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ARCH OF TITUS, AT ROME. CHRISTIANITY receives confirmation of its divinity from almost every class of ancient monuments. Among those relating to the antiquities of Jerusalem, and of its glory in the time of our Saviour's ministry, and of its destruction by the Romans, agreeably to our Saviour's prediction, Matt. xxiv, Luke xxi, the Arch of Titus at Rome is peculiarly remarkable. For the particulars of that most dreadful siege, we refer our readers to the account given by Josephus, who witnessed its horrors, in his "History of the Jewish War," or to Newton's "Dissertation on the Prophecies.' What must have been the calamities of the wretched VOL. I.
people, attending that fearful overthrow, imagination. cannot conceive, even from the statement of Josephus, that 1,100,000 persons perished by the sword, famine, and pestilence, besides 97,000 sold for slaves, and an innumerable multitude destroyed in different parts of the country.
Jerusalem being reducea to heaps of ruins, A. D. 71, and the wretched survivors scattered upon the face of the earth, the treasures of its magnificent temple were carried to Rome, and publicly exhibited to the people for the honour of the conquerors, Vespasian and his son Titus. Vespasian built a new temple, dedicated to Peace, to celebrate his victories, and in this building were deposited most of the Jewish spoils: Titus had a
Triumphal Arch, of great beauty and magnificence, erected to his honour; and on this were represented his exploits against the Jews. Within the Arch are still seen the representation of part of the procession carrying "the golden table of the weight of many talents, and the massy golden candlestick, with its seven lamps." This splendid Arch has continued through almost eighteen centuries, an instructive Inonument against the impiety and wickedness of the Jewish nation, who, on account of their rejection and crucifixion of Messiah, were abandoned by God.
TRIUMPH OF VESPASIAN AND TITUS.
Josephus describes the pompous triumph of Vespasian and his son Titus, on the return of the latter from Jerusalem, a part of whose account we shall here give to our readers :
"When notice had been given beforehand of the day appointed for this pompous solemnity to be made, on account of their victories, not one of the immense multitude was left in that city, but every body went out so far as to gain only a station where they might stand, and left only such a passage as was necessary for those that were to be seen to go along it.
"Now all the soldiery marched out beforehand by companies, and in their several ranks, under their several commanders, in the night-time, and were about the gates, not of the upper palaces, but those near the temple of Isis; for there it was that the emperors had rested the foregoing night. And as soon as ever it was day, Vespasian and Titus came out crowned with laurel, and clothed in those ancient purple habits which were proper to their family, and then went as far as Octavian's Walks; for there it was that the senate, and the principal rulers, and those that had been recorded as of the equestrian order, waited for them. Now a tribunal had been erected before the cloisters, and ivory chairs had been set upon it, when they came and sat down upon them. Wherefore the soldiery made an acclamation of joy to them immediately, and all gave them attestations of their valour; while they were themselves without their arms, and only in their silken garments, and crowned with laurel: then Vespasian accepted of these shouts of theirs; but while they were still disposed to go on in such acclamations, he gave them a signal of silence. And when every body entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers; the like prayers did Titus put up also; after which prayers Vespasian made a short speech to all the people, and then sent away the soldiers to a dinner prepared for them by the emperors. Then did he retire to that gate which was called the Gate of the Pomp, because pompous shows do always go through that gate; there it was that they tasted some food, and when they had put on their triumphal garments, and had offered sacrifices to the gods that were placed at the gate, they sent the triumph forward, and marched through the theatres, that they might be the more easily seen by the multitude.
"Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all; such indeed as a man could not easily think of as performed either by the labour of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature; for almost all such curiosities as the most happy men ever get by piece-meal, were here heaped one upon another, and those both admirable and costly in their nature; and all brought together on that day, demonstrated the vastness of the dominions of the Romans; for there was here to be seen a mighty quantity of silver, and gold, and ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, and
did not appear as carried along in pompous show only, but, as a man may say, running along like a river. Some parts were composed of the rarest purple hangings, and so carried along; and others accurately represented to the life what was embroidered by the arts of the Babylonians. There were also precious stones that were transparent, some set in crowns of gold, and some in other ouches, as the workman pleased; and of these such a vast number were brought, that we could not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of them to be rarities. The images of the gods were also carried, being as well wonderful for their largeness, as made very artificially, and with great skill of the workmen; nor were any of these images of any other than very costly materials; and many species of animals were brought, every one in their own natural ornaments. The men also who brought every one of these shows were great multitudes, and adorned with purple garments, all over interwoven with gold; those that were chosen for carrying these pompous shows, having also about them such magnificent ornaments, as were both extraordinary and surprising. Besides these, one might see that even the great number of the captives was not unadorned, while the variety that were in their garments, and their fine texture, concealed from the sight the deformity of their bodies. But what afforded the greatest surprise of all, was the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for indeed he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support them, such was their magnitude; for many of them were so made, that they were on three or even four stories, one above another. The magnificence also of their structure afforded one both pleasure and surprise; for upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought gold and ivory fastened about them all and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself; for there was to be seen a happy country laid waste, and entire squadrons of enemies slain; while some of them ran away, and some were carried into captivity; with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrown, and ruined by machines; with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of most populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on, and an army pouring itself within the walls; as also every place full of slaughter, and supplications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners: rivers also, after they come out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, not into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. Now the workmanship of these representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been there really present. On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pageants a great number of ships; and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of: for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a
socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number Seven among the Jews; and the last of all the spoils, was carried the Law of the Jews. After these spoils passed by a great many men, carrying the images of Victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory, or of gold. After which Vespasian marched in the first place, and Titus followed him; Domitian also rode along with them, and made a glorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was worthy of admiration.
"Now the last part of this pompous show was at the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither when they were come, they stood still; for it was the Romans' ancient custom to stay till somebody brought the news that the general of the enemy was slain. This general was Simon, the son of Gioras, who had then been led in this triumph among the captives; a rope had also been put upon his head, and he had been drawn into a proper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented by those that drew him along; and the law of the Romans required, that malefactors condemned to die should be slain there. Accordingly, when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had set up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the prayers used in such solemnities; which when they had finished, they went away to the palace. And as for some of the spectators, the emperors entertained them at their own feast; and for all the rest, there were noble preparations made for their feasting at home; for this was a festival day to the city of Rome, as celebrated for the victory obtained by their army over their enemies, for the end that was now put to their civil miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of future prosperity and happiness."
25. POLYCARP, bishop of the Christian church_at Smyrna in Asia Minor, is deservedly famous in Ecclesiastical annals. He was a successful defender of the gospel during a long course of years, and at length sealed his testimony for Christ with the blood of martyrdom.
Polycarp was born, as is believed, at Smyrna, in the reign of Nero; but sold as a slave when a child: he was purchased by a Christian lady, named Calisto, and educated by her in the doctrines of her religion. He is supposed to have been a disciple of the Apostle John, and to have conversed with many who had heard discourses from the lips of Jesus Christ. Polycarp succeeded Bucolus in the pastoral office over the Christians at Smyrna, and laboured for many years, with persevering zeal, to preserve the purity of Christian doctrine, and to advance the saving knowledge of Christ among the people. Marcus Antoninus, the Roman emperor, was induced by the pagan priesthood to persecute the Christians, and Polycarp was called to the honour of martyrdom.
Being brought before the proconsul, that magistrate endeavoured to prevail upon him, but in vain, to recant. "Regard," said he, "thy great age-swear by the genius of Cæsar. Repent, reproach Christ, and say with us, Take away the impious," meaning the Christians. Polycarp resented the proposition, and replied, "Eighty and six years I have served Him, and he never did me any harm; how then shall I now blaspheme my King and my Saviour?" The proconsul still importuned him to swear by the genius of Cæsar: but he replied, Since you are so vainly ambitious
that I should swear by the Emperor's genius, as you call it, as if you knew not who I am, hear my free confession: I am a Christian. If you have an inclination to learn the Christian religion, appoint me a time, and I will give you that instruction."
Arguments being in vain, the proconsul threatened him with the wild beasts. "Call for them," said Polycarp, "for we are immutably resolved not to change the better for the worse, accounting it fit and comely to turn only from vice to virtue." Since thou makest so light of wild beasts," added the magistrate, "I have a fire that shall tame thee, unless thou repent." Polycarp replied, "Thou threatenest me with a fire that burns for an hour, and is presently extinct; but thou art ignorant, alas! of the fire o eternal damnation, and the judgment to come, reserved for the wicked in the other world. But why delayest thou? Bring forth whatever thou hast a mind !”
Astonished at his firmness, and regarding it as obstinacy, he called the cryer to proclaim, "Polycarp has confessed himself a Christian." Multitudes shouted, "This is the great Doctor of Asia, and the Father of the Christians! This is the destroyer of our gods, that teaches men not to do sacrifice, or worship the deities!" The cry being over, the crowd addressed the ASIARCH, the Arch-priest of the idolators, at whose charge the public sports were provided, to entertain them with a lion let loose upon the Christian confessor: but, as he had gratified them with a hunting show in the amphitheatre a short time before, he refused; when they demanded that he should be burnt alive.
This brutal clamour was satisfied by the venerable bishop being led to the amphitheatre, and, in the presence of a multitude who eagerly fetched large quantities of wood and faggots, was sacrificed in the flames. Many Jews, it is said, were active in this murder. It is worthy observation, that when the officers came to nail the martyr to the stake, as was the custom, Polycarp desired them to omit it; assuring them, "He who gives strength to endure the fire, will enable me to stand immoveable in the hottest flames." Thus God was glorified in his faithful servant.
PRAYER OF POLYCARP AT THE STAKE.
"O Lord God Almighty, the Father of thy well beloved and ever-blessed Son, Jesus Christ, by whom we have received the knowledge of Thee; the God of angels, powers, and of every creature, and of the whole race of the righteous, who live before Thee; I bless Thee that Thou hast graciously condescended to bring me to this day and hour, that I may receive a portion in the number of thy holy Martyrs, and drink of Christ's cup, for the resurrection to eternal life both of soul and body in the incorruptibleness of the Holy Spirit. Into which number, grant I may be received this day, being found in thy sight as a fair and acceptable sacrifice, such a one as Thou thyself hast prepared ; that 30 Thou mayest accomplish what Thou, O true and faithful God, hast foreshown: therefore I praise Thee for all thy mercies, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee, through the eternal High-Priest, thy beloved Son Jesus Christ; with whom to Thyself and the Holy Spirit be glory both now and for ever. Amen."
THE CHRISTIAN'S BADGE.
THE Romans had a law, that every one should, whereever he went, wear a badge of his trade in his hat, or outward vestment, that might be known. Thus the Christian is never to lay aside the badge of his holy pro fession; but to let his light shine, and adorn the doc trine of God his Saviour in all things.
This name, Enoch, was given by Cain to his eldest but we have every reason to believe, that the two were persons of very different dispositions, and of opposite courses of life. Their parents, their education, and their habits of life, were of a contrary character; and such contrarieties we still perceive in persons bearing the same name among ourselves.
The father of Enoch was Jared: but of him we have no particular information, beyond that which is contained in the book of Genesis,-the simple mention of his name, his father Mahaleel,-his son Enoch,his age and death,-and the fact of his having sons and daughters yet the course of his life was greatly extended. "And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died." Gen. v, 20.
We are not able to pronounce with confident assurance, but the probability is strong that Jared was a man of sincere personal religion, especially from the fact of the dedication to God of his son Enoch, whose exalted piety is celebrated, both in relation to his public and private life.
Entertaining this pleasing persuasion, a distinguished modern poet has eulogized both father and son, in these beautiful lines:
"Jared, who full of hope beyond the tomb,
Hallow'd his offspring from his mother's womb,
MONTGOMERY'S WORLD BEFORE THE FLOOD. There is a fragment of an ancient tradition respecting Jared, which has been preserved to our times. It states, that his name Jared, which signifies descending, was given to him on account of a hundred young men, of the posterity of Seth, having descended from the holy mountain, on which they dwelt, to marry the "daughters of men," and mingle with the Cainites, contrary to the counsel of Jared. The same tradition reports, that Jared was prophet; and that, when he drew near his end, he called to him Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, and their children: he gave them some pious counsel, and having appointed Enoch to be his successor, he blessed them in the name of the LORD, and died in the hope of a blessed immortality.
As Enoch was born in the six hundred and twentythird year of the world, he must have been for more than three hundred years contemporary with his first parent, Adam. From his own lips, therefore, he would have the delightful opportunity of learning the wondrous story of the creation,-the terms of the covenant of obedience, according to which he was constituted lord of the whole earth, the felicities of the consecrated Paradise, -the awful circumstances of the fall by his transgression,- the explained import of the Divine promise assuring a Saviour from deserved wrath, the design of sacrifices, and other sublime and inestimable truths and doctrines.
Although we have no particular account of the manner or frequency of the intercourse of these venerable patriarchs, which the brevity of the book of Genesis would not allow, yet we can have no doubt of their profitable conferences, and their frequent religious communica tions. Enoch, from his recorded habits and character, would certainly be inquisitive for the most precious.
information from his devout ancestors. Many a serene summer's evening,- many a consecrated festival,— many a memorable anniversary,—many a holy Sabbath would be improved, in treasuring up the instructive communications which fell from the lips of his ancestors, the distinguished sons of God," especially from Enos and Seth, and from his venerable progenitor Adam, who had been so remarkably favoured in communion with God.
As Enoch is testified to have lived more than three hundred years contemporary with Adam, some of our young readers may feel disposed to inquire, what was the reason of the patriarchs living so long,-many of them to nearly a thousand years. To satisfy their minds it may be replied, that though we may not be able to declare the whole, yet there were several evident reasons for their long continuance on earth. First, it must be chiefly resolved into the sovereign power and goodness of God. He prolonged their lives for the more speedy peopling of the earth, and for the more effectual preservation of religion, while there were no written records of God's revealed will, the knowledge of which was handed down principally by tradition. As they lived to so extended an age, the father could instruct his children to the fifth or sixth generation, in the things which had been revealed to him from the "Father of lights" and fountain of grace.
All the recorded patriarchs until Noah, "were born before Adam died: so that from him they might receive a full and satisfactory account of the creation, Paradise, the fall, the promise, and those divine precepts, which concerned religious worship and a religious life; and if any mistakes arose, they might have recourse to him while he lived, as to an oracle, for the rectifying of it; and after his death, to Methuselah, and others, that had conversed with him so great was the care of Almighty God to preserve in his church the knowledge of his will, and the purity of his worship."-Henry.
Natural causes also, no doubt, favoured long life in those early ages of the world. Man was indeed excluded from Paradise, which the LORD had planted; the earth was cursed with thorns and thistles; but still it was more fruitful, the productions of it more nutritious, and the air more pure and healthful than after the deluge. Besides, the cheerfulness of the pious, and the temperance of those simple ages, would unite with the blessings of a bounteous God to prolong their lives, and thus to secure the accomplishment of his holy and benevolent purposes in their families. (To be continued.)
THE BANYAN, OR INDIAN FIG TREE. THE glory of India is the sacred Banyan, or fig tree. This giant of the forest, or rather forest in itself, extends its branches in every direction, and throwing out new shoots, which fall to the ground and there take root without separating from the parent tree, it forms a continuous and delightful shade, and provides a home and shelter for the houseless native.
It is said to derive its name of Banyan from the adoration which that caste pays to it, who paint it daily, make offerings of rice, and pray to it.
Pennant says it is called the pagod tree, and tree of councils, because idols are placed under its shade, and councils held beneath its branches.
In some places it is believed to be the haunt of spectres, as the ancient oaks of Wales have been of fairies. Pillars of stone, and posts elegantly carved and ornamented, with the most beautiful porcelain to supply the use of mirrors, are occasionally placed
under its shade.
IN my last Letter it was intimated, that the subject of Education naturally divides itself into four branches, corresponding to those qualities of human nature which it professes to educe, and to direct to the ends they were intended to answer; namely, the physical, moral, intellectual, and religious. That branch which may be called physical education first presents itself, and respecting which I now proceed to offer you my sentiments.
I shall confidently presuppose you to be fully convinced of the sympathy between the body and the mind; or, in other words, their natural tendency to assume the same state of feeling the one with the other. This has indeed been shown to be very natural, and the mode of it has been partly explained by many celebrated writers; but after all the most convincing proofs may be derived by every individual from his own experience and observation. It is also another principle, which we derive from the same sources, that in order to act upon the mental part of man's nature, you must immediately apply to the physical or corporeal; and that if you would increase the strength of the mental powers, or communicate cheerfulness and vivacity to the mind, you must strengthen the body, and provide for the due regulation of the animal functions. I beg also to presuppose you in possession of a third principle, that, in order to produce a habit or state, either of mind or body, in a human being, it is necessary to repeat those several acts and applications, which tend to produce that state or habit. Settle it therefore in your mind, that much of the mental and moral character of your offspring will depend upon the state of the physical part of his constitution, and the treatment it receives; and that if you wish him to have a sound mind, you will need to be very careful that he possesses a sound body. Attention to this as well as to all his interests, can scarcely begin too early, owing to the extreme susceptibility of his physical organization, and the intense sympathy which it possesses with the mind during the earliest years of existence. I have no doubt that the temper of a child especially, and therefore as much of the character of a child as depends upon his temper, may depend upon the treatment he receives during the first six months.
It is not difficult to decide as to the natural effect of uneasy and disagreeable circumstances. Suppose him to be swathed according to a method too barbarous even to have been admitted by barbarous nations; perpetually exposed to tight clothing; suddenly and roughly awaked from slumber; handled without tenderness by a nurse or attendant; laid in uneasy postures; distressed by the loud and absurd laughter or harsh voice of a nurse; washed by her careless hands, as if it were an inanimate being; often compelled to weep by these and many other species of absurd and irrational treatment; -what would be the natural result, but a fretful, distressed, gloomy, and desponding temperament, which would be fixed, and colour the eareer of future life, long before those around him had imagined it capable of being affected by external treatment? What, on the other hand, would be the natural result of loose, easy clothing; being awaked from slumber by the very gradual pressure of a finger upon his hand; handled with tenderness while awake; laid to slumber in a position by the attendant, which her own experience may have taught her is the most calculated for easy repose; spoken to throughout the day, not in nonsense or half words, but in a gentle, cheerful, intelligent tone, as if he were capable
even of understanding what was said; the utmost efforts being used to prevent distressing him, or occasioning him to cry-what, but a tranquil mind in a healthy body? Unaccustomed to be distressed, the process of mental development would proceed, neither being clouded nor liable to obliquity, and a happy temperament established, which might resist the influence of future circumstances calculated to produce despondency or illtemper.
If you should doubt the dependence of the mental temperament upon early treatment, I might refer you to the case of the poet Cowper, who ascribes that despondency which rendered his life so miserable, that in the course of it he attempted twice to destroy himself, to the conduct of the elder boys to him when comparatively a child at Westminster school. The influence of external circumstances is, though not perhaps equal, yet of immense importance throughout the whole period of youth, and even of life itself. But the reality and the philosophy of their operation are far better attested and explained in the following quotation, with which I shall close my present Letter. It is from Paley's Moral Philosophy, in a note upon the sixth chapter, under the title" Human Happiness."
"If any positive signification, distinct from what we mean by pleasure, can be affixed to the term happiness, I should take it to denote a certain state of the nervous system in that part of the human frame in which we feel joy or grief, passions and affections. Whether this part be the heart, which the turn of most languages would lead us to believe, or the diaphragm, as Buffon, or the upper surface of the stomach, as Van Helmont thought, or rather a kind of fine network lining the whole region of the præcordia, as others have imagined; it is possible, not only that each painful sensation may violently shake and disturb the fibres for the time, but that a series of such may at length so derange the very texture of the system, as to produce a perpetual irritation, which will show itself by fretfulness, impatience, and restlessness. It is possible also, that a succession of pleasurable emotions may have such an effect upon this subtle organization, as to cause the fibres to relax and return into their place and order, and thereby to recover, or if not lost to preserve that harmonious conformation, which gives to the mind its sense of complacency and satisfaction. This state may be denominated happiness, and is so far distinguishable from pleasure, that it does not refer to any particular object or engagement, or consist, like pleasure, in the gratification of one or more of the senses, but is rather the secondary effect which such objects and gratifications produce upon the nervous system, or the state in which they leave it." I remain, your, &c. &c.
DISCOVERY OF A SECRET.
A learned Bishop being one day in with the company celebrated David Garrick, their conversation turned on the influence of language, of action, of truth, and of representation, on the passions of men. "But how is it," said his Lordship, addressing himself to Garrick, "that you, who deal in nothing but fiction, can so affect your audiences, as to throw them into tears; while we, who deliver the most awful and interesting truths, can scarcely produce any effect whatever?" My Lord," replied the actor, "here lies the se- you deliver your truths as if they were fictions; but we deliver our fictions as if they were truths."