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JUSTIN MARTYR, SUFFERED AT ROME, A. D. 163. 24. Justin Martyr was born in Samaria, and educated a pagan. Thirsting for knowledge, he gave himself to study, and was eminent in all the learning of those times. By travelling he became acquainted with the most distinguished scholars of that age; but he sought in vain for truth and happiness among all the sects of philosophers. Alexandria, being a city of great literary fame, invited his residence: and here he pursued his studies of the systems of pagan philosophy, with much dissatisfaction and increasing doubts.
Walking one day alone by the sea side, he met a venerable stranger, with whom he entered into a free conversation, expressing, after some time, his solicitude to become acquainted with God. Justin was eloquent in the praises of philosophy, which nevertheless had yielded him but little consolation. The stranger recommended him to seek God, and truth, and happiness in Christianity: referring to the sacred writings, as superior in antiquity and wiser in sentiment than those of the wisest heathen philosophers. The stranger departed.
A divine flame," says Justin, "was immediately kindled in my soul, and I felt a sincere affection for those prophets and excellent persons who were friends of Christ." Considering the pious tranquillity and lively hope enjoyed and manifested by the disciples of Christ, he entered upon the study of the Scriptures, and found the way of salvation by the light of divine truth. He retained the habit and the title of a philosopher, while he devoted himself with active zeal to serve the cause of the Saviour. Justin was a man of sterling piety and enlarged benevolence of heart. He wrote several "Apologies" for the Christians, and for the doctrine of eternal life by faith in Christ Jesus.
There is something so respectful and dignified in the introductory inscription to the First Apology, written about A. D. 150, that we give it here. "To the Emperor Titus Ælius Adrianus Pius Augustus Cæsar; and to his son Verissimus, the philosopher; and to Lucius, the philosopher, the natural son of Cæsar, but the adopted of Pius, the lover of learning; and to the sacred Senate, and to all the people of Rome; in the behalf of men of all ranks and nations unjustly loaded with public odium and oppression ;-I, Justin, the son of Priscus, and grandson of Bacchius, natives of Flavia Neapolis of Palestine Syria,-I, who am one of this suffering multitude, humbly offer this apology." He then proceeds to justify the Christians against their accusers and persecutors, and to show the agreement of the gospel with the dictates of sound reason. are called Atheists," says Justin, "and indeed, as it respects your false gods, we confess the charge; but we acknowledge the true God, the father of righteousness, of purity, and every virtue, who is infinitely removed from all mixture of evil. Him, together with the Son, and the prophetic Spirit, we reverence and adore with the worship of truth and reason."
Crescens, a philosopher at Rome, having been vanquished by the arguments of Justin, in several public disputations, plotted against his life, and procured his imprisonment, in which he suffered grievous torture. No threats or pains could induce Justin to sacrifice to the idol gods of Rome, when Rusticus, the prefect of the city, condemned him, and six pious companions with him, to be beheaded. They went to execution triumphantly, and in their last moments brought honour to the Redeemer !
DESCRIPTION OF THE CAMSEEN. THIS terrible wind prevails more or less for fifty days in Egypt, during the spring, and its effects are so dread ful, that were it to continue for more than two or three days in succession, all animated nature would be destroyed. It possesses the enervating and dispiriting nature of the Sirocco, and sweeping across the deserts of Africa, brings with it dense clouds of sand. Though every window and door was closed, all parts of the house were filled with it, and it penetrated into our hair, our food, and our dress.
Fancy to yourself the most dense and gloomy November London fog, with a dark and lurid atmosphere impregnated with dust, and accompanied by a hollow mournful sound, and you will have a faint idea of the Camseen; but the blast heats instead of cooling, the skin is parched, and a violent thirst ensues, which it is almost impossible to assuage. This wind is most unhealthy, and is generally the precursor of that dreadful Scourge the plague-during which the Europeans entirely confine themselves to their houses, holding no communication but what is absolutely necessary with the exterior world; their houses are barricadoed with as many precautions as if the city were besieged;
"The sullen door
Yet uninfected, on its cautious hinge
Fearing to turn, abhors society."
And the months of seclusion, when the "pestilence walketh in darkness, and the sickness destroyeth in the noonday," appear to be of the most awful and appalling nature.-Mrs. Elwood.
HILL OF IRON.
