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to derive this word from the French bigle. But the French term cannot, like the Welsh, be resolved into any elementary principles indicative of its meaning. Dr. Wotton, in adopting this etymology of the word, informs us,
“ Hi canes nomen forsan diderunt canibus nostris venaticis, beagles dictis. Nostri enim canes istos, apud Wallos magni habitos, videntes, et sensum vocis buguil ignorantes, canes suos sagaces beagles voritabant. Ci ultimâ syllabâ neglectâ.
So, also, from the Welsh appellative for a cur dog, corgi, we have the English word cur, “corgi" being composed of corr, a dwarf, and ci, a dog, quasi, the dwarf dog. This is a more probable origin than the Dutch derivation given in the English dictionary.
In recommending the skirting of fleeces, Mr. Southey has omitted to mention that even the skirtings, the very refuse of wool, may be converted to a useful purpose, by subjecting them to a chemical process which will reduce them to a saponaceous substance possessing all the detergent qualities of our alkaline soaps. We are indebted for this discovery to Chaptal, the most practically useful of all the French chemists. As wool is in itself a far more precious article than soap, it is obvious, that the sweepings of the warehouses only, or, as we have before termed it, the mere refuse, can be profitably applied to this purpose.
Mr. Southey's tract on wool concludes with some very curious notices of the Alpaca, and of the Angoura, and the Thibet goats, which he recommends to the attention of our Australian colonists. If the present spirited attempt to cultivate the Chinese tea-plant on the Breconshire hills shall prove successful, why may not some of these sickly-haired animals be acclimated to our mountains ? In taking our leave of this, we believe the first practical treatise on wool published in this country, we cannot pay the writer a greater compliment, than by observing, that we can find no other fault with the work than its extreme brevity-a fault which we hope to see amended by his giving, to a third edition, at least a double volume and consistency. The subject is ample, and requires this expansion. Mr. Southey may glean many useful hints from the many French pamphlets on wool, preparatory to his next appearance before the public, more particularly from a little work under the title of “ Du Commerce, des Donanes, et du Systeme des Prohibitions, &c. par M. Billiet, de Lyon :" Paris, 1825.
Whatever may be the boasted qualities of the Spanish, Saxon, Tasmanian, and Australian fleeces, the wool of Wales still remains unrivalled for the manufacture of that superior species of flannel which, light as gauze, and soft as silk, conveys to the skin of the wearer a peculiarly delicious, invigorating, exhilarating, indescribable sensation of comfort; and which, by exciting and
retaining a genial warmth, effectually prevents any sudden check of the sensible or insensible perspiration,—that primary cause of almost all our diseases. Indeed, if prevention be better than cure, Dr. Flannel must be allowed to be our best physician, both in hot and cold climates. Our Cambrian ancestors seem to have duly appreciated the medical qualities of flannel, for, like the ancient Romans, they always wore a fleecy indusium next the skin. This is strongly recommended in the only work now extant in the Welsh language on the healing art, the “ Llyfr meddigion Myddfai," the book of the far-famed Caermarthenshire doctors of Mothvai, a village between Llandovery and Llangattock. The instances cited of the pernicious consequences of neglecting this advice are numerous.
In the year 1621, in the inventory of the wearing apparel of the Rev. Lewis Morgan, vicar of Brecknock, are mentioned, “six pair of hand-cuffs." These hand-cuffs were linen sleeves, and wristbands, to be worn with flannel shirts. The longevity of our ancestors is, no doubt, to be ascribed in a great measure to this prudent use of flannel.
So late as the year 1764, we have it recorded, as an historical fact,* that the then High Sheriff of Breconshire, Thomas Bowen, esq. of Tyle Crwn, having been always in the habit of wearing a Aannel shirt, and no other, according to the good old custom of his forefathers, suffered himself to be persuaded, in an evil hour, to exchange it for a camisia of fine linen, on the occasion of his arraying himself in his best apparel to go out at the head of a procession of his county, to receive their lordships the Judges of Assize, on their entrance into his bailiwick : but he soon bitterly repented this indiscretion, for he caught cold in consequence, and died before the expiration of his shrievalty.
