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busied with these thoughts, there came a letter to us from one of our spies, who was of the king's bedchamber, acquainting us that our final doom was decreed that day: what it was he could not tell, but a letter was gone to the queen with the contents of it, which letter was sewed up in the skirt of a saddle; and the bearer of it would come with the saddle on his head, about ten o'clock the following night, to the Blue Boar inn, in Holborn, where he was to take horse for Dover. The messenger knew nothing of the letter in the saddle, but some one in Dover did. We were then in Windsor; and, immediately on the receipt of the letter from our spy, Ireton and I resolved to take a trusty fellow with us, and, in troopers' habits, to go to the inn; which, accordingly, we did, and set our man at the gate of the inn to watch. The gate was shut, but the wicket was open, and our man stood to give us notice when any one came with a saddle on his head. Ireton and I sat in a box near the wicket, and called for a can of beer, and then another, drinking in that disguise till ten o'clock, when our sentinel gave us notice that the man with the saddle was come; upon which we immediately rose; and when the man was leading out his horse saddled, we came up to him with our swords drawn, and told him that we were to search all that went in and out there; but that, as he looked like an honest fellow, we would only search his saddle, which we did, and found the letter we looked for. On opening it, we read the contents, in which the king acquainted the queen that he was now courted by both the factions—the Scots, the Presbyterians, and the army; that which of them bid fairest for him should have him; that he thought he could close sooner with the Scots than with the other. Upon which we speeded to Windsor; and, finding we were not likely to have any tolerable terms with the king, we resolved to ruin him.'” P. 268.
We shall give one more extract, illustrative of the inflexibility of Cromwell's character, and of his determination to obtain the highest station in the realm, at the sacrifice of those virtues and principles which are supposed to be the attributes of a sincere Christian, or of a humane man.
“The reasons which have induced us to remain silent respecting events so memorable, operate to hinder our giving any detail of the numerous and pressing attempts made by individuals and nations to bring over the subject of this memoir, even in port, to the royal cause. It is well known how his cousin, Colonel Cromwell, laid before him a sheet of paper, with the signature of the Prince of Wales alone inscribed on it, leaving it to himself to supply the blank, provided only the king's life were saved. It is equally well known how powerfully the proposal moved him; and how desperate was the struggle between a lesser and a greater ambition, before the latter prevailed. But Cromwell felt, or fancied that he had already gone so far, that to retreat in safety was impracticable. The envoy, who had withdrawn to his inn, to await there the decision of his relative, received a message, long after midnight, that he might retire to rest; and on the day following, Charles I. perished upon the scaffold.” P. 273.
We know that mildness, and benevolence and mercy, are found in unison with a dauntless heart; that the hero who has witnessed unmoved the streams overflowing with the mingled blood of friends and foes, and that desolation and misery which are ever the offspring of war, is often possessed of the most tender traits of character, and combines all the qualifications of mind and of disposition to render him the centre of domestic bliss, and the warm
and generous friend; but we seek in vain, in the cold and stoical heart of Cromwell, for some general display of that benignant feeling which is indicative of philanthropy, or even of common sympathy. The warrior appears to have thrown aside the scabbard, and ever to have retained within his grasp the uplifted sword.
The character of Cromwell, and the circumstances which marked his career of glory correspond, in some particulars, with that of the great Napoleon. Raised from a comparatively low sphere upon the ruins of hereditary greatness, they both achieved their triumphs, and immortalized their names. Absolute empire was their ruling passion, making desolation its shadow: jealousy towards their most devoted adherents, and distrust of their most faithful servants clung to both; causing them to denounce or banish those who were ready to risk every hazard in their service. The progress of the lion,” and the flight of the eagle,” were alike arrested. Cromwell, at last, distrusted all mankind, even his nearest and dearest connexions; while the once proud emperor of many nations died on an isolated rock, and was buried by Britons, to whom, alone, amongst his numerous enemies, he would surrender himself. Both had been great; both fell; the one a prey to religious scruples, acting upon a shaken constitution; the other a victim to his mad and untameable ambition.