THIS hill is situated in Brazil, on the left of the road from Queluz to Villa Rica, rather more than a league from the former place. It is described by Mr. Luccock one entire mass of iron, so perfectly free from any mixture of common soil as to produce no vegetable whatever, being covered with a complete coating of rust, or oxide of iron. The hill is so lofty and steep that its top was not discernible; but, from its more elevated part, nodules of corroded metal had rolled down, and greatly embarrassed the road. At the foot of the mountain, the soil is red clay mixed with ponderous brown dust. As we advanced, the metal seemed to become less pure, until after an extent of two leagues and a half, it altogether vanished, and was succeeded by the common clayey land. I had often heard of this immense mass of metal, but none of the reports had presented an adequate picture of it to the imagination. The very core of the hill, as far as we could judge, appeared to consist of vast blocks of iron in tables and it is so singularly free from alloy, as to produce, when smelted, 95 per cent. of pure metal."
A Hint to more Missionary Efforts. "Three means of raising money easily: "I. A trifling increase of industry: making saleable articles.
"II. By a little more frugality and self-denial in way of living.
"IlI. By appropriating a small part of the annual income to the object.
"Is it not possible to persuade Christians to do so much for the universal praise of their Redeemer, and the salvation of all nations?"
From "The Conversion of the World; or the claims of six hundred millions of heathens, and the ability and duty of the churches respecting them," by the Rev. Gordon Wall and Rev. Samuel Newell. A book strongly recommended to be perused by all who love the Lord Jesus Christ..
BOOKS OF STERLING MERIT. LIVES OF EMINENT MISSIONARIES. By John Carne, Esq. Vol. I. 12mo. cloth, pp. 348. Fisher, Son, and Jackson, London.
Eminent Christian Missionaries are the greatest benefactors of the world. Their instructions include the present and the eternal interests of mankind, and effectually promote civilization, and the comforts of this life, as well as the enjoyments of religion, and the possession of immortal bliss.
Divine inspiration has declared, "The righteous shall be had in everlasting remembrance." This declaration has been gloriously illustrated in the case of the first missionaries of Christianity, the Apostles of Christ. They were the greatest benefactors of mankind: blessed themselves of their gracious Master, they were constituted the means of inestimable blessings to all the kingdoms of the earth. Men of God who have followed in their footsteps, entering into their labours, next to them deserve our highest veneration: and though the most "eminent missionaries" were only as "earthen vessels," in which they carried "this treasure" of the gospel of Christ, they are entitled to our most grateful remembrance.
With sincere pleasure, therefore, we introduce to our readers this volume before us, rejoicing to find so much valuable and edifying information compressed into so small a compass, and published in so cheap a form. We find in this beautiful work, an ample account of John Eliot, whose surprising labours among the Indians of America entitled him to be called, "The Apostle of the Indians," of the early Danish mission to Tranquebar-of Christian Frederick Swartz --- of Hans Egede, of the Moravian Mission-of John Kiernander-of Hocker, and Antes. Without extracting from this volume at present, we are sure that the names of these eminent missionaries will alone be a sufficient recommendation of it to the public.
A VISIT TO THE SOUTH SEAS, in the United States ship Vincennes, during the years 1829 and 1830; with notices of Brazil, Peru, Manilla, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena. By C. S. Stewart, M. A., Chaplain in the United States' Navy; and Author of "A Residence in the Sandwich Islands in 1823 and 1825." Edited and abridged by William Ellis. 12mo. cloth, pp. 440. Fisher, Son, and Jackson, London.
Mr. Stewart became known from his visit to this country, on his return from his missionary labours in the Sandwich Islands. From his intelligence and piety we were prepared to expect an interesting volume in the work before us: but it is superior to what we anticipated. It contains a great variety of information relating to the improvement of the South Sea Islands by means of the labour of our Missionaries. Many islands are still without the ministers of the gospel of peace; among which, licentiousness and murder reign, as formerly in Tahiti. Of this island and others, where missionaries have laboured, Mr. Stewart remarks, "the last wars in the islands were previous to any influence gained by the missionaries, over either chiefs or people. Since the establishment of Christianity, there has been an uninterrupted peace; and as to other bloodshed, the Rev. Mr. Nott assured me, that he had not heard of a murder among the natives for fifteen years."
LINES TO AN INFANT.
WHEN born, in tears we saw thee drown'd, While thine assembled friends around
With smiles their joy confess'd : So live, that at thy parting hour, They may the flood of sorrow pour, And thou in smiles be dress'd.
