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STATISTICS OF LANCASHIRE.
LANCASHIRE is a large maritime province, bounded on the North by Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Yorkshire; on the South by Cheshire; on the East by Yorkshire, and on the West by the Irish sea: it is 74 miles in length, and from 15 to 44 in breadth. It is divided into hundreds, 63 parishes, 27 markets, and 894 villages.
Along the coast the land in Lancashire is low and flat; but towards Yorkshire it becomes more diversified, and rises in many places to a considerable elevation. In Lonsdale the hills approach very near the coast, and the district of Furness is almost throughout wild and mountainous, Coniston Fell rising to the height of 2,577 feet above the level of the sea. The county has other considerable eminences, Pendle Hill, near Clithero, rising to 1,803, Rivington Hill, near Bolton, 1,545, and Wittle Hill 1,614 feet above the level of the sea.
Lancaster possesses much rich land, and some of the moors have been drained and enclosed, producing excellent oats; yet this county is not so famous for agriculture as some others. Farms are not large in this county, being generally about 50 acres each, few exceeding 200.
Lancashire has several lakes, the principal of which are Windermere, Coniston, Esthwaite, abounding with fish. Salmon in abundance are found in the rivers, the Mersey, the Ribble, the Wyre, and the Lerne. The rivers not naturally navigable have been rendered so, and canals have been formed that unite all parts of the county in one continued water communication. Here indeed originated that great system of canal navigation, which has in two distinct places united the western and the eastern seas, joined the Severn with the Thames, and the Mersey with the Humber, and these main lines with each other: here it first began to display its vast influence over the trade, wealth, and population of the country. The canal from Sawkey, near Warrington, to the Mersey, was the first that was finished, and perhaps the first complete canal in the kingdom.
Of all the productions of Lancashire, the single mineral, coal, is by far the most important. This occurs chiefly in the southern and middle divisions, where inexhaustible fields of it are found. It is the great abundance of this article which has drawn capital to this part of the kingdom; forming those immense establishments, which, within the last century especially, have completely changed the face of the country, and though naturally barren, have filled it with population, and prodigiously augmented its wealth. The ample supply of water too, though unfavourable to agriculture, is highly advantageous to manufactures. Such, in point of fact, are the advantages of this particular district of the country, that the raw material is transported from America, and from India-distant from 4,000 to 12,000 miles !-large quantities of it to be returned in a finished state to the very places of its production!
The manufactures of Lancashire are most extensive and various, consisting of silk, woollen, linen, hats, stockings, pins, needles, nails, tools, watches, earthenware, porcelain, paper, &c. But the cotton trade especially has risen here with a rapidity, and to an extent, beyond all example. Manchester is the principal seat of this vast manufacture. Hence it spreads on all sides, to the south and east into Cheshire and Yorkshire; but especially to the north and west, over the greatest part of Lancashire, extending from Furness to Derby on the one hand, and from Liverpool to Halifax on the other. A variety of other employments, as those of bleachers, dyers, printers' tool makers,
engine and machine makers, &c., depend for their support on this manufacture. There are also in this county large works for smelting iron and copper, for blowing common glass and for casting plate-glass, for manufacturing white lead, lamp black, vitriolic acid, &c.
The commerce of Lancashire consists chiefly in the exchange of its manufactured goods, and Liverpool engrosses nearly the whole of the export trade: Liverpool, with respect to commerce, is the first port in the kingdom, after London. The exports, besides the great branch to Ireland, are chiefly to America and the West Indies; also to the East Indies, Africa, the Mediterranean, Spain, Portugal, &c. The principal imports are cotton-wool, wools, sugar, tobacco, rice, timber, corn, &c. Trade inland also is very considerable, chiefly subservient to the various manufactures, and in the transportation of coal, limestone, slate, &c.
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION, &c.-Diocese, Chester; Diocesan, Dr. J. B. Sumner. Church Livings, 287: in the gift of the Government, 7; the Church, 159; Universities, 3; Public Bodies, 7; Nobility and Gentry, 105; Inhabitants, 6.
ENDOWED PUBLIC CHARITIES.- Annual rental and dividends, 22,0517. 198. 10d.
BIBLE SOCIETY AUXILIARIES, contributed in 1829, 3,9401. 17s. 8d.
MISSIONS.-Church Missionary Society, 3,2581.88.9d.; London ditto, 4,2381. 5s. 2d. ; Wesleyan, 4,236/. 18s. 2d.; Baptist, 6851. 9s. 5d.; Home, 3521. 2s. Od.; Unitarian, 2791. Os. 1d.; Tract Society, 2481. Is. 6d.