Ye valetudinarian contemners of Aannel, ponder this well, and pay more respect to physical infirmities, and more regard to the interests of New Town, or Llanidloes !
Jones's Views in Wales. Nos. 11 to 23.
(Continued from vol. 3, p. 386.) To remark the progression of art towards excellence produces something more than mere gratification : it establishes a chronologic accuracy in the observer's mind, and thereby ensures a strength of recollection in respect to places and events, which could not be well attained without such assistance. A perusal of these views supports the assumption, if the curious in the
• Jones's History of Brecknockshire, vol. ii. p. 564.
delightful art of engraving will refer to Speed's Theatre and History of Great Britain, to Powell, or Burton, to the illustrations in Pennant, drawn and engraved by the self-taught Moses Griffith, the mezzotintos in Broughton, the woodcuts in Mr. Hughes's Beauties of Cambria, and to other works of a similar nature, it will be immediately seen that each publication o'erstepped its immediate precursor in graphic precision and beauty. Having advanced so much, it becomes our bounden duty to add that no work delineating Welsh scenery has appeared so creditable to its compilers, as the one under notice, especially to Mr. Gastineau; for his unceasing perseverance, beautiful drawing, and generally correct judgment in the selection of his subjects, demand our praise; and to him do we chiefly attribute an unusually large sale of impressions, which the work really deserves, and on which we congratulate its spirited proprietors.
We formerly had occasion to differ from Mr. Gastineau in the choice of a few of his drawings; and, though from the very late receipt of the latter numbers, we have scarcely had time to examine their merits or defects, certainly not to introduce any allusions connected with their past history, which might have given a slight interest to the present review, we are glad to observe that he has recently devoted his attention to the really grand, to the towering mountain, the deep ravine, the expansive lake, and the rushing cataract: there are, however, in the numbers before us, exceptions, and of them we shall presently speak unreservedly.
The views in No. 11 are, Bangor, Iscoed, the entrance into Holt, Chirk Castle, and the Town of Corwen. The two first are very neat engravings of attractive landscapes. The view of Chirk Castle contains little more than the old fortress, but what there is, is done well, the light is uncommonly well thrown upon the sheep in the left foreground. Corwen is a faithful likeness of the town, which, with its romantic background, forms an interesting specimen of the scenery on the Holyhead road. Mr. T. Barber is the engraver of these views, Mr. J. C. Varrall of the others.
No. 12 contains Harlech Castle, seen from the Tremadoc road,~Ruins of Dyserth Castle, engraved by Mr. Varrall, and Ruthin and Harwarden Castle, by Mr. W. Radcliffe. Harlech and Dysarth are majestically grand, but there is a sweet solitude and repose in Harwarden, that renders it, in our opinion, the best specimen in the number.
No. 13. Conway Suspension Bridge, and Conway Castle, both exceedingly well done. Let the connoisseur observe the contrast between the roughness of the water in the one, its limpid softness in the other, he will then agree with us, that Mr. Gastineau and the engraver, Mr. S. Fisher, have acquitted themselves
very creditably. Llyn Ogwen, with its adjoining towering eminences, is beautiful, the lights and shadows very happily flung; but Gwrych, the castellated seat of D. Hesketh, esq. appears to us here much larger than it is in nature; as an engraving, we have no fault to find. Llyn Ogwen and Gwrych are engraved by Mr. H. Adlard.
No. 14 contains Rhuabon and Llantisillo Churches and scenery; both very well done, but the latter is our favorite ; Mr. H. Adlard is the engraver.-Mold Town possesses no particular attraction, but the fourth engraving, Harlech Castle, from another point of view, is very grand. Mr. W. Wallis is the engraver.
No. 15. Penmon Mawr, a very beautiful marine view, as also is Criccieth Castle; engraved by Mr. G. Watkins. The others are Wynstay and Northop village: we could have wished a view of Wynstay embracing the Llangollen hills; though well drawn and engraved, it has here the appearance of a fine mansion, in uninteresting flat grounds, whereas Wynstay Park is not quite without picturesque undulation, though confessedly, the park is for the most part level, and the view would have been more interesting had it been backed by the hills to the north-west. The beautiful tower of Northop church is a valuable feature in the last engraving. Mr. Lacy is the artist.
