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2. He is spoken of as having been in heaven under three different names; by which names heaven is often called in scripture, viz. Eden, The Garden of God, or the Paradise of God; ver. 13, The Holy mountain of God, ver. 14 and 16; and The Sanctuary, ver. 18.

3. He is spoken of as having been in a most happy state in the paradise of God, and holy mountain of God, in great honour and beauty, and pleasure.

4. He is spoken of as in his first estate, or the state wherein he was created, to be perfectly free from sin, but afterwards falling by sin. Ver. 15. “ Thou wast perfect in thy ways, from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee."

5. The iniquity by which he fell was pride, or his being lifted up by reason of his superlative beauty and brightness. Ver. 17. “Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty. Thou bast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness."

6. He is represented as being cast out of heaven, and cast down to the earth for his sin. Ver. 16. " Therefore I will cast thee, as profane, out of the mountain of God, and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the flames of fire." Ver. 17. “I will cast thee to the ground.”

7. He is represented as being destroyed by fire here, in this earthly world. Ver. 18. “I will bring forth a fire from the midst of thee: it shall devour thee; and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the midst of all that behold thee."

8. His great wisdom is spoken of as being corrupted by sin, i. e., turned into a wicked craftiness. Ver. 17. « Thou hast corrupted thy wisdom because of thy brightness.” If the king of Tyrus were not here expressly called “a Cherub," " in the Paradise of God,and “ in God's holy mountain ;” by which it is most evident that he is spoken of as a type of a cherub in the paradise of God; yet I say if it had not been so, the matter would have been very plain, for the things bere spoken of cannot be applied to the king of Tyrus with any beauty, nor without the utmost shining, any other way than as a type of the devil that was once a glorious angel in paradise. For bow could it be said of the king of Tyrus, in any other sense, but as a type of the anointed angel, that he had been in God's holy mountain, and in Eden, the garden of God, and in God's sanctuary, and there been first perfect in his ways? (For the original word is a kind of expression that is ever used in scripture to signify holiness, or moral perfection.) And how in any other sense was he afterwards cast, as profane, out of the mountain of God?

II. It is evident that this Cherub or Angel is spoken of as the highest of all the angels. This is evident by several things

1. He is called the anointed cherub. This expression alone shows him to have sat higher than any other cherub; for his being anointed, must signify his being distinguished from all others. Apointing of old was used as a note of distinction, to show that that person was marked out and distinguished from all the rest for a higher dignity. The Lord's anointed, in Israel, was he that God of his mere good pleasure had appointed to the chief dignity in Israel ; so the Lord's anointed, among the cherubim, is the cherub that God had appointed to the highest dignity of all. It is said, ver. 14, “ Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so;" i. e. plainly, “ It has been my pleasure to set thee, by my anointing, in the highest dignity of all."

2. He is called, “ The cherub that covereth, on God's holy mountain,” ver. 14, and “The covering cherub, in the midst of the flames of fire,” ver. 16. In which there seems to be a reference to the cherubim in the temple in the holy of holies, next to the throne of God that covered the throne with their wings. Exod. xxv. 19, 20, and xxvii. 9. From this it appears, that by the covering cherub is meant the cherub next to the throne of God himself, having a place in the very holy of holies. There were represented two cherubim that covered the mercyseat in the temple, that are called by the apostle, “cherubim of glory shadowing the,” Heb. ix. 5, which represent the great dignity and honour of the cherubim that are next to God's throne, and are covering cherubim. But before the fall of this cherub he is spoken of as being alone entitled to this great honour and nearness to God's throne in heaven, that he was anointed to be above his fellows. (See Note on Matth. xviii. 10.)

3. This covering cherub is here spoken of as the top of all the creation, or the summit and height of all creature perfection in wisdom and beauty. Ver. 12. “Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom and perfect beauty." He is spoken of not only as being in the midst of many things that are very bright and beautiful, ver. 13, 14, and as walking up and down among them, but as having the sum of all their beauty completed, perfected, and sealed up in himself. [It seems implied, that no being is stronger than Beelzebub, and able to bind him but God hiinself. Matth. xii. 29, with the context.]

Corol. I. Hence learn that Satan before his fall was the Messiah or Christ, as he was the anointed. The word anointed is radically the same in Hebrew as the word Messiah: So that in this respect our Jesus is exalted into his place in heaven.

Corol. Il. These things show another thing, wherein Jesus is exalted into the place of Lucifer; that whereas he had the honour to dwell in the holy of holies continually, so Jesus is VOL. VIII.


It appears

there entered, not as the high priests of old, but to be there continually, but in this respect is exalted higher thap Lucifer ever was; that whereas Lucifer was only near the throne, or kueeling on the mercy-seal in humble posture, covering it with his wings, Jesus is admitted to sit down for ever with God on the throne.