SCHOOLS FOR THE POOR.--Numbers educated: National, 30,363; British, 2,640; Sabbath, 79,203.
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS, &c. - Church Livings, as above, 287; Independents, 87; Roman Catholic congregations, 81; Presbyterians, 39; Particular Baptists, 30; General Baptists, 5; Wesleyan Methodists, 156; Calvinistic Methodists, 9; Other Methodists, 75; Quakers, 25; Home Missionary and other stations, numerous but not ascertained.
Total Church of England........ .... 287
General Total...... 794
COLLEGIATE INSTITUTIONS, &c. -The Roman Catholic College at Stoneyhurst is the most considerable of that class in the kingdom. The Blackburn Independent Academy, for the education of pious young men for the ministry, under the care of the Rev. W. Alexander, M.A.
ASSOCIATIONS, &c. Sunday School Unions, 14. "The Lancashire Union of Congregational Churches for the Diffusion of the Gospel in the County:" the Rev. Thomas Raffles, LL. D., secretary: income for 1829, 1,0537. 13s. 4d.
HINDOO FESTIVALS. COCOA-NUT DAY, a great festival with the Hindoos, occurs at the full moon, at the breaking up of the monsoon, when the sea is supposed to have become open for navigation. On that day, the 17th of August, about sunset, an immense number of persons collected upon the esplanade at Bombay to witness the singular ceremony. The English residents repaired thither as to a spectacle, and all the principal natives attended in their carriages and in very magnificent dresses, in honour of the day, with great profusion and display of pearls and jewels. At a certain hour, one of the principal Bramins, advancing a little way into the sea, threw a gilt cocoa-nut into the water, which was a signal for the multitude to follow his example, and thousands of cocoa-nuts were instantaneously seen swimming in every direction, each person being eager to make his offering.
At Poorbunder, on the coast of Guzerat, cocoa-nut day is kept with great solemnity. The Braming pronounce a benediction over the cocoas, and after staining them with vermilion, deliver them to the attendant crowd, whose foreheads they also stain in like manner. In the evening the chief holds a court upon the sea-side, sitting upon a carpet, surrounded by all his ministers and chief men, and makes presents of turbans to the principal merchants. The whole shore is brilliantly illuminated with flambeaux and torches; and at a certain hour, when the moon is quite at the full, or when she crosses the meridian, the chief rises, and, followed by all his attendants, walks into the sea, into which he casts one of the sacred cocoa-nuts, and immediately every one follows his example, whilst several of the natives fearlessly plunging in, regardless of the imminent danger of the cocoa-nuts showering about them in every direction, secure as many of them as they can.
Whether this fruit, after the blessing of the Bramin, is supposed to possess any particular virtue, I do not know; but the natives on the sea-shore watching the full moon, the votive offerings of fruit in honour of the change of the season, and the ocean, which for months had been vexed by storms and tempests, becoming calm and placid, altogether form a scene highly picturesque and striking.
MY FLEETING DAYS.
My days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle."-Job vii, 6. "When thou passest through the waters 1 will be with thee."-Isaiah xliii, 2.
Then hasten on, ye rolling years,
With your resistless tide,
That bears me, though midst pain and tears,
There will my Father guide me through,
And make me more than conqueror too,
His promises of love secure
And triumph in his sight.
AN ESSAY ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE INFANT MIND;
Forming an Epitome of the System of Infant Education; with copious Lessons, and Rhymes for Infants' Schools. By J. R. Brown, Master of the Spitalfields Infants' School. Fourth edition, enlarged and corrected. London: Simpkin & Marshall. 12mo. bds. pp. 134. Mr. Brown is a man of intelligence and piety; and by this Essay he has laid the Public under great obligations to him. In this small pamphlet he has given an edifying exposition of his method of infant education, and demonstrated the possibility of inculcating the most important lessons upon the youngest child. Parents and Teachers will find it a very valuable manual, from which they will derive much information on that subject in which they are so deeply interested, and many important hints which may be admirably applied in the nursery. Our article on "Domestic Infant Schools" will supersede further remarks on this useful little work.