We have been very much instructed and pleased with the perusal of Mr. Gleig's memoir of Oliver Cromwell, and we are unwilling to make any remark which should in the least degree detract from the merit of so useful a publication as the one before us; but history generally has been a distorter of facts, and our present historians prefer the old and beaten track in preference to candour and originality. We are led to make these observations because, in perusing them, as well as other memoirs of the times, no mention has been made of the services of Lord Byron, an ancestor of our illustrious deceased poet, whose efforts on behalf of the royal cause, were great and successful upon many occasions; and we have, in former numbers, published an old narrative of the civil war in Wales, as well as some letters relating to the siege of Chester," wherein he appears to have taken a distinguished part; in fact, in many manuscript accounts, such mention has been made of his name, as to place it beyond doubt that, in the western parts of the country, he must have been a faithful and gallant leader on the side of Charles.
In the lives of eminent statesmen, we shall welcome the name of Cromwell, because a review of him under that character will, we conceive, afford us a more extended field for reflection upon his intellect and habits, than on his military life, as well as a more interesting subject for the perusal of our readers. With these remarks we close our cursory examination of the martial career of Oliver Cromwell.
* No. I. p. 60. No. II. p. 150.
LITERARY NOTICES. Gwyliedydd, (Watchman,) the Number for December contains, the Arts in Ancient Times, continued; the Oak; Errors in the Welsh Bible; Substance for Musical Instruments; Welsh Orthography; Game Laws; Memoir of Rev. John Jenkins, continued; Wilson the Artist; on Yew Trees in churchyards; Letter from America; Essay on Drunkenness; List of Welsh Books, by the Rev. Moses Williams; &c. &c.
Seren Gomer (Gomer's Star,) for December contains: Lecture on Liberty, Society, and Government, delivered before the Cymmrodorion Society; Memoir of R. Davie Dollydon; Welsh Literature, and Caerfollweh's Memorial to the Bishop on the Welsh Orthography; London Eisteddfod; Ode to Dr. Owen Pughe; Ode; Rothsay Castle.
Y Cymmro (the Welshman,) for December, among other articles contains a Lecture on Awsaflaeth (Hydrostatics); the form of the British Government; Advice to Youth; Philosophy of the Bishops in Parliament; the Virtue of the Bond of Society; Perseverance; Diligence; Welsh Orthography.
“ Church Revenues Revealed, or the True Origin of Tithes. In reply to a Pamphlet published by the Rev. J. W. Trevor. Addressed to Rate Payers.” By Owen Owen Roberts.
Just published, the first Three Numbers, (to be completed in thirty Numbers,) of “the Elements of Arithmetic, in the Welsh Language.”. By John William Thomas, of Caernarvon. To consist also of Logarithms, Mensuration, Geometry, Trigonometry, Spherics, Navigation, and Algebra; and to be illustrated with plates.
Lately published, in 1 vol. 18mo., "The Gift, or Literary Selections, in prose and verse.” Brigstoke, Caermarthen.
LONDON AND PROVINCIAL NEWS.
The archdeacon and chapter of Landaff have presented the Rev. Hugh Williams, M.A., of Landaff, to the vicarage of Llanarth, Monmouthshire, vacant by the death of the Rev. Francis Homfray, m.a.
The Rev. Thomas Edmondes, curate of Cowbridge, has been presented by the Marquis and Marchioness of Bute, to the Rectory of Asbley, in Cambridgeshire. The Rev. Owen Jenkins, cbaplain to the High Sheriff, succeeds to the curacy of Cowbridge.
The Lord Bishop of St. David's has been pleased to collate the Rev. D. A. Williams, master of the grammar school, in Caermarthen, to the Vicarage of Llangadock, with a chapelry annexed, vacant by the resignation of the Rev. Augustus Brigstocke.
The Rev. Charles Williams, Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, and son of the Rev. Dr. Williams, of Cowbridge, has been appointed Head Master of Rutbin School, North Wales. His predecessor was among the unfortunate sufferers in the Rothsay Castle. Mr. Williams got a first and second class at Oxford.