Corol. III. From what is said in this passage of scripture, we may learn that the angels were created in time. Though we have no particular account of their creation in the story of Moses, we read here, once and again, of the day wherein this Anointed Che. rub was created, ver. 13. 15. This is also implied in Gen. ii, 1. Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the hosts of them.” The angels are often in scripture spoken of as the host of heaven, and the angels are expressly spoken of as created by Christ, in Col. i. 16. “For by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by bim, and for him.” So Ps. civ. 4. “ Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire;" which is meant of proper angels, as appears by Heb. i. 7. also further, because they are called the sons of God, in Job xxxviii., which cannot be meant by eternal generation, for so Christ is God's only begotten Son. See Ps. cxlviii. 2, 3, 4, 5.

Corol. IV. In another respect also Jesus succeeds Lucifer, viz. in being the Covering Cherub. The word translated cover, often and commonly signifies to protect. It was conmitted to this archangel especially, to have the care of protecting the beloved race, elect man, that was God's jewel, lois first fruits, his precious treasure, laid up in God's ark, or cabinet, hid in the secret of his pre

That was the great business the angels were made for, and therefore was especially committed to the head of the angels. But he fell from his innocency and dignity, and Jesus in his stead becomes the Cherub that covereth, the great Protector and Saviour of elect man, that gathereth them as a hen ber chickens under her wings.

Corol. V. Lucifer, while a holy angel, in having the excellency of all those glorious things that were about him, all summed up in bim, was a type of Christ, in whom all the glory and excelJency of all elect creatures is more properly summed, as the head and foundation of all, just as the brightness of all, that reflects the light of the sun, is summed up in the sun.

And as the Devil was the highest of all the angels, so he was the very highest of all God's creatures; he was the top and crown of the whole creation; he was the brightest part of the heaven of heavens, that brightest part of all the creation; he was the head of the angels, that most noble rank of all created beings; and, therefore, when spoken of under that type of him, the Behemoth,


he is said to be " the chief of the ways of God," Job xl. 19. And since it is revealed that there is a certain order and government among the angels, the superior angels having some kind of authority over others that are of lower rank; and since Lucifer was the chief of them all, we may suppose that he was the head of the whole society, the captain of the whole host. He was the archangel, the prince of ihe angels, and all did obeisance unto himn. And as the angels, as the ministers of God's providence, have a certain superintendency and rule over the world, or at least over some parts of it that God has committed to their care, hence they are called thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers. Therefore. seeing Lucifer was the head, and captain, and prince of all, and the highest creature in the whole universe, we may suppose that he had, as God's chief servant, and the grand minister of his providence, and the top of the creation, in some respect comoritted to him power, dominion, and principality over the whole creation, and all the kingdom of providence; and as all the angels are called the sons of God, Luciser was his first born, and was the first-born of every creature.

But when it was revealed to him, high and glorious as he was, that he must be a ministering spirit to the race of mankind which he had seen newly created, which appeared so feeble, mean, and despicable, so vastly inferior, not only to him, the prince of the angels, and head of the created universe, but also to the inferior angels, and that he must be subject to one of that race that should hereafter be born, he could not bear it. This occasioned his fall; and now be, with the other angels whom he drew away with him, are fallen, and elect men are translated to supply their places, and are exalted vastly higher in hea. ven than they. And the Man Jesus Christ, the Chief, and Prince, and Captain of all elect men, is translated and set in the throne that Lucifer, the chief and prince of the angels lest, to be the Head of the angels in his stead, the head of principality and power, that all the angels might do obeisance to him; for God said, “Let all the angels of God worship him;" and God made hiin his first-born instead of Lucifer, higher than all those thrones! dominions, principalities, and powers, and made him, yea, made him in his stead the first-born of every creature, or of the whole creation, and made him also in his stead the bright and morning Star, avd Head, and Prince of the universe; yea, gave this honour, dignity, and power uptu bim, in an unspeakably higher and more glorious manner than ever he had done to Lucifer, and appointed him to conquer, subdue, and execute vengeance upon that great rebel. Lucifer aspired to be “ like the Most High," but God exalted one of mankind, the race that he envied, and, from envy to whom, he rebelled against God, to be indeed like the Most High, to a personal union with the eternal Son of God, and

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Corol. III. From what is ? w's glory, and express image of his may learn that the angels w no particular account of pleased thus to show the emptiread here, once and a' peature, by suffering the insufficiency of rub was created, ve " Thus the heav appear, by his sudden fall from his glori of them," TH of heaven, Christ, ir

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and so as it were to perish or die as to self-dependence and all self-fullness, and to be brought to an entire dependence on the sovereign grace and all-sufficiency of God 10 be communicated to them by his Son as their head. And thus the whole old creation, both heaven and earth, as to all its natural glory and creaturefullness, was to be pulled down ; and thus, way was to be made for the creation of the new heavens and new earth, or the setting forth of the whole elect universe in its consummate, everlasting, immutable, glory in the fullness of God, in a great, most conspi cuous, immediate, and universal dependence on his power and sovereign grace, and also on the glorious and infinitely excellent nature and essence of God, as the infinite fountain of glory and love; the beholding and enjoying of which, and union with which, being the elect creature's all in all, all its strength, all its beauty, all its life, its fruit, its honour, its blessedness.

Corol. I. From the last paragraph. This may show us the necessity of a work of Humiliation in men as the necessity of man's being emptied of himself in order to a partaking of the benefits of the new creation, and the redemption of Jesus Christ.

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