No. 16. The two first engravings are Caer gwrle, in Flintshire, and Pont у Pair in Carnarvon, each very beautifully executed. The reflection of the sun's rays in the distance, and through the arches of the bridge, are admirably done, engraved by Mr. J. Starling. The next is Plas Newydd: to omit a passing word on this fairy-land were unpardonable; every one has heard of the retirement to Plas Newydd by Lady Eleanor Butler and Miss Ponsonby. Can the observer imagine a place more calculated for seclusion, or breathing a sweeter spirit of contentment, and the recollection of the departed flings a sacred halo around. Mr. Gastineau has, with that accuracy which generally distinguishes him, drawn the escutcheon appearing over the middle window, sad emblem of mortality. Basingwork is well engraved by Mr. H. Jordan, and carries the mind back to olden time, but pass we on to
No. 17. Bettws y Coed, in Carnarvon, and Tal y Llyn, in Meirion, demand our unqualified approval; engraved by Mr. H. Adlard. The two other plates are, the Town-hall at Ruthin, and Wrexham Town: they do not, we think, possess much attraction, though creditable, as works of art. The continental traveller will perhaps recollect the entrance to Mechlin, which bears a striking likeness to this drawing of Wrexham. Mr. Wallis is the engraver.
The plates in
No, 18, are Penrhyn Castle, and Llangollen Church. The Castle scene is uncommonly grand, but we do not see any thing in Llangollen church which entitles it to a place in the work; the two last are very well engraved by Mr. Č. Mottram. Machynllaith Town and Llanberris Lake are the last plates; the former is accurately drawn, and the latter presents us with as much of the sublimity of the place as can be effected in so small a plate. Engraved by Mr. H. G. Watkins.
No. 19. The Town of Dolgelleu and Llanelltyd Church. The bridge, in the former plate, is not a true representation of the original: and in the second, that part of Cader Idris Mountain, called the Cyyrwy, does not appear high enough, for the peak of Pen y Gader is, at least, as far distant from this point of view as the Cyvrwy; and why the Pen is represented so much lower we know not. Very creditably engraved by Mr. T. Lacy. Views in Llangollen Vale, and of Chirk Aqueduct, are faithfully and beautifully done. Mr. T. Barker is the engraver.
No. 20 presents us with the Pass of Llanberis and Rhaiadyr y Wenol; they are each strikingly romantic. The engraving of the Pass, by Mr. H. Adlard, is very successful. The next are the Harbour at Holyhead and the South-Stack Lighthouse, near the same place. Mr. T. Higham has succeeded in giving us a night view of the Lighthouse, without producing the dark confused effect often apparent in moonlight views.
No. 21, contains, in the first page, Cader Idris and Llanfachreth Church, engraved by Mr. T. Barber; and the Fall of the Conway and View in Beddgelert Vale, by Mr. J. C. Varrall. The View of Cader Idris is very judiciously chosen, and an admirable specimen of Welsh scenery for the uninitiated Cockney to gaze on. The Conway, and View near Beddgelert, are beautiful : but we were greatly puzzled, on reading “ Lanvachreth Church, Isle of Anglesey:" this is a most ridiculous mistake : this Llanvachreth is in Merioneddshire, and not in Anglesey. Such an error may pass current with the Jemmy Green's and Tommy Snooks's of Cockaign, but what will the legend-loving men of Merionedd say in being so dealt with? Will they allow the beauties of Nannau, the interest of the Goblin Oak of Glendwr, and of Hywel Sele, to be transferred to Mona, by the worthy gentleman who jumps, with whole parishes in his pocket, from one county to another, as did Old Nick when he ran away with the Wrekin hill under his arm, and dropped it plump down in Salopia's beauteous plain? Seriously speaking, such errors are not only ridiculous, but very discreditable and injurious; for the reader cannot store his mind with correct information, if he is to be misled by the grossest violations of geographic truth. We trust we shall not have to notice a similar instance of inaccuracy: we are ever gratified in rendering just praise; and in our examinations of Jones's Views,