The Rev. J. E. Hughes, B.A. curate of Ruabon, bas been collated to the augmented perpetual curacies of Llangwstenyn and Eglwys Rhôe, near Conway, in the county of Caernarvon. Patron, the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph.
The Lord Bishop of St. David's has been pleased to institute the Rer. W. Bowen, P. c. of Emasharold and curate of Kentchurch, in Herefordshire, to the vicarage of Hay, in the county of Brecon, on the presentation of Mrs. Macnamara; and the Rev. Charles Maybery to the rectory of Penderin, Breconshire, on the
presentation of William Wynter, esq. m.D. of Brecon. His lordship bas also been pleased to collate the Rev. John Evans, curate of St. Cleares, to the vicarage of Langan, in the county of Caermartben, vacant by the deatb of the late vicar, John Evans, clerk.
On the 2d of October the Lord Bishop of Llandaff was pleased to institute the Rev. Hugh Williams, m.a. to the vicarage of Llanarth, Monmouthshire, and the Rev. Daniel Jones, M.A. to the vicarage of Caerleon, in the same county.
The Lord Bishop of Llandaff held an ordination in the cathedral at Llandaff dnring the same month, when the following candidates were ordained :
Priests: George Gore, m.a. of Emanuel College, Cambridge; Thomas Davies, B.A. of Jesus College, Oxford; Willian Henry Tudor, B.a. of Trinity College, Cambridge; Thomas Wall Langshaw, B.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge; Thomas Beavan, of St. David's College, Lampeter; William Price, of the same; Thomas John Griffiths, literati.
Deacons: Edward Bosanquet, B.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge; Arthur Williams, literati; David James, literati; Edward Price, literati.
Ordination. On the 18th of December, the Lord Bishop of the diocese held an ordination in the cathedral church of Bangor. An eloquent and impressive Bermon from 2d Corinthians, vi. 3, 4, was delivered by the Rev. J. W. Trevor, vicar of Caernarvon, and one of his lordship’s chaplains, at the conclusion of wbicb his lordship proceeded to ordain the following gentlemen to priests and deacons' orders.
Priests: Rev. Edward Evans, A.B. St. Catherine hall, Cambridge; Rev. Joshua Hughes, (lit.) St. David's College, Lampeter, (by letters dimissory from the Bishop of St. David's.)
Deacons: Hugh Joues, A.B. Trinity College, Dublin; Jenkin Jones, B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, (by letters dimissory from the Bishop of St. Asapb;) David Edwards, (Lit.) St. David's College, Lampeter, (by letters dimissory from the Bishop of St. David's.)
The annual meeting of the subscribers within the Archdeaconry of Brecknock, for the benevolent purpose of contributing towards the support of the widows and orphans of deceased clergymen, was held at Brecknock in October last. mon was preached on the occasion, at St. Mary's church, by the Rev. Thomas Vaughan, M.A., Rector of Llandesailog, from Galatians, ví. 10, “As we have therefore an opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith;" a liberal subscription was made at the church doors.
Welsh Calvinistic Methodists. The annual meeting of this association was beld at Dolgelly, on the 5th, 6tb, and 7th of October. It was most numerously attended, and the decency and quietness of demeanour, displayed by the multitude of labouring people from the country, was creditable to their moral and religious character. Owing to the unfavorable state of the weather, the association assembled in the Presbyterian chapel, where sermons were delivered by the following ministers: October 5th, six A.M., Rev. David Tbomas, Acts, xx. 24; Rev. John Hughes, Matthew, xvi. 17. October 6th, six P.M. Rev. Thomas Jones, John, xii. 32; Rev. John Prytberch, Proverbs, i. 33; ten p.m. Rev. John Evans, Titus, ii. 11, 12; Rev. John Jones, Hebrews, xii. 4; Rev. Henry Rees, Zedekiab, ii. 1, 2, 3; two A.m. Rev. William Haward, Exodus, xxxiii. 14; Rev. Robert Evans, 1st Corinthians, viii. 13; Rev. H. Gwalchmai, 1st John, iij. 2; Rev. Evan Griffith, Deuteronomy, iv. 7 ; Rev. John Ellias, Psalms, xlv. 3, 4, 5; six A.M. Rev. Robert Roberts, Hebrews, ii. 3 ; Rev. A. Rees, Ezekiel, xxxiii. 10, 11.
