« AnteriorContinuar »
by which he ascends into the hall, lying between the two. Had there been the inward dome only, it would scarcely have been seen by those who are without; and had both been one solid dome of so great thickness, the pillars would have been insufficient to support a mass so immense.
To a spectator who stands beneath the dome, an architectural display is presented, more glorious than can easily be conceived. If he looks upward, he is astonished at the spacious hollow of the cupola, and has a vault on every side of him, which makes one of the most beautiful vistas, which the eye can possibly penetrate. To convey an idea of its vast magnitude, it will suffice to say, that the height of the body of the church, from the ground to the upper part of the ceiling, is 432 feet, and that sixteen persons may place themselves, without inconvenience, in the globular top over the done, which is annually lighted, on the 29th of June, with 4,000 lamps and 2,000 fire-pots, presenting a most enchanting spectacle.
Of the one hundred and thirty statues, with which this church is adorned, that of St. Peter is the most conspicuous; it is said to have been re-cast from a bronze statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. One hundred and twelve lamps are constantly burning around the tomb of this Saint; and the high altar is shadowed by a ceiling, which exceeds in loftiness that of any palace in Rome. The splendid sacristry was built by Pope Pius VI. But by far the greatest ornaments of the interior are the excellent works in Mosaic, all copied from the most celebrated pictures, which are thus guarded from oblivion.
The upper end of the church stands to the west. Here is no separation of that part for the choir, as is the case in St. Paul's, and the other English cathedrals. A side chapel is appropriated to that purpose: so that at first entrance there is a spacious open view, continued quite to the further end of the church; where, aloft, against the wall, is placed the CHAIR OF ST. PETER, Supported by the four great doctors of the Latin church, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, and St. Gregory; and the representation of a glory above, with angels, &c. all of copper, forming a most costly and noble ornament.
the real chair of St. Peter is pretended to be within that exposed to public view. The ornaments of this chair alone are said to have cost 107,551 Roman crowns, value 5s. 6d. each.
The pavilion of the great altar, which stands under the cupola, is accounted the finest ornament in the whole work it is very uncommon, and exceedingly magnificent. It is supported by four wreathed pillars of Corinthian brass, which was taken by Pope Urban VIII from off the Portico of the Pantheon: they are adorned with festoons and foliage of the same inetal, disposed in a very agreeable manner. They say that under this altar are deposited half the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul, and that the other half of them is elsewhere: either at the old church of St. Paul without the city, or that of St. John Lateran.
The great cupola is all wrought in Mosaic, as are the four angels immediately under it. Within the cupola itself are the twelve apostles in several compartments, which fill the first great circle that goes round the cupola : above them angels in the same manner; aud at the top of the lantern, which rises above the cupola, is represented the DEITY, as an old man with his arms extended, also performed in Mosaic. In the four angles under are represented the four evangelists: the side cupolas are also wrought in Mosaic: the church itself is encrusted with beautiful marble.
It would be endless to enter into particulars respecting the statues, paintings, Mosaics, and basso-relievos, with which every part of this great structure abounds,
together with the noble sepulchral monuments of several popes, and that of Christina, queen of Sweden.
We cannot close this brief notice of the noblest architectural monument in honour of the Christian name, without one reflection. Cathedrals, and splendid edifices of that class, have never been celebrated for the ministry of the Gospel of Christ. Commonly there is less of pure Christianity seen and heard within their walls, than in the most lowly building dedicated to the worship of God; and as to St. Peter's at Rome, it would probably be impossible to prove, that amid all its gorgeous ceremonies, a single sermon has been delivered in it, worthy of the names of Peter and Faul, the Apostles of Christ, or that a single soul has been by its imposing forms truly converted to God!
Caractacus, the renowned British king, enjoyed the gratification of the latter wish of that distinguished Christian father, when he was led captive through the streets of Rome; and filled with astonishment on beholding such grandeur, he uttered that rational exclamation, "Is it possible, that a people so wealthy and luxurious, should envy me a humble cottage in Britain?"
