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served at Æa, in Cholcis; Apollonius says “ Ipsi scriptas avorum suorum conservant tabulas ubi omnia itinera et fines monstrantur.” Such reports had reached Greece fifteen hundred years previous to the Christian æra; and, in reliance on them, it is related, the Argonaut Jason, on his return from Cholcis, followed by Absyrtus, the brother of Medea, endeavoured to escape from his pursuer by sailing from the Black Sea up the Danube, in order to reach the Ionian Sea; but searching in vain for that branch, and having followed its course to the Hercynian forest, he returned and embarked on the Save, from whence he sailed into the Nauportus, and up that river, until winter compelled him to disembark; his winter station he named Emonia, (Laybach,) after his native country Thessaly: from thence, with the assistance of the natives, he carried his vessel over the mountains, until he arrived at another river, which conducted him to the Adriatic, near Trieste. The Cholcians, who were in pursuit of Jason, followed in the same direction, and they remained as new settlers in Istria, after Absyrtus had been killed by Jason or Medea. Although credit cannot be given to this narrative literally, yet it would appear that, at a very remote age, some connexion did exist between the Greeks and the inhabitants of Pannonia and Noricum. Strabo admits the expedition as an historical fact, from monuments that existed in his own time: «Και εστιν υπομνηματα της αμφοιν στρατειας.” Justin and Pliny mention the arrival of Jason, in the Adriatic, after sailing along the Save and the Nauportus; the ancients ascribed the name of the latter river to the circumstance of its having borne the Argo; and the island, at its confluence with the Adriatic, was called Absyrtides, from the death of Absyrtus. Pola was believed to have been founded by the Cholcians, his companions. Inscribed monuments are said to have existed of Ulysses' expedition into these regions; the ancient traditions of the people of Noricum, the pilgrimages which they are recorded to have annually made with offerings to Apollo, at Delphi, afford some foundation for believing that the Greeks had intercourse with this country, even before the invasion of the Celts, who, according to Justin, gained it by conquest: “per strages Barbarorum penetraverunt, et consederunt, pugnando cum ferocissimis gentibus."
Strabo says that the general name of the Celts, west of the Rhine, was ralatan; some authors, however, divide them into three distinct nations, Aquitanians, Belgians, and Celts; the former being evidently a different race, "TEAEwse&n layuevas,” both in language and in person, and bearing a resemblance to the Spaniards rather than to the Gauls.* The latter, he says, however,
The word Gal indicates the vast extent of territory occupied by the Celtic people at various periods, viz. in Britain, Galloway, Galway, Caledonia,
do not speak precisely the same language, "JUK opOywrtov," but having some slight variety, «μικρον παραλλαττοντας ταις γλωτταις.” And Cæsar states that there were many different dialects among the tribes of Gaul, “Hi omnes linguâ inter se differunt." It is of course natural to expect that in process of time changes should arise both in language and manners; but Strabo, though he admits that there are various dialects, yet that there is a strong personal resemblance throughout the Celtic nation, “γαλατικην μεν την ofıv,” they were like the Germans in stature and fairness of complexion, «τω τε πλεονασμω, της ξανθοτητος.” It appears that, at a remote period, the Celts arrived in Noricum, from the East, as hunters with their bows, or as herdsmen with their cattle. The Nomadic throng marched from forest to forest, and wherever they found game or grass,
was, for a time, their home. A part of their nation crossed the Rhine and Gaul, and proceeded onward, until the ocean opposed the progress of their wanderings, and constrained them to expand themselves widely over the adjacent countries, and lastly to clear the ground of forests, and devote themselves to agriculture; so that after the lapse of years, they extended from Cadiz to the morasses of the Netherlands, and peopled each bank of the Rhine and the Danube, to the southeastern extremity of Hungary; the plains of Austria, the mountains of Tyrol, as far as the shores of the Adriatic.