October 7th, seven P.M. Rev. Owen Jones, John, iii. 19; Rev. John Elias, 2d Corinthians, v. 17.
The following prizes were, at the last examination, awarded in St. David's College, Lampeter:
For the best English essay on the following subject: “ The evidences of religion are such that if any persons of a candid mind were to lay down beforehand what would be the most prevailing inducements to his belief of a Revelation, he
could not, I think, mention any other in kind than such as we find we possess." A prize of ten pounds, given by John S. Harford, esq., of Blaise Castle, awarded to William Harries, (of Llundilo, now curate of Llandawke and Pendine).
For the Latin essay : “Quicunque concedit omnia a sapientissima opifice condita, is hominem, omnium operum visibilium caput et decus, digni et congrui finis capacem factum esse dubitare non poterit.” A prize of ten pounds, given by Mr. Harford, to William Hughes, of Eglwyswrw.
For the best Welsh essay: “Effeithiau y gel fyddyd o argraphu ar gyflwr dynolryw." A prize of ten pounds,--five pounds given by R. S. Jones, esq., of Dery Ormond, and five pounds added out of the College fund,—10 Evan Morgan, now curate of St. Alban's Chapel, Tyglyn.
For the best Hebrew examination: a prize of ten pounds,-five pounds by the Rev. J. W. Morris, head master of Ystradmeurig, &c., and five pounds out of the College fund,-William Harries, of Llandilo, now curate of Llandawke and Pendine.
For the best Classical examination: a prize of ten pounds, given by Mr. Harsord, William James, of Cardigan.
For the best examination in Euclid: a prize of one sovereign, given by the Rev. J. Jones, of Peplan,—David Evans, of Taeleach, late of Cowbridge school.
It is in contemplation to hold an Eisteddfod at Beaumaris next autumn, under the immediate patronage of Sir R. B. W. Bulkeley, who intends to fit up the spacious ball in the castle for the occasion; the very spot (tradition tells us,) of the alleged massacre of the bards by Edward. Nothing as yet has been agreed on, but we hope to publish the subjects for competition in our next number. Sir Richard Bulkeley and the patriotic Sir Edward Mostyn, as well as several other influential persons connected with the Principality, have subscribed liberally towards rendering the meeting a very splendid one.
CORONER FOR MERIONETHSHIRE.
On the 20th of October a special County court was held at Bala, for the purpose of electing a Coroner for the county of Merioneth, when Edward Williams, esq., of that town, surgeon, proposed by R. W. Price, esq. of Rhewlus, and seconded by the Rev. Mr. Jones, of Llanderfel, was elected.
In the Gozette of the 18th of October, we notice the promotion of Lieut. William Roberts, of the 91th regiment, eldest son of the Rev. W. Roberts, of Gallty Beren, to the rank of captain, by purchase, in that corps.
CATTLE SHEW AT TREDEGAR.
Sir C. Morgan's Cattle shew, held lately, at Tredegar, Monmouthshire, was, as usual, well attended. The stock exhibited amounted to upwards of one hun. dred. The umpire appointed to award the prizes was Mr. A. D. Jones, of Court Calmore, Montgomeryshire, who is well known as a judge of stock; and his being a complete stranger to every competitor, induced Sir Charles to send for bim to be umpire on this occasion. After the sbow, about ninety gentlemen dined together: upwards of thirty cups were awarded for cattle and sheep; and premiums were awarded for the best iurkies, geese, ducks, and fowls; and for having the greatest number of bives of bees in 1831.
The remains of Twtil Cromlech, in the pari of lybead, was lately totally destroyed by the falling of a stupendous rock, which overhung it. Count Raymond visited the Cromlech about three years ago, and judged it to be of a more modern