Our classic readers will associate with Rome, the recollection of its demigods and heroes, statesmen and orators, historians, poets, and philosophers. They will think of Virgil and Horace, Livy and Tacitus, Scipio and Sylla, Marius and Pompey, Cæsar and Cicero, Brutus and Cato, names which are inseparable from Roman glory.
Rome was built upon seven hills; but three others were afterwards inclosed within its walls. Augustus Cæsar divided it into fourteen wards; and it attained its utmost extent in the reign of Valerian, who died A. D. 270, when its circumference exceeded fifty miles. Authentic documents are wanting by which to determine the extent of its population; some rating it at 6,800,000, in the time of Traja; while others, among whom is to be ranked the celebrated historian Gibbon, suppose that it never excecded 1,200,000. Both these estimates appear incorrect; and the truth seems to lie between them: probability fixes the number of souls in Rome, when at its most flourishing state, at about 3,000,000.
Titles, the most extravagant, were given to Rome, by its proud inhabitants. "The Dwelling Place of the Gods "The Centre of Imperial Power" Citadel of the Universe "-"The Gate of all Nations ""The only Place in all the Universe, where Virtue, Empire, and Dignity, fixed their concentrated Abodes"-the Holy"-the Victorious the "Invincible”— and finally, the "Eternal City."
Rome, when in the full blaze of glory, contained 700 temples, and altars almost innumerable; 3 senacula, or halls of the senate; 21 basilicæ, or stately palaces, for the administration of justice; 15 nymphiæ, or great halls to marry in; 2077 domis, or splendid pa laces; and a vast number of private inansions, called insulæ, so separated from one another, that a person might walk round them; 145 public offices; 2 large hospitals; 22 famous porticos, where the people might walk in time of rain, or to avoid the excessive heats of
a meridian sun; 29 public libraries; 5 colleges or acade mies, for the instruction of youth; 254 hand mills for grinding corn; 327 granaries; 39 colossuses of brass; and 51 of marble. Eleven colossal statues adorned the Capitol, or temple of Jupiter; and 19 of gold, and 30 of solid silver, shone in different parts of the city. enormous obelisks; 42 lesser ones, with many pyramids; 32 sacred groves; 23 ponds for watering horses; 14 principal aqueducts; 105 fountains; 1352 pools or lakes, brought into the city from distant springs; 17 great squares or forums, 12 of which were used as markets; 117 public baths, and 909 private ones. Some idea may be formed of the public baths from these of Dioclesian and Curacalla; the latter of which had marble seats for 1600 persons to bathe in, without seeing one another; and the former, 3200 seats of polished marble.
The golden palace of the worthless Nero was the largest and the most splendid of Imperial Rome. In the threshold stood a colossal statue of that emperor, 120 feet high. There were three porticos, each a mile in length, and supported by three rows of pillars. The gardens resembled a park, and contained an immense sheet of water, and woods, vineyards, and pleasure grounds, with herds, and even wild beasts. On the banks of the lake, rose various edifices resembling towns. In the palace itself the rooms were lined with gold, gems, and mother-of-pearl. The ceilings of the dining-rooms were adorned with ivory pannels, so contrived as to scatter flowers and shower perfumes upon the guests. The principal banqueting room revolved upon itself, representing the celestial bodies with their motions. The baths were supplied with salt water from the sea, and mineral water from the Solfatara, near Tivoli. The statues of bronze and marble appeared in every part of Rome in such profusion as to form, in the hyperbolical expression of Cassiodorus, "a population numerically equal to the living inhabitants." There were 5 theatres; 2 amphitheatres ; and 7 circuses. The Circus Maximus alone, contained seats for 300,000 spectators!
The Flavian amphitheatre, from its stupendous colossal magnitude called the Coliseum, the ruins of which still remain, and fill the mind of the beholder with astonishment, was situated in the centre of the hills, towering as high as their lofty summits. At the inauguration of this amphitheatre, 9000 animals were destroyed; and when the combats were concluded, the arena was suddenly filled with water, on which aquatic animals were seen to contend; and these again gave place to a number of ships that represented a naval battle.
