even recompense into their "bosom. 7. Your (a) iniquities and the "iniquities of your (a) fathers together, "(saith the Lord), which have burned "incense upon the mountains, and "blasphemed (b) me upon the hills: "therefore will I measure (c) their "former work into their bosom. 8. Thus "saith the Lord, "As the new wine (d) "is found in the cluster, and one saith, "" Destroy it not for a blessing is in "it:" so will I do for my servants' sakes, "that I may not destroy them all. "9. And I will bring forth a seed out "of Jacob, and out of Judah an inhe"ritor of my mountains: and mine "elect shall inherit it, and my servants "shall dwell there. 10. And Sharon (e)
in sepulchres and tombs," to obtain dreams. A practice in heathen nations.
(t) " Eat swine's flesh," which was expressly forbidden, Lev. xi. 7.
(m) "Abominable things," i. e. "pro"hibited animals:" which were to be "an "abomination" unto them. See Lev. xi.
(x) v. 5. " Say," i. e. " to those about "them:" a mark of their spiritual pride.
(.y) "A smoke, &c." "as offensive as "smoke, &c." probably a proverb.
(z) "A fire, &c." probably "aperpetual "provocation: heating my indignation all "day long."
(a) v. 7. "Your," or " their. Sept."
(b) "Blasphemed me," by following the forbidden practices of the heathen: despising me yourselves, and causing me to be spoken of lightly and irreverently by others.
(c) "Measure, &c." i. e. "I will pour "into their bosom a full recompence for "their former sins.''
(d) v. 8. "As the new wine, &c." or "as when a good grape, &c." The meaning is, as a few good grapes upon a vine prevent the owner from cutting it down, so shall the few righteous that remain in the nation prevent me from destroying it altogether: the good shall be spared and prosper, the bad only shall be cut off. See verses 13,14.and seeante,636. Is.xxiv.13.
(e) v. 10. "Sharon" and " the valley of "Achor," two of the most fertile parts of Judea.
"shall be a fold of flocks, and the valley "of Achor a place for the herds to "lie down in, for my people that have "sought me. 11. But ye are they that "forsake the Lord, that forget my "holy mountain (g), that prepare a "table for that troop (A), and that fur"nish the drink-oflering unto that num"ber (A). 12. Therefore will I number "you to the sword, and ye shall all bow "down to the slaughter: because when "I called, ye did not answer; when I "spake, ye did not hear, but did evil "before mine eyes, and did choose that "wherein I delighted not(r'). 13. There"fore thus saith the Lord God, "Be"hold, my servants shall eat, but ye "shall be hungry: behold, my servants "shall drink, but ye shall be thirsty: "behold, my servants shall rejoice, but "ye shall be ashamed: 14. Behold, my "servants shall sing for joy of heart, "but ye shall cry for sorrow of heart,
(g) v. 11. "My holy mountain," i. e. "the worship God required:" his service in the temple: on mount Zion. See post, note on Is. lxvi. 20.
Ih) "That troop" and "that number," rather "Gad'' and "Meni," two objects of heathen worship. The Hebrew word "meni" often signifies "number," and "gad" "to cut off;"' and in allusion to those senses of these words are the denunciations in the next verse that they shall be numbered to tfie sword, and bowed doxvn to the slaughter; to intimate what would be brought upon them by their idolatrous worship. Sept. reads for " that troop'' the "devil,"and for "thatnumber" "fortune."
(j) v. 12. "Wherein I delighted not," i. e. " which I abhorred."
(4) v. 15. "For a curse, &c." "that "it maybe a common form of imprecation „" to calldown such vengeance as shall have "fallen upon you:" a strong intimation of the heavy judgments they might expect. So Jer. xxix. 22. "of them (viz. Ahab and "Zedekiah) shall be taken up a curse by all "the captivity of Judah, saying, the Lord "make thee like Zedekiah, and like Ahab, "whom the king of Babylon roasted in the "fire." If this passage in Isaiah looks forward to the times of the Messiah, when did heavier judgments fall upon any nation than those which happened to the Jews at the destruction of Jerusalem? and have they not been from that time, (to use the
"and shall howl for vexation of spirit "15. And ye shall leave your name for "a curse (i) unto my chosen; for the "Lord God shall slay thee, and call "his servants by another name (/): "16. That he who blesseth himself in "the earth, shall bless himself in the "God of truth; and he that sweareth "in the earth shall swear by the "God of truth; because the former "troubles (m) are forgotten, and because "they are hid from mine eyes. 17. For "behold, I create new heavens and a "new earth (w): and the former shall "not be remembered, nor come into "mind. 18. But be ye glad and re"joice for ever in that which I create: "for behold, I create Jerusalem a re"joicing (o), and her people a joy; "19. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem. "and joy in my people; and the voice "of weeping shall be no more heard in "her, nor the voice of crying. 20. There
language of the prophetic denunciation against them in Deut. xxviii. 37.) "as "astonishment, a proverb, and a bye"word?" See ante, 649. note on Is.xliii. 16.
(/) "Another name," referring (possibly ) to that of " Christians:" a plain intimation of an important change!
(m) v. 16. "Former troubles," i. e. (perhaps) "the peculiarities which kept the "Gentiles from forming part of God's peo"pie, what is called, Ephes. ii. 14,15." the "middle wall of partition between us'aod "the enmity."
(n) v. 17. "New heavens and a ne* "earth," i. e. (probably) " a new religious "system,'' superseding that of Mows, which was confined wholly to tie Je»-" one that shall admit all people. It is probably in allusion to this passage, that St. Peter says (2 Pet. iii. 13.) "we, ac"cording to his promise, look for ne» *' heavens, and a new earth, wherein dwell"eth righteousness." See 2 Lightf. 626 1075. St. Peter's epistle was written before the destruction of the Jewish establishment.
(o) r. 18. "Jerusalem a rejoicing,''i-e(probably) "such a church or system a-' "shall be free from all the burthens of the "Mosaic institutions, such as shall desent "the name the Christian dispensation his "received, " a perfect law of liberty." See James i. 25. — Rom. viii. 1. —Gal. v. 1.
"shall be no more thence an infant of
"days (p), nor an old man that hath not
"filled his days: for the child shall die
'• an hundred years old; but the. sinner
"being an hundred years old shall be
"accursed. 21. And they shall build
"houses, and inhabit them ,• and they
"shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit
"of them. 22. They shall not build (q),
"and another inhabit; they shall not
"plant, and another eat: for as the days
of a tree, are the days of my people,
and mine elect shall long enjoy the
work of their hands. 23. They shall
not labour in vain, nor bring forth for
trouble: for they are (r) the seed of
the blessed of the Lord, and their
(p) v. 20. «' An infant of days," or "a "short-lived infant;" and in the latter part of the verse, Bp. Lowth reads, "and he "that dieth at 100 years, shall die a child; "and the sinner that dieth at a hundred "years, shall be deemed accursed ;" meaning probably, that the ordinary time of life should be so far prolonged, that he who died at 100 should be deemed a child, and cut off by God's judgment. The Sept. may be rendered, " for one of a hundred years "shall be young, and he who dieth at a "hundred years shall be a sinner and ac"cursed."
(y) v. 22. "Not build, &c." This was one of the denunciations for disobedience, (Deuter. xxviii. 30.) " Thou shalt build an "house, and thou shalt not dwell therein; "thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not "gather the grapes thereof."
(r) ». 2S. "For they are, &c." or " they "shall be a seed blessed, &c. Bp. Lowth."
(/) v. 24. "Before they call, &c." such will be God's readiness to meet their wishes. So ante, Is. lxiv. 5.
(t) v. 25. " The wolf, &c." figuratively, "all fierceness and virulence shall be sup"pressed." See ante, 633. note on Is. xi.6.
(u) "Dust,&c." "Satan, the great adver"sary of man, the inciter to sin, shall be put "down: the curse upon him, (Gen. iii. 14.) '■' * Dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy "life,' shall be accomplished."
(x) "They shall not hurt or destroy," i. e. " there shall be no molestation or de"struction."
(_y) " In all my holy mountain," i. e. perhaps) "amongst the members of my 'church ;" in the places where my religion s established.
(t) Of the ineflicacy of local and cere
"offspring with them. 34. And it shall "come to pass, that before they call (s), "I will answer; and while they are "yet speaking, I will hear. 25. The "wolf (/) and the lamb shall feed toge"ther, and the lion shall eat straw like "the bullock: and dust («) shall be the "serpent's meat. They shall not hurt "nor destroy (x) in all my holy moun"tain (y), saith the Lord."
CHAP. LXVI. (z)
"I Hus saith the Lord, "The hea"ven (a) is my throne, and the earth "is my footstool: where (6) is the "house (c) that ye build unto me? "and where (b) is the place of my
monial worship,and the merit of that which is spiritual; of the success God shall vouchsafe to the true religion, the protection he shall extend to his followers, and the vengeance he shall take upon its opponents. The chapter looks forward to the times of the Messiah, and its date is about 698 years before the birth of Christ.
(a) o.l. "The heaven, &c." It was matter of confidence and spiritual pride amongst the Jews that the only temple for the worship of the true God was at Jerusalem; and the object here probably was to check this notion; to intimate, that in the times to which the prophet was looking, that God, to whom the whole heaven was merely a throne, and the whole earth a footstool, might be worshipped in any and every place. Agreeably to what our Saviour told the woman of Samaria, "The "hour cometh, when ye shall neither in "this mountain (Gerizim), nor yet at Jeru"salem, worship the Father; but the hour "cometh, and now is, when the true wor"shippers shall worship the Father in spirit "and in truth; John iv. 21. 23." (without regard to place or ceremonial institutions.)
(6) "Where," or rather " what," of what value? Sept. and it is so cited, Acts vii. 49. "what house will ye build me? or, •' what is the place of* my rest?" and then the beginning of verse 2. contains the answer.
(c) "Where is the house, &c." When Solomon had completed the temple, his observation was, "Will God in"deed dwell on the earth? Behold, the "heaven, and heaven of heavens cannot "contain thee, how much less this house "that I have builded? 1 Kings viii. 27."