How sweet to the heart is the thought of to-morrow,
BELIEF, an act upon which, from its frequency, we scarcely reflect, so rapidly does it pass across our consciousness, but by successive repetitions of which we arrive at all truth-becomes the humble, and in itself the inadequate, but, by the power of the Divine Spirit, the mighty instrument of a change, the magnitude of which eternity alone can discover. He who believes, believes to the end; and the acts of faith though minute are yet many. He who believes must be for ever choosing between the visible and the invisible,-preferring the fu ture to the present, and postponing that world which is visibly spread around him to that larger sphere of existence which the Scriptures hold out to him, but which lies dim and shadowy, unpeopled by present interests, and unshaped by our earthly imaginations. "This is the victory which overcometh the world, even your faith." By the faith of Jesus "we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen," and thus, to us faith becomes "the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen."
HIGHBURY COLLEGE, ISLINGTON.
HIGHBURY COLLEGE, Islington, near London, is the largest seat of learning among the English Dissenters, for the education of their ministers. It belongs to the Congregational Independent denomination. This elegant edifice was completed in 1826, for the accommodation of forty students, with suitable buildings for library and the residence of its tutors.
Highbury College originated in the exertions of some zealous lay gentlemen, who in 1778 established an institution, called "the Evangelical Academy." An academical house was taken at Mile End, and the students were placed under the instruction of the Rev. Stephen Addington, D.D. In 1791, the establishment was removed to Hoxton, where it flourished under the care of the Rev. Robt. Simpson, D. D., the Rev. William Harris, LL. D., the Rev. Henry Foster Burder, D.D. and other eminent men. The growing importance of this institution rendered a more commodious situation necessary; and the treasurer, Thomas Wilson, Esq. with his accustomed liberality, gave the munificent donation of TWO THOUSAND GUINEAS, the price of an eligible VOL. I.
piece of ground at Islington, to commence the erection of a new College, which has been completed, at an expence of 20,000/., raised by voluntary contributions.
OPENING OF HIGHBURY COLLEGE.
Highbury college was opened on Tuesday, Sept. 5, 1826, for the sacred purposes for which it was erected. Aecording to previous appointment, the Rev. Thomas Morell, Theological tutor of Wymondley College, commenced with prayer. Then followed, from the Rev. H. F. Burder, M. A., Philosophical Tutor of the Institution, an interesting and eloquent address, on the history of the Seminary, and on the circumstances and views that had led to the erection of the new College. After the close of the address, the Rev. John Pye Smith, D. D., Theological Tutor of Homerton College, offered up a most fervent and comprehensive prayer for the blessing of God on the Institution, and on all who may hereafter teach or study within the walls of this most commodious building. The Rev. W. Harris, LL. D., Theological Tutor of the College, then delivered a solemn address on the spirit and principles that should govern all the
future proceedings of those who have the management of this school of the prophets. And the whole was closed by a fervent prayer offered up by the Rev. George Collison, who presides over the Academy at Hackney for the education of young men for the ministry. The service was conducted in the area of the building, in which an awning had been erected for the accommodation of the company.
PRINCIPLES OF THE TUTORS AND STUDENTS OF
Our readers will naturally desire to know the principles which are inculcated at Highbury College; that it may be seen whether they are worthy of propagation through the nation, and whether the Institution is deserving of public support. There are no "Articles of Religion" published by the friends of this Institution, which its students are required to subscribe, as in the Church of England: but we believe the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation are taught upon its foundation-the principles for which the British Martyrs died-the great points in which Luther and Calvin, Cranmer and Knox, were agreed. We are happy in being able to give that information from the TRUST DEED of the College. In the clause relating to "the Students," it states, "That the Students shall be Protestant Dissenters of the Congregational or Independent denomination, holding the doctrines hereinafter set forth, that is to say:
"That there is only one God, the Creator, Preserver, and Governor of all things, revealed under the mysterious distinctions, commonly called Persons, of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; to each of whom the distinguishing properties and glory of the Divine Nature are equally in the highest sense attributed.
That through the transgression of Adam, human nature is entirely depraved; and all mankind becoming sinners, are justly liable to all the punishment of sin, both in this world and in the world to come, throughout eternity.
"That in such a state of misery would all men have remained without exception, had not God in his love purposed to show mercy to the fallen race of Adam, through the mediation of Jesus Christ his only begotten Son, who being truly God and truly Man in one person, made a proper and sufficient atonement for sin, by doing and suffering all that was necessary to manifest and Honour the righteousness of God, in the forgiveness
"That such atonement is the sole ground or consideration on which any one is saved from everlasting punishment due to his sin, and is brought at length to everlasting happiness.