In the history of Charles V, emperor of Germany, we are told, that he resigned the reins of government, and retired into a convent in Spain. There he resolved to celebrate his own obsequies. For this purpose, he ordered his tomb to be erected in the chapel of the monastery of St. Justus. Thither, at the proper season, all his domestics were ordered to march in funeral procession, carrying in their hands black tapers. The Emperor followed in his shroud. Arrived at the place, he was laid in his coffin. The service of the dead was performed and when the ceremonies were ended, the doors were closed, the attendants dismissed; and he was left alone. After remaining some time in the grave, he arose, and repaired to his apartment, filled with all those awful reflections which the solemnity was adapted to inspire. Now we do not recommend the practice of such a gloomy and abject superstition. But would it be improper or useless for you, in imagination, to suppose yourselves-entering your sick chamber-stretched upon a bed of languishing-dyingwrapped up in your winding-sheet-laid in your coffin -friends for the last time touching your cold cheek with their lips, or the back of their hand-the lid screwed down-and your remains borne through the mutes at the door-and accompanied to the graveand left there-while the spirit had returned to God who gave it? In endeavouring to realize this condition, I ask, how would the world appear? What would you think of the censure or praise of men? What, of many of your pursuits? Would not this check the levity of the mind, and the pride of life?-Would not also this contemplation break the force of surprise?
"Familiar thoughts can slope the way to death," but if we think not of the subject, the event will be a sudden precipice.-Jay.
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HISTORIC TRADITIONS OF KRISHNA.
KRISHNA, whose swinging festival is represented in our Engraving, from a drawing of Lieut.-col. Phipps, is a deity of the Hindoos. To detail all the absurd, contradictory, and abominable traditions, which exist respecting him, would far exceed the limits of our work, and at the same time weary and disgust our readers.
God graciously gave to our first parents the promise of a Saviour, who in the latter ages should appear VOL. I,
upon the earth as the Redeemer of mankind. This same promise he repeated to the succesive patriarchs, in the belief of which they lived in peace, and died in immortal hope. We may therefore well suppose, that traditions of that same revelation would be promulgated all over the earth, especially among the descendants of Shem and Japhet, in the East and West. Hence we find Job and Balaam speaking of the Redeemer whom they expected, and the Eastern Magi seeking the incarnate Saviour at the time of his birth in Judea. Captain Wilford observes, "A short time before the
birth of CHRIST, not only the Jews, but the Romans, On the authority of the Sybilline books, and the decision of the sacred college of the Etrurian augurs, were all of opinion, that this momentous event was at hand. This was equally the case in the East, and a miraculous star directed the holy men, who were living in anxious expectation, where to find this heavenly child. At that time the Emperor of India, uneasy at these prophecies, which he conceived portended his ruin and the loss of his empire, sent emissaries to inquire whether such a child was really born, in order to destroy him and this happened in the year 3101 of the Cali-yuga, which is the first year of the Christian era. But the Hindus
fancy, that these prophecies were fulfilled in the person of Krishna.—The Hindu traditions, concerning this wonderful child, are collected in a treatise called the Vicram acharitra, or history of VICRAMA-DITYA.”. "When I said, that the Hindus conceived that the prophecies concerning a Saviour of the world were fulfilled in the person of Krishna, I do by no means wish to convey an idea that he was CHRIST, from whom he is as distinct a character and person as Joshua; and whose name, with the general outline of his history, existed long before CHRIST. " Yet the prolix account of his life," to use the words of Sir William Jones, are filled with narratives of a most extraordinary kind, and most strangely variegated. This incarnate deity of Sanscrit romance, was not only cradled, but educated among shepherds. A tyrant at the time of his birth ordered all the male infants to be slain. He performed amazing, but ridiculous miracles; and saved multitudes, partly by his miraculous powers, and partly by his arms and raised the dead, by descending for that purpose into the infernal regions. He was the meekest and best tempered of beings, washed the feet of the Brahmans, and preached, indeed sublimely, but always in their favour. He was pure and chaste in reality, but exhibited every appearance of libertinism. Lastly, he was benevolent and tender, and yet fomented and conducted a terrible war." The Yadus, his own tribe and nation, were doomed to destruction for their sins, like the descendants of YAHUDA, or YUDA, which is the true pronunciation of JUDA. They all fell, in general, by mutual wounds, a few excepted, who lead through Jambu-dwipa a miserable and wretched life. There are some to be found in Gurjarat: but they are represented to me as poor and wretched. This motley story must induce an opinion (Asiat. Res. vol. i, p. 2, 3), that the spurious gospels, which abounded in the first ages of Christianity, had been brought to India, and the wildest parts of them ingrafted upon the old fable of Krishna." Several learned Missionaries are also of that opinion, though they carry the comparison too far. The real name of KRISHNA was CANEYA, and he was surnamed KRISHNA, or the black, on account of his complexion. The Hindus having once fixed the accomplishment of these prophecies to a period greatly anterior to the Christian era, every thing in their books was either framed, or new modelled accordingly; especially in the Puránas, every one of which is greatly posterior to our era; though many legends, and the materials in general, certainly existed before, in some other shape." Asiat. Res. vol. x.