EMIGRATION FROM GAUL. The great colonizing emigrations of the Celts had a considerable influence on the fate of Noricum and Pannonia; the Biturigian Celts had elevated Ambigat to the throne of Gaul 600 years before Christ: “Celtarum quæ pars Galliæ tertia est, penes Bituriges summa imperii fuit ii regem celtico dabant.” At that period the population had increased to such an amount that subsistence and space were deficient for the redundancy. Livy, says, “Imperio Ambigati, Gallia adeo frugum hominumque fertilis fuit, ut abundans multitudo vix regi posse videretur." From this circumstance resulted disunion and civil ds, “intestina discordia, et assiduæ domi dissensiones:" as a remedy for the evil, Ambigat commanded his two nephews, Bellovesus and Sigoves, the most conspicuous in rank of the youth of his realm, to quit the country to seek other settlements, “ad novas sedes quærendas,” accompanied by Wales; the Gallicias in Spain and Poland, Wallachia, Gaul, and Gallia Cisalpina, still called, in German, Melshland; Galata in Turkey; Gallatia in Asia. In scripture we find there was a different dialect in Galilee, Mark, xv. 70. The Highlanders still call themselves Clan na Gael, (the children of Gal,) which corresponds with Beni-Gal, Bengal. The Cymri were possessed of the Crimea, Cimmerian Bosphorus, Cimbric Chersonesus, Gumri in Asiatic Turkey, Monte Gomero in Italy.
a vast portion of his subjects, and to take their direction according to the will of their gods. The leaders drew lots, by which Sigoves was commanded to conduct his followers towards the Hercynian forest, and Bellovesus to cross the Alps into Italy, of which the fruits and wines had already excited the cupidity of the Celts. They abandoned their country, each accompanied by 150,000 armed men, trecenta millia hominum," besides a multitude of old men, women, and children; these directed their tardy march towards the Alps of Piedmont, but before they passed them, they halted to assist the Phocian colony to take possession of Marseilles; they then crossed over, and the plains lying between those mountains and the river Po were overwhelmed by Bellovesus, and his Biturigeans, Arverni, Adui, Carnunti, Sennones, (the founders of Siena,) and other tribes. Through a false reading of Livy, it has been thought that Bellovesus, or at least a portion of his followers, took their way to Noricum, through Carniola; but Strabo clearly fixes the point of his passage, for, he says, he crossed where Hannibal did, «Την δια Ταυρινων, ην Αννίβας διηλθεν.” At subsequent periods additional tribes quitted Gaul, to join their brethren in Lombardy, and in the space of four hundred years all the different states in Upper and Central Italy had been overcome by the Celts, or had been constrained to form alliances with them. In two separate attacks of Rome herself, they brought that haughty city nearer to destruction than Porsenna, Pyrrhus, or Hannibal were able to accomplish. The monuments of their power still exist in Milan, Brescia, Verona, Como and Trent; where first the few forefathers of a numberless posterity fixed their humble dwellings, which were afterwards converted into fortified and distinguished cities; “mediolanum metropolis, pagus olim, nam per pagos eâ ætate habitabant cuncti.” (Cæsar.) The redundancy of population was the true cause of the Celtic invasion of Italy, and not, as attributed by fabulous tradition, to the display of fruits carried from thence by the Helvetian joiner Helico, or instigated by the revenge of Aruns, the instructor of an ungrateful prince. Perhaps to the increase of population, the cause assigned for these emigrations, may be added the spirit of enterprise and the ardent love of liberty, for which the Celts were remarkable, according to the universal testimony of ancient authors; for when one tribe, less powerful, was threatened by the oppression of another, they preferred the loss of home to the loss of freedom, “ immo potius cum omni familia migrarent quoties ab aliis validioribus pellerentur."
In the same year, Sigoves marched with the tribes attached to him across the Rhine, and reached their destination before those of his brother. The exact spots of the immense and ancient (“congenita mundo”) Hercynian forest occupied by them have not been transmitted to us by history, but we are told that these were the tribes that in subsequent ages extended on to Pannonia,
Thrace, Greece, and Lesser Asia. Pompeius Trogus says, “hortante dein successu, divisis agminibus, alii Græciam, alii Macedoniam, omnia ferro proterentes petivêre.”
The Celts, at later periods, compelled by excess of population, for it is said by Strabo, “Mulieres eorum pariendo educandoque fætu felices," or being stimulated by the hope of plunder, or the ambition of conquest, made farther important incursions. Pausanias informs us that the Celts, a nation inhabiting the uttermost parts of Europe, collected a vast body of men, (contractis undique copiis,) marched towards the Ionian Sea, and conquered all Illyria and Macedonia: “quidquid gentium ad Macedonicum usque nomen patet oppressere. The first successful invasion was undertaken against Thrace, under the command of their leader Cambaul; but want of confidence, from the smallness of their numbers, dissuaded them at that time from an attack on Greece. In the mean time another portion of the Celts had taken possession, after sanguinary conflicts, of Pannonia, “domitis ibi Pannoniis." Pausanias adds, that two hundred and eighty years before the Christian æra, being addicted to plunder, and impelled by a disposition for war, "externis nationibus bellum inferre," they collected a large force of horse and foot, “ingens manus peditum, neque multo equitum minor,” which they divided into three columns, to invade Greece; one part of the army, under the command of Cerethrius, assaulted the Thracians and Triballi; another was conducted by Brennus* and Alcichor; and the third attacked the Macedonians and Illyrians, under Bolg. These armies did not, however, adhere to their original plan of a simultaneous irruption into Greece; for Bolg retired with his troops, after laying waste Macedonia; but Brennus, in the following year, with an army of 150,000 foot and 60,000 horse, overran Macedonia. Dissentions arose among his troops, and two leaders, Lomnor and Lutar, with considerable numbers, separated from Brennus, plundered Thrace, and forced their way to Lesser Asia, where they remained : these men were the founders of the kingdom of Gallatia, comprising Mæonia, Paphlagonia, Phrygia, and part of Cappadocia. Appian enumerates several of the tribes that formed that army, among which were the Trockmeri, Tolistoboii, Ambituri, and others; and Strabo makes mention of the tribe Tektosagi, as a part of Brennus's forces who plundered Delphi: but the greatest part of his troops perished in Greece, according to Polybius, as did also a reserve of 15,000 foot and 3,000 horse. Other detachments about to join Brennus returned to their native country, “per eadem vestigia quæ venerant ad antiquam Patriam.” Justin particularly mentions a part of the Tektosagi as having reached their former dwellings near Toulouse; and Athenæus names the tribe of the Scordisci, under their leader Bathanatius, as having settled on their retreat
* Probably not the real name but a title, Brenhin, king.
at the confluence of the Save and the Danube. Of these repeated warlike incursions of the Celtic nation, Justin remarks, "such was the multitude of their people that they were to be found dispersed over many parts of Asia, for the eastern monarchs would never commence any hostile operation without the aid of Celtic soldiers; and when they were expelled from their kingdoms, it was to that nation they fled for refuge: so great was the terror of the Celtic name, and such the confidence in their victorious arms, that kings relied on them as the only means of preserving their thrones, or of being restored to possession of them when lost, “tantus terror Celtici nominis, et armorum invicta felicitas, ut aliter neque majestatem suam tueri, neque amissam recuperare se posse, sine Celticâ virtute arbitrarentur.” The first mention of their bravery as stipendiary troops, is that contained in the letters of Themistocles, respecting the battle of Salamis, “ in navali pugnâ contra Xerxem præclare et fortiter dimicarunt."
According to Cæsar and Pliny, the Celts were divided into greater and lesser tribes, which preserved the distinguishing appellation wherever they emigrated, and settled apart from the parent stock. We have observed that part of the nation became possessed of the flat country about the Danube, and extended thence to the Alps and the shores of the Adriatic; the northern parts of which (the present Friuli and Carniola,) were occupied by the Carni or Carnuntes. At their appearance the Veneti, and the relicts of Tuscan colonies placed there, were compelled to recede, as well as Liburnians, early celebrated as a maritime and commercial people. The Carni were descendants of those whose settlements were on the Loire and about Paris, and of whom considerable numbers accompanied Bellovesus into Italy. The towns they founded in the neighbourhood of the Adriatic were subsequently named Forum Julium, Concordia, Aquileia, Tergeste, and Ocra: the clan contiguous to them were the Taurisci, inhabiting the Alps; but the Carni must have extended, at some period previous to the Roman conquest of these territories, to the northern side of the Alps, as the names of places indicate, viz. the Carnian Alps, Julium Carnicum, in the Geilthal; Pliny mentions “ Julienses Carnorum," and Ptolemy the “urbes Carnorum Mediterraneæ;" but subsequently the political divisions and nomenclature of the Romans were substituted for the original Celtic names, and Carnia was lost in the “regio decima Italiæ;" however, the tribe of the Carni existed on the northern shore of the Adriatic as late as two centuries before Christ, which an inscribed monument found at Trieste attests, (Della Croce Hist. Trieste.) At last the general name of Noricum superseded that of the distinct clans; but, after the fall of the Roman empire, the ancient name of Carnia* has
This district is still remarkably rugged, the surface being in parts covered with heaps of rock and stones,-Carn, in Welsh.