Twelve thousand Jewish captives were employed by Vespasian in raising this enormous edifice, the building of which occupied only two years and nine months. Its seats or steps contained 87,000 spectators; and if we add, at a very moderate calculation, 11,000 placed in the porticos, and 12,000 in the surrounding passages, where moveable seats might be placed, it must have contained at least 110,000 persons, who could distinctly behold the games and combats on the arena. It was of an oval form, whose longest diameter was 615 feet 6 inches, and its shortest 510 feet; the longest diameter of the arena, or pit, was 281 feet, the shortest 176 feet; thus leaving for the seats and galleries a circuit of 175 feet broad. Its external circumference was 1770 feet, covering a superficies of five acres and a half. Its external elevation was 120 feet, consisting of three stories of arcades, embellished with Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian pillars.
No buildings, not even those prodigious piles, the Egyptian pyramids, can vie with the Coliseum. Those were merely massy and vast, the works of rude force, without regard to order, or elegance of design; but the Coliseum required the utmost degree of architectural skill, as well as the resources of a nighty and opulent
empire. With a sublime magnificence, which, after the lapse of eighteen centuries, is still contemplated with astonishment in its ruins, it united that elegant simplicity that marks the refinement of cultivated taste; thus affording a specimen of human power altogether wonderful; and a proof of the skill, the energy, the resources, and the grandeur of the Romans.
Of the squares of ancient Rome, that of Trajan was the most conspicuous. It consisted of four porticos, supported by pillars of the most beautiful marble. The roof of the porticos rested upon brazen beams, and was covered with plates of the same metal. It was adorned with statues and chariots of gilded brass; and the pavement was of variegated marble. The entrance was by a triumphal arch at one end; at the other, and opposite, was a temple. On one side was a basilica, on the other a public library. In the centre, rose sublime the celebrated column, crowned with a colossal statue of Trajan; and the equestrian statue of that emperor fronted the basilica. Apollodorus was the architect of this wonderful pile; and so great was the beauty, we might say the perfection of the architecture, and so rich the materials, that those who beheld it were struck dumb with astonishment, and utterly at a loss to find words with which to express their admiration, as is plainly the case with Ammianus Marcellinus; whose very Latin, in reciting his feelings at the view of this matchless structure, is absolutely untranslatable.
Constantius, the emperor, a cold and unfeeling prince, who had visited all the cities of Greece and Asia, and was familiar with the superb edifices of Ephesus, Magnesia, and Athens, was struck dumb with admiration as he proceeded in triumph through the streets; but when he entered the forum of Trajan, and beheld the wonders of that matchless structure, his chilly soul was moved; he felt a momentary enthusiasm, and burst into exclamations of surprise and astonishment. Fixing his attention on the equestrian statue of Trajan, fronting the basilica, and asking "Where such another horse could be found?" he met with a smart repartee from Hormisdas, a Persian prince, and brother of the great Schabour, who accompanied him: "Supposing we find such another horse, who would build him such another stable?"
The very sewers of ancient Rome, for the purpose of draining away the filth of the city, were stupendous; and on one occasion, it required a hundred thousand· pounds sterling to cleanse them!
Of all the religious edifices of Pagan Rome, the Capitol, the temple of Jupiter, was at once the most ancient, the most opulent, and the most magnificent. Tarquinius Priscus erected it, in consequence of a vow which he had made in the Sabine war. Tarquinius Superbiu finished it, with the spoils taken from the neighbouring nations; and after the expulsion of the kings, it was consecrated by the consul, Horatius. It stood on a high ridge of ground, occupying about four acres. The front was adorned with three rows of pillars, the other sides with two. The ascent from the ground was by 100 steps. The prodigious gifts and ornaments with which it was at different times adorned, almost exceed belief. Augustus at one time gave to it in coin, gold bullion, and jewels, to the value of 1,600,000l. From its site, it was the most conspicuous, and from its destination, the most sacred of all the Roman temples. To it the consuls repaired to be solemnly inaugurated. In it the emperors received the imperial diadem, and were clothed with the regal habiliