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great mosque of Al Harrem, or, as called by Chris tians, the mosque of Solomon, from being supposed, with that of Al Sakhara near it, to occupy the site of the ancient temple of that splendid and luxurious king."
Chateaubriand observes, "The houses of Jerusalem are heavy square masses, very low, without chimneys or windows; they have flat terraces or domes on the top, and look like prisons or sepulchres. The whole would appear to the eye one uninterrupted level, did not the steeples of the churches, the minarets of the mosques, the summits of a few cypresses, and the clumps of nopals, break the uniformity of the plain. On beholding these stone buildings, encompassed by a stony country, you are ready to inquire if they are not the confused monuments of a cemetery in the midst of a desert. You lose yourself among narrow, unpaved streets, here going up hill, there down, from the inequality of the ground; and you walk among clouds of dust or loose stones. Canvass stretched from house to house increases the gloom of this labyrinth. Bazaars, roofed over, and fraught with infection, completely exclude the light from the desolate city. A few paltry shops expose nothing but wretchedness to view; and even these are frequently shut, from apprehension of a cadi.-Amid this extraordinary desolation, you must pause a moment, to contemplate two circumstances still more extraordinary. Among the ruins of Jerusalem, two classes of independent people find in their religion sufficient fortitude to enable them to surmount such complicated horrors and wretchedness. Here reside communities of Christian monks, whom nothing can compel to forsake the tomb of Christ; neither plunder, nor personal ill-treatment, nor menaces of death itself. Night and day they chant their hymns around the Holy Sepulchre. Driven by the cudgel and the sabre, women, children, flocks and herds, seek refuge in the cloisters of these recluses. What prevents the armed oppressor from pursuing his prey, and overwhelming such feeble ramparts? the charity of the monks: they deprive themselves of the last resources of life to ransom their suppliants.
"Cast your eyes between the temple and Mount Zion; behold another petty tribe, cut off from the rest of the inhabitants of the city. The particular objects of every species of degradation, these people bow their heads without murmuring: they endure every kind of insult without demanding justice: they sink beneath repeated blows without sighing if their head be required, they present it to the scimitar.-Enter the abodes of these people, you will find them, amid the most abject wretchedness, instructing their children to read a mysterious book, which they in their turn will teach their offspring to read. Seventeen times have they witnessed the destruction of Jerusalem, yet nothing can discourage them, nothing can prevent them from turning their faces towards Zion. To see the Jews scattered over the whole world, according to the word of God, must doubtless excite surprise: but to be struck with supernatural astonishment, you must view them at Jerusalem; you must behold these rightful masters of Judea, living as slaves and strangers in their own country; you must behold them expecting, under all oppressions, a KING who is to deliver them. Crushed by the cross that condemns them, skulking near the temple, of which not one stone is left upon another, they continue in their deplorable infatuation. The Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, are swept from the earth; and a petty tribe, whose origin preceded that of those great nations, still exists unmixed among the ruins of its native land."
THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE, was erected by the empress Helena, mother of Constantine, about
A. D. 326, as was supposed, on Mount Calvary. The walls are of stone, and the roof of cedar; the East end encloses Mount Calvary, and the West the Holy Sepulchre; the former is covered with a noble cupola, open at top, and supported by sixteen massive columns. Over the high altar, at the East end, is another stately dome. The nave of the church constitutes the choir; and in the aisles within are shown the places where the most remarkable circumstances of our Saviour's passion were transacted, together with the tombs of Godfrey and Baldwin, the first two Christian kings of Jerusalem. In the Chapel of the Crucifixion is shown the hole in the rock in which the cross is said to have been fixed. The altar in this chapel has three crosses, and is richly adorned; particularly with four lamps of immense value that hang before it, and are kept constantly burning. At the west end is that of the sepulchre, which is hewn in that form out of the solid rock, and has a small dome supported by pillars of porphyry. The cloister round it is divided into several chapels, appropriated to the different sects of Christians who reside there-Greeks, Armenians, Maronites, Jacobites, Copts, Abyssines, Georgians, &c., and on the northwest side are the apartments of the Latins, who have the care of the church, and reside constantly in it; the Turks keeping the keys of it, and not suffering any of them to go out, but obliging them to receive all their provisions in at a small wicket gate. At Easter some grand ceremonies are performed in the church, representing our Lord's passion, crucifixion, death, and resurrection; at which a vast concourse of pilgrims assist, whose contributions and offerings keep the edifice in repair, and support its possessors.
The Easter ceremonies at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre are most extravagant and superstitious, and on some future occasion we purpose to give an account of them; in the mean time, let our readers pray that God would send forth his blessed word to dissipate the delusions of the people, that by the gracious influences of the Holy Spirit, a host of intelligent, holy, zealous men of God may be raised up to preach in its purity, simplicity, and power, the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour.
WHAT LAND WOULD I VISIT?
Had I the pinions of a dove
To fly o'er land and sea,
Her isles once blest and free,
Would I towards the rising sun
Or the sweet islands of the west
Would I now soar among,
To none of these would I retire,
I would alight on that blest spot
Though now profan'd each hallow'd spot,
Her heroes never can.
Here God himself his law explain'd
He lived, and died, and rose:
Illustration of Psalm lviii, 4, 5, and Jeremiah viii, 17. IN the neighbourhood of Madras there are serpent charmers; a set of strollers, who carry with them a basket with these reptiles. After a kind of overture, the basket is opened, and the serpents slide out. As the artist plays upon a tambourine, a kind of tympanum, and accompanies it with his voice, the serpents raise themselves on their tails, and wave their heads to the tune; but upon the music ceasing, they return almost immediately to their native sullenness and malignity, when they are fenced into their prison, to prevent their darting at the company, as they leave them in full possession of their poison, which they sometimes prove, by suffering them to bite domestic animals. The species generally employed by these itinerant artists, is that called Hooded Serpents, the most venomous of the kind; and many of them are so gloomy, that it is a long time before the artist can prevail upon them to lift up their hoods to admit the sound of the music, or "hear the voice of the charmer." They therefore often cut the ligature of their hoods, which makes it fall below their ears. This effect of the sounds of music upon animals, is confirmed by what we see of the effects of drums and trumpets upon horses.
27. POTHINUS is believed to have been a native of Asia Minor. Being converted to the faith of Christ, and devoted to the Christian ministry, he was sent by Polycarp from Smyrna, as a missionary to France. Many Greeks had settled in Marseilles, on account of their mercantile affairs, which occasioned much intercourse with Vienne, Lyons, and other trading places: and Pothinus became the bishop of the Christian church in the latter city. Lyons was famous for its splendid temple and its altars, erected in honour of Augustus Cæsar, at the common charge of France. Idolatrous festivals were celebrated on the first of August, with great solemnity; when crowds assembled from all parts of the country, to witness the public disputes between learned and eloquent philosophers, the sports, shows, especially the gladiatorial conflicts, and the throwing of malefactors to wild beasts in the amphitheatre.
Pothinus continued labouring for many years at Lyons, until A. D. 177, when Aurelius Antoninus issued an edict against the Christians. Persecution raged dreadfully at Lyons and Vienne. Multitudes of martyrs for Christ were sacrificed, with every manifestation of brutal cruelty. Among the rest, Pothinus, now ninety years of age, was seized and condemned. The venerable old man was scarcely able to crawl: but he was dragged to the tribunal, and thence towards the place of execution. Ferocity in the idolatrous crowd vented itself in the most violent forms. Every man seemed to consider it impious not to do something against him, to avenge the quarrel of their gods.
Intending to make a second day's sport with him, they put him in prison, where his mangled body, too faint to retain his spirit, sunk under these barbarities, and he died almost immediately of his wounds. Thus Pothinus, the venerable bishop of the Christians at Lyons, breathed out his spirit to God his Saviour, A. D. 177.
THE MONASTIC INSTITUTION. THE monastic institution was originally among the Gauls a profession devoted to the cultivation of letters. The labour of transcribing books, which then formed one of the chief occupations of the monks, continued with them till the discovery of the admirable art of printing. It is thus that all impartial historians dispense only bare justice to the ancient monks by acknowledging, that it is to their care and industry we are indebted for the valuable remains of antiquity, as well sacred as profane.
"The sublime productions of the greatest geniuses of Athens and Rome found a secure asylum in the retreats of religion. The church, which had adopted the Greek and Latin languages, always used them; and without this circumstance an universal ignorance would have prevailed. Men were wanted, who, secluded from the world, would dedicate themselves to retirement by choice, to study by taste, to labour by duty; animated by the same genius and the same zeal, living in common under the same regulations, and who were willing to employ the leisure of their solitude in the laborious occupation of endless transcription.
"It is fortunate for letters that this body existed; no individuals whose minds would have been occupied by domestic affairs and public matters, could have given themselves up to such long and painful labours; and this is one of the chief advantages we have derived from these industrious and learned solitaries, who, from the depth of their retreat, enlightened the world which they had quitted.”—D' Israeli.
The Ministry of Enoch.
FROM the brief notice of Enoch in the book of Genesis, we might be led to conclude, that he was a person of distinguished excellence: but there is nothing related of his public character. The information which is afforded by the apostles concerning him, is much more comprehensive and satisfactory than that which is given by Moses. By the latter we are simply told that "Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him." The apostles Paul and Jude present him to our contemplation under two distinct points of view; as an exemplary saint, and as an inspired prophet. Paul commends him as an eminent believer under the patriarchal dispensation of mercy, as one who obtained a good report through faith, having seen afar off the promises relating to the Messiah; one who was persuaded of them, and embraced them, confessing himself a stranger and pilgrim upon the earth." Heb. xi, 13.
Enoch is exhibited to us by Jude, as an illustrious prophet of the LORD, foretelling the revelation of Christ in awful grandeur, to the confusion of infidels, and to the condemnation of the ungodly. "Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold the Lord cometh, with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them, of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him." Jude 14, 15.
This affecting prediction is a clear and awakening description of the day of judgment; that day of terror, in which the final destinies of all mankind shall be unalterably fixed; when every man shall be rewarded according to his works: that fearful day, "when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power; when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe." 2 Thess. i, 7—10.
Enoch beheld with grief the prevailing wickedness of the Cainites: but more especially the increasing infidelity of many among the sons of God." His holy soul waз stirred within him to endeavour to reclaim them, and to arrest the progress of iniquity. What contests he had with the daring blasphemers of his time, as they are alluded to by Jude, we are not particularly informed; but it seems probable that he was opposed by many, and that with insulting scoffs and threatenings.
Nor would this benevolent and zealous prophet be less solicitous to establish the minds of the sincere but timid, in their adherence to the truth of God, than to rebuke and warn the disobedient. He would be conspicuous on their days of sacred festivity, and their solemn anniversaries, in leading the devout worshippers to the footstool of the Divine mercy, and in officiating in his extraordinary character as the priest and prophet of God.
Many had become apostates from the worship of God, and joined "the sons of men" in their profaneness and wickedness; yet a holy band, a few remained faithful in their allegiance to their God.
Whose open summit rising o'er the trees,
An unwrought mass of earth-unbedded stone;
To Eden's exiles, resting in their flight.
The few, who lov'd their Maker from their youth,
For now with trembling hand he shed the blood,
It is not unlikely, that even their solemn acts of public worship were the occasion of ridicule and reviling to the daring apostates: on account of which he foretold the approaching judgment, to terminate all the dispensations of God to man upon the earth, which seems necessarily to imply, that he was favoured with a view of the progressive steps leading to that dreadful catastrophe. As an inspired believer in the Messiah, he must have had some edifying conceptions of the future incarnation, the ministry, the death, the resurrection, and ascension of the blessed Redeemer; and he must also have beheld, by the Spirit, the enlargement of the Messiah's kingdom, the blissful state of those departed saints, who will come with him in the clouds of heaven as the Judge of all the earth, and also that eternal weight of glory that is reserved for the righteous in the presence of God.
Such sublime subjects occupied the elevated mind of the prophet; and they formed the theme of his public ministry to the infidel multitudes while here on earth, and his spiritual affections were in heaven long before his wondrous translation.
(To be continued.)
BISHOP BUTLER DYING.
THE following anecdote is related of the last moments of Bishop Butler, the learned author of the "Analogy."
A few days previous to his death, when he was sitting alone with his chaplain, he thus addressed him :"Perhaps what I am about to say may surprise you; but after all I have written,-after having viewed death calmly at a distance,-yet, upon its near approach, I am afraid to die." My Lord," observed the Chaplain, "you forget that Jesus Christ is a Saviour." "Yes," rejoined the Bishop, "but how do I know that He is a Saviour for me?" "It is his own gracious declaration," continued the Chaplain, "Him that cometh unto me I will in no wise cast out." "Stop!" exclaimed the Bishop: "I have read that passage a thousand and a thousand times, but I never felt its value till this moment! Stop there, for now I die happy."
Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
Dear Madam, AMONG the moral habits which require to be very early inculcated on the mind of a child, is that of speaking the truth. The period, indeed, at which attention to it ought to be commenced, is when he begins to express his ideas in sounds and words.
You will soon discover that your child will exhibit a comparative disregard of truth, and liability to falsehood. Be not alarmed: it is a universal characteristic of human nature in infancy. Do not indulge the unfounded despondency that he has any greater tendency to this vice than other children.
It depends indeed upon the systematic and unceasing watchfulness of the parent, whether a child shall be soon imbued with better habits, or through neglect or injudicious treatment, exhibit it in youth, and even retain it in after-life.
I will not attempt to iuquire from what causes, remote or proximate, it arises, that little children are prone to falsehood; whether from the mere exuberance of the imagination, ignorance of the value of truth, native indifference to its value, or inherent depravity; my object simply being to suggest such rules as may, under the blessing of God, conduce to correct the disposition, and to establish a contrary habit.
These rules are all derived from the origin and nature of truth.
Truth originates in the right apprehension of the real nature of things; and it consists in rightly describing such right apprehensions.
In the first place, truth originates in right apprehensions of the real nature of things. Whether it be an object of the senses, or an object of mental perception, it is clear, that, in order to the act of describing it correctly, it must be rightly apprehended. If, for instance, it were possible to apprehend a tree to be a man, the person so misapprehending could never truly relate the incidents in which the supposed man was concerned. The same thing may be said of every other instance. Whence I deduce this rule, namely, that a child ought to be early instructed to apprehend correctly the nature of every object of the mind or senses. As soon as your child begins to speak, be most careful to teach him the true name of every thing. Beware of giving to any object a fictitious or defective name. See that he pronounces the true name for every thing, as nearly as possible. Never pass over an instance in which he miscalls any thing. As soon as he is sufficiently advanced, catechize him as to the qualities of external objects; such as the following-What figure is this table? What colour is it? How many legs has it? What colour is this baize with which it is covered? &c.
By this means a child ought to be made acquainted with the true names for all the qualities of every object in the material world, and even of his own abstract perceptions; and I cannot avoid thinking that this employment is the most profitable in which he can be engaged. He will learn to speak more readily: he will in consequence become possessed of a greater number of ideas he will be able to express them more correctly by their corresponding words, than if he had books put into his hand, which as a toy are worse than useless, and as modes of instruction are to an infant exceedingly ineligible. A visit to an infant school will soon convince any one, that a child may learn to express by motions such words as perpendicular, horizontal, square, round, &c. By this method a child becomes instructed as to the names of those objects of the external world, out of which his abstract perceptions are formed, and with which he will be conversant all his
days. Labour to make him acquainted with the names of them. Think no exertions too great to teach him the right names for them. Call him back again and again, if he mistakes. Make the wrong name or word for any thing troublesome to him. Make truth the easiest, because you never trouble him respecting it.
Secondly, Truth consists in rightly describing in language such right apprehensions.
Now there certainly are many causes whereby a little child is induced to describe wrongly his own apprehensions, that is, in a manner contrary to their nature.
This he will often do to save himself trouble; indolence being a fruitful cause of lying; from pride, from malice towards a playfellow or servant that has displeased him. This latter species is, properly speaking, a lie.
If, however, the rule deduced from the first-named principle be scrupulously observed, I am inclined to think that this lamentable instance will be of rare occurrence. Whenever it occurs, your duty becomes imperative and difficult.
You must not weep, or frown upon him, or strike him, or make him go down upon his knees and beg your pardon or pardon of the Creator, or tell others of his ill conduct: you will only confuse, and bewilder, and harden his heart by such methods. Act as in instances of the former nature. Retrace with him every circumstance: unravel the whole affair as privately as possible: cause him, when fully convicted, to give you a different statement: pause-leave him to the remonstrances of the inward monitor, and then act as if nothing had occurred. This conduct, if invariably pursued, and falsehood thereby rendered troublesome, will avail far more to his welfare than frowns and estrangement. As he grows up into life, do not allow him to describe the characters of other children or persons: this is a cause of lying. Do not allow him to talk much. Do not encourage him to relate anecdotes of the affairs or families in the neighbourhood. Prevent the perusal and recital of fabulous narratives. Carefully watch over his speech, and see that on every occasion, however insignificant, it is a faithful representation of what his mind really knows and perceives. Soon after he will save you the trouble, when he comes to feel the moral loveliness of truth, its convenience, its intrinsic excellence, and the odiousness of falsehood, both in the eyes of God and man.
I am, my dear Madam, &c.
Found in the study of the pious Mr. Parsons, Vicar of Arnold, and Rector of Wilford in Nottinghamshire; to which a request was annexed, "that it might be inscribed on his tomb."
The soul which inhabited the body that now lies at thy feet,
is at this time partaking
of the due reward of its deeds!
If good, it is happy, without fear of change; If not, how great a mercy would it be esteemed, even for a short time,
to be as thou art—
Capable of avoiding the torments of hell, and of enjoying the rest and pleasures that are at God's right hand for evermore! Now is the accepted time, now is the day of salvation! Oh! receive not the grace of God in vain. 2 COR VI, 1, 2.
DOMESTIC INFANT SCHOOLS.
INFANT SCHOOLS, with all their peculiar benefits, are designed especially for the poor. Their original institution, and their varied operations, are directed to the improvement of the children of those, who have but little time, or talent, even when they have the disposition, to promote the mental cultivation of their infant offspring. Incalculable good appears already resulting from these humble seminaries. But since this system is so admirably adapted to call forth the latent faculties of the infant mind, cannot some of its advantages be secured in the domestic nursery? May not some of its methods be practicable with two or three infants at home, or even with one?
These questions have been proposed by many of those who have seen the delightful progress of the children of the poor in these public institutions.
We are persuaded that much of the infant school system may be adopted in the domestic nursery. Lessons in Natural History, Scripture History, Geography, Grammar, Arithmetic, and other sciences, may easily and delightfully be inculcated on an infant of two or three years old. Instead of a heap of senseless "Dutch Toys," which are broken with a fall, or even a touch, let the child be furnished with the ingenious, beautiful, and instructive works of our British artists and scholars, whose talents have been employed in favour of the young, the expense of which will be far less, while the knowledge imparted by their means will be infinitely greater. We will mention a few of the articles we
Plates of Natural History, for Infant Schools-by Suter, Cheapside, London.
Illustrations of the Bible, for ditto, by ditto. Cobbin's Grammar, Cobbin's Arithmetic, and Cobbin's Geography, for Children.
Manners and Customs of the Israelites, Journeys of the Israelites, and Stories for Children, by the Tract Society.
These, with others of a similar class, may be used with the greatest advantage by parents, governesses, or nursery-maids.
Preliminary, however, and indispensable to success, it is to be observed, that the nursery-maid, governess, or instructor of infants, should possess a sacred regard to truth and to the word of God, a love for learning, and be apt to teach. Judiciously has the Countess of Blessington said, "More depends on first impressions than people are aware of; and parents should, if possible, be more careful in the selection of their nurserymaids than of their governesses. The former often lay the foundation of evils, that the latter can never erase; and how often do we see a child emerge from the nursery devoid of that freshness and simplicity which constitute the greatest charm of infancy."
Natural History, by means of the prints prepared for Infant Schools, may be extensively taught. As a substitute for these, any outline of natural history with cuts may be usefully employed.
Scripture History may be profitably unfolded by means of illustrative cuts, and the mind of an infant filled with the whole outline of sacred story in the way of diversion and amusement. The History of England may be taught in the same way, by "All the Kings of England," on a coloured sheet, by Darton.
Geography. By means of a coloured map, a lively infant may be trained to delight in pointing out the sea and land, Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America, the East, the West, North and South, with a multitude of other particulars.
Grammar. A knowledge of all the various parts of speech, and the comparison of adjectives, may thus
be taught, and made a most diverting exercise, by Cobbin's Grammar. The infant just beginning to speak will be delighted to find, and to call Mr. Positive, a tall man; Mr. Comparative, a taller man; Mr. Superlative, the tallest man of the three.
Arithmetic, by means of Cobbin's ingenious little work, may be made an amusement even for very young children.
We are aware that it has been said, and that it is still said, children ought not to have their memories burthened with lessons, which only disgust them with books and retard their real improvement. None can be more averse to over-burthening the memories of children than we are; but the plans we recommend are the methods dictated by nature: they do not load the memory; they treat the little creatures as rational beings, not as mere playthings; and while they present correct images before the mind, they at once call forth the opening mind they instruct, and produce the most untiring delight.
By means of illustrations of the Bible, an incredible measure of historical, moral, and religious knowledge may be communicated to the youngest child. Wicked Cain killing his brother Abel-Joseph sold by his naughty brothers-Moses the babe taken out of the ark of bulrushes in the water-Aaron and Moses striking the rock, to give the children of Israel water to drink -Little Samuel, whose mother brought him a little coat every year, while he lived with Eli, and prayed to our Father who art in heaven-Timothy the little boy, whose mother taught him to read the Bible;-these and others will furnish a rich variety of topics for instruction, even to the youngest children; and will be sources of amusement, delight, and profit, in the hands of a lively instructor.
We are not mere theorists and speculators: we are parents; and we have seen these lessons, and many others, learnt by children under three years of age, and the dear little prattlers delighted to tell papa all these things.
For example: the excellent Map of Canaan, published by the Sunday School Union, has served as an exercise, and an infant little more than two years old has delighted to tell papa where is the Great SeaJudea Samaria-the river Jordan-the Sea of Sodom the Sea of Galilee-Jerusalem, where David lived — Nazareth, where Jesus lived-Bethany, where Martha lived-Gaza, whose gates Samson carried away - Idu. mea, where Job lived, and many other things. And what is there surprising in all this, when instead of burthening the memory, or abusing the child with nonsense, it is treated as a rational being, and these things made the texts and directories of lively stories?Dr. Doddridge was taught the Scripture history by his mother, before he could speak, by means of the Dutch tiles in the fire-place; and her observations and comments produced a happy and lasting impression upon the mind of that great and useful man, to which, probably, generations unborn will be under unspeakable obligations through his imperishable writings!
DIGNIFIED CONDUCT OF A YOUNG LADY. ELIZA EMBERT, a young Parisian, resolutely discarded a gentleman to whom she was to have been married the next day, because he ridiculed religion. Having given him a gentle reproof, he replied, that a man of the world would not be so old-fashioned as to regard God and religion." Eliza immediately started!-but soon recovering herself, said, "From this moment, when I discover that you do not respect religion, I cease to be yours. He who does not love and honour God, can never love his wife constantly and sincerely."