Mr. Ward, a learned Baptist missionary, mentions many of the absurd traditions respecting this Hindoo divinity. In the Church Missionary Papers, No. xxxix, it is remarked from Mr. Ward, that it is said of Krishna, "in his infancy, he deprived a giantess of her breath, who had poisoned her breast before she gave him suck. Soon after, when laid by his nurse at the door to sleep, he destroyed a carriage against which he hurt his foot. His nurse, when looking one day into his mouth, had a surprising view of the three worlds, with Brahma,
Vishnoo, and Siva, sitting on their thrones. At the age of eight years, he took up a mountain in his arms, and held it as an umbrella over the heads of the villagers and their cattle during a dreadful storm, with which the angry king of heaven was overwhelming them."
Mr. Ward remarks, after referring to the abominable things reported of Krishna, "It is very possible, if any real Hindoo history could be discovered, that many of these facts would be found recorded in the life of a Hindoo king of the name of Krishna; which facts have been embellished by the Asiatic poets, till they have elevated the hero into a god!"
FESTIVALS IN HONOUR OF Krishna.
Mr. Ward gives the following account of these festivals: "At the full-moon in the eleventh month, a Swinging Festival is held. Fifteen days before the full-moon, the holidays begin: from which time, the Hindoos assemble in the night to sing and dance; and in the day, they wander about the streets, throwing red powder at the passengers, either with their hands or through a syringe. On the night before the full-moon, the ceremonies are performed; at the close of which, having besmeared themselves with red powder, they carry the god from his house to some distance, with music, dancing, fireworks, and singing. A bamboo, with a straw man tied to it, having been erected, they place the god here, and again worship him. After three hours spent in various sports, especially with fire-works, they set fire to the bamboo and straw, carrying back the image to the temple. Very early in the morning they bathe the god, set him on a chair, and then worship him, rocking him in his chair, and throwing upon him red powder. At noon these ceremonies are repeated with great splendour; when many offerings are presented, and the Brahmins are retained. About four, the festival closes by another repetition of the same ceremonies. The god is then washed, anointed, clothed, and put into the temple; where food remains before him for some time, and it is then given to the Brahmins."
Colonel Phipps remarks, "The image of Krishna is carried from the temple to a large platform, raised several feet from the ground, in the centre of which is a lofty and very curious arch of pot-stone, with various niches containing different representations of the god. The idol is placed in a chair of state, with another image on each side. The group is then fixed in a frame or small platform, which is suspended to the arch by brass chains, and swung backward and forward. A great number of Brahmins perform the worship: while others sprinkle rose-water on the idols, and throw about a quantity of red powder; and others, as a customary mark of state and distinction, move about some chowries, or tails of the Thibet cow, to drive away the flies. During these ceremonies, the platform is surrounded by a vast concourse of Hindoos worshipping the idol."
Mr. Ward speaks of another festival in honour of this god, thus: "At the full-moon in the seventh Hindoo month, a festival is held, during three nights, to celebrate the revels of this impure god! Each night, after the ceremonies in the temple are closed, the crowd carry the image out with much noise, music, singing, and dancing; and place it in a building which is open on all sides, and is gilt, ornamented, and grandly illuminated for this festival, Sixteen small images of Krishna are necessary on this occasion; but a very small gold image, about the size of a breast-pin, is placed as the object of adoration, and afterwards given to the officiating Brahmin. At the close of the festival, the clay images are thrown into the river,
Round the building, booths are erected, filled with sweetmeats and other articles, as at an English fair. Thieves and gamblers are very busy at these times. I have seen the grey-headed idolater and the mad youth dancing together; the old man lifting up his withered arms in the dance, and giving a kind of horror to the scene, which idolatry itself, united to the vivacity of youth, would scarcely be able to inspire. The Hindoo is here called to what he considers divine worship, and to a licentious festival; no one imagining, but that worship and adultery may be performed in the same
Who can read these humiliating representations of deluded and degraded human nature, without being deeply affected at the debased condition of millions of our fellow creatures? Who can reflect upon their being our fellow subjects, living under the British Government, and not be grieved at heart for their miseries? Surely every believer in Christ will not refrain from pitying these deluded heathens, while he prays that the word of God may be universally diffused, and that the Holy Spirit may be poured forth upon its readers to renovate, and sanctify, and save their souls.
WHAT ARE THE HINDOO VEDAS ?