"That every one, who, believing in the efficacy of that atonement, makes it the sole ground of his hope for eternal salvation, becomes, through the grace of God, a partaker of all its blessings.
"That, in order to overcome the criminal indisposition to obey the will of God, and to accept of his saving mercy, which is in all men as sinners, the Holy Spirit disposes and inclines those, whom God has from eternity chosen to everlasting life, to trust in Jesus Christ the Mediator, and also to study and obey the will of God in all things until death.
"That it is the duty of all men to obey the commands of God, respecting the dispositions of the heart, and the conduct of the life.
"That not only persons of adult age professing their faith in Christ, but also the infant children of professing Christians, ought to be baptized by the application of water, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; and that all who believe in
Jesus Christ for salvation, ought from time to time to celebrate the ordinance, commonly called the Lord's Supper, in commemoration of his death."
STUDIES PURSUED AT HIGHBURY COLLEGE.
The studies pursued at Highbury College are such as are included in the idea of a 'liberal education;" but those branches especially, which are peculiarly suited to the office and duty of a well-instructed minister of the gospel. Perhaps the best exhibition of their studies will be given by the report of an annual examination : we transcribe the following for 1829.
"We, the undersigned, having attended the usual examination of the students at Highbury College, have the greatest pleasure in bearing testimony to the diligence and proficiency which they have displayed in the Classical and Hebrew languages. The proceedings of the day were such as to reflect the highest credit on the Institution; on the ability of the excellent Tutors by whom it is conducted; and on the talents and application of the students.
"Copious portions of the books professed were read, at the option of the chairman, viz.
"Class of the first year.-The four Georgics; the first six books of the Eneid; the Analecta Minora ; and the first book of the Odyssey.
"Class of the second year.-The Odes and Epistles of Horace; the books of the Odyssey; and an Oration of Lysias.
"Class of the third year.-In Cicero, the Orations against Catiline; the 1st, 2d, and 9th Philippics; the first book of Herodotus; and the Edipus Tyrannus of Sophocles.
Class of the fourth year. The 10th, 13th, 15th, and 16th Satires of Juvenal; the first and second books of Thucydides; and the book of Job in Hebrew. (Signed by) “J. HUMPHRYs, LL.D. "E. HENDERSON, Ph.D. "W. J. HOPE, A.M. "EBEN. MILLER, A.M. "Jos. BERRY.
"On July the 1st, the students were examined in theology and several branches of literature, before the Rev. Samuel Rooker, in the chair, Rev. Dr. Bennett, and other ministers and gentlemen. Several essays were read, and questions answered upon philosophical and theological subjects; when it appeared, that the classes of students had respectively pursued a course of study in Mental Philosophy and Ethics, the Elements of Algebra, Civil and Ecclesiastical History, the Interpretation of Scripture, the Evidences of Christianity, Systematic Theology, and Hebrew Antiquities and Philology.
"In the evening, the annual meeting was held at the College, T. Wilson, Esq. in the chair; when the report of the past year was read and adopted; and theological essays were read by two of the senior students; one on the Doctrine of the Incarnation, the other on the Mediatorial System."
QUALIFICATIONS OF THE STUDENTS AT HIGHBURY COLLEGE.
We have no connection with Highbury College; but we understand that the students who are admitted upon the foundation, are required to possess the following qualifications.
Physical strength and intellectual capacity, as indispensably necessary to prosecute a course of study, and to discharge the active studies of the ministry.
Personal piety, as essential to the Christian character;
and purity of morals, as especially requisite in a minister of the Gospel.
Decision of mind on the important doctrines of the Gospel, as already stated-holy zeal to serve Christcompassion for the souls of nien for the Redeemer's sake and aptness to teach and preach the word of everlasting life. Besides a tolerable measure of grammatical knowledge.
These qualifications are required to be testified by the minister under whose pastoral care each candidate has been united in church fellowship; and before he is admitted to the College, the candidate undergoes an examination by a sub-committee of ministers, and other gentlemen, they having been previously satisfied with his testimonials, as to personal piety, moral character, and the soundness of his religious principles. Students are required to be under twenty-eight years of age, and the term of study includes four years, besides in some cases one or two years previous study under some minister in the country.
EMINENT MEN FROM THE COLLEGE AT HIGHBURY.
Regarding this Institution as the same as that formerly carried on at Hoxton, many ministers of distin guished eminence might be named, who were introduced into the field of the Gospel by its operations. But it may be sufficient to mention only DR. MORRISON, who has been honoured by the blessed God, more perhaps than any scholor of ancient or modern times (unless we except Dr. Carey at Serampore), in being enabled to translate the Holy Scriptures into the Chinese language.
BISHOP ANDREWES ON THE NATIVITY. "For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham."-Heb. ii, 16. "It was much, even but to look after us; to respect us so far, who were not worth the cast of his eye; much to call us back; but more, when we came not for all that, to send after us. For if He had but only been content to give us leave to come to him again; but given us leave to touch but the hem of His garment, (Himself sitting still, and never calling to us, nor sending after us); it had been favour enough: far above that we were worth. But not only to send by others, but to come Himself after us; to say, 'Get me a body, I will myself after him;" this was exceeding much. But yet, this is not all; he gave not over His pursuit, though it were long and laborious, and He full weary; though it cast Him into a sweat, a sweat of blood. He spared not Himself; but followed His pursuit, through danger, distress, yea through death itself: followed, and so followed, as nothing made him leave following till He overtook."
"For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given."
Isa. ix, 6. "The Child, to import His human; the Son, His Divine nature. All along his life, you shall see these two. At His birth, a cradle for the Child; a star for the Son. A company of shepherds viewing the Child; a choir of angels celebrating the Son. In his life: hungry Himself, to shew the nature of the Child; yet feeding five thousand, to show the power of the Son. At His death; dying on the cross, as the son of Adam; at the same time disposing of Paradise, as the Son of God."
"But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel."-Micah v, 2.
"O thou little Bethlehem! and O thou little Bethlemite! how do you both (both place and person) con
found the haughtiness of many, that (yet) would be called Christians, and even near Christ himself! There is in both of you (if it were well taken to heart) enough to prick the swelling, and let out the aposthumed matter of pride from a many of us, whose look, gesture, gait, and swelling words of vanity are too big for Bethlehem whose whole carriage and course is, as if they were to be saved by one that came out of the great city Nineveh, or Grand Cairo, rather than out of the little hamlet of Bethlehem.
For little Bethlehem's sake, love the virtue that is like it (i. e. humility); and for the virtue's sake, honour it. Honour it: there is a star over it; there is a Saviour in it. Honour it for that which comes out of it; fo' the fruit it yields; more good comes forth out of tha poor town (to us) than from all the great and glorious cities in the world. Good Nazianzen tells us, it gives us our introduction to Paradise: it gives us a guide, if we will follow Him that will bring us thither, to our original happiness."
A TRUE FRIEND.
CONCERNING the person you call your friend, tell me, will he weep with you in the hour of distress? Will he faithfully reprove you to your face, for actions which others are ridiculing or censuring behind your back? Will he dare to stand forth in your defence, when detraction is secretly aiming its deadly weapons at your reputation? Will he acknowledge you with the same cordiality, and behave to you with the same friendly attention, in the company of your superiors in rank and fortune, as when the claims of pride and vanity do not interfere with those of friendship? If misfortune and losses should oblige you to retire into a walk of life in which you cannot appear with the same distinction, or entertain your friends with the same liberality as formerly, will he still think himself happy in your society; and instead of withdrawing himself from an unprofitable connection, take pleasure in professing himself your friend, and cheerfully assist you to support the burthen of your affliction? When sickness shall call you to leave the busy scenes of the world, will he follow you into your gloomy retreat, listen with attention to your tale of symptoms, and minister the balm of consolation to your fainting spirit? finally, when death shall burst asunder every earthly tie, will he shed a tear upon your grave, and lodge the dear remembrance of your mutual friendship in his heart, as a treasure never to be resigned? The man who will not do this-he may be your companion, your flatterer, your seducer; but depend upon it he is not your friend. AMICUS CAUSA.
"There are some persons, who so long as they fancy you look upon them as all perfection, will be amazingly pleased with you: but if they have let out their corruptions before you, and they think you see them in their true colours, they immediately dislike. When this temper appears, it proves to a certainty that all their seeming love to you was only love to themselves : and that as the pride of their being thought something first begat it; so when they are conscious that you can no longer have the same opinion of them which had at first, pride meeting with a mortification, they can no longer bear you, because you know them. As the whole train of evils proceed from within, what need have all to be earnest at the throne of grace, that they may obtain that precious faith, by which alone the heart can be purified, and be made a fit temple for the sweet spirit of love to dwell in!”—Sir R. Hill's Deep Things of God.