THIS question has been proposed by one of our readers, in consequence of his having heard of the published translation of them, by Ram Mohun Roy, a Brahinin of high caste, who has recently visited this country. We have not seen these specimens of Brahminical literature: but if we form an estimate of their worth and excellence, by the moral and religious condition of the priests and the people in India, we must rate them exceedingly low.
The Vedas are the sacred books of the Hindoos, believed to have been revealed by God, and called immortal. They are considered as the fountain of all knowledge, human and divine, and are four in number. The Rig-veda consists of five sections; the Yajurveda of eighty-six; the Sama-veda of one thousand; and the At'har-veda of nine; with 1100 sac'has, or branches, in various divisions and subdivisions. The Vedas in truth are said to be infinite; but they have long been reduced to this number and order: the principal part of them is that which explains the duties of man in a methodical arrangement; and in the fourth is a system of divine ordinances. From these are reduced the four Upa-vedas, the first of which is said to have been delivered to mankind by BRAHMA, INDRA, DHAUWANTARI, and five other deities; and comprises the theory of disorders and medicines, with the practical methods of curing diseases. The second consists of music, invented for the purpose of raising the mind, by devotion, to the felicity of the Divine nature; the third treats of the fabrication and use of arms; and the fourth of sixty-four mechanical arts. The origin of these sacred tracts is involved in the mystery of mythology.
Sir W. Jones observes, "The Hindus firmly believe these to have been promulgated in the beginning of time by Menu, son or grandson of Brahma, or, in plain language, the first of created beings; and not the oldest only, but the holiest of legislators." He further adds, that "the whole dramatical arrangements of these writings are clearly fictitious and ornamental, with a design too common among ancient lawgivers, of stamping authority on the work by the introduction of supernatural personages." ،، Whatever opinion, in short, may be formed of Menu and his laws, in a country happily enlightened by sound philosophy and the only true revelation, it must be remembered, that these laws
are actually revered as the word of the Most High, by many millions of the Hindus."
Many sublime passages are contained in the Vedas, but in this respect they are far inferior to the Christian Scriptures. As to the morality inculcated in them, it will bear no comparison with the blessed word of God; a specimen we give on the subject of the burning of widows on the funeral pile of their husbands, from the RIG-VEDA. "If a wife thus burn with her husband, IT IS NOT SUICIDE; and her relations shall observe three days' uncleanness for her; after which the Shraddha must be properly performed.-If she cannot come to the place, or does not receive an account of her husband's death, she shall wait the appointed days of uncleanness, and may afterwards die in a separate fire. -If she die in a separate fire, three days' uncleanness will be observed, after which the Shraddha or Piuda must be performed."
"O fire, let these women, with bodies anointed with clarified butter, eyes (coloured) with stibium, and void of tears, enter thee, the parent of water, that they may not be separated from their husbands, but may be in union with excellent husbands, be sinless, and jewels among women."
THE GUILT OF IMMORAL WRITINGS. THE dreadful waking, even in this life, to the sense of guilt, in having given to the world that which may make it less deserving of its Creator, is a degree of horror not to be dwelt upon; it must be beyond imagination but the converse of this supposition is not in an equal degree soothing and consolatory; nay, it is an argument that must rather produce self-abasement, under the consciousness of the sad disproportion between our powers of enforcing precepts and practising them. It is easier to teach twenty what is good, than to fulfil the duty of one of the twenty in practising the given lesson. But this must not discourage us, nor can it be brought in plea against the enormous crime of disseminating what is bad. Authors may write atrociously, and die witty or senseless, but we are bound to believe the positive attestations borne to the end of some of these writers. Many have been permitted to die in a state that "gives no sign." God only knows his own purposes, and punishment is not the less heavy for being secret; but our guide is the testimony of those who have been in a state to afford room for conclusions.
When Rousseau, who was branded with the reproach of having "a hankering after Christianity," was taunted with the supposition, that had he known Fenelon he would have been one of his disciples, his answer- ." I would have been his footman"-was worth pages of recantation, which the next freak of his mind might have retracted. And when the nurse who attended Voltaire in his last illness, refused to go to another patient till assured that the sick person was a Christian, we ask no further confirmation of the horrors with which his death is said to have been attended.-Memoirs, &c. by L. M. Hawkins.
THE CLERGYMAN'S COW.
THE late Rev. Mr. Grimshaw had a cow, to which he was remarkably ttached, and the thoughts of her often interrupted his most serious meditations: on this account he determined to dispose of her; and the farmer who came to view her, asked if she was sold for any fault; to which he replied-“ Her fault will be no fault to you: she follows me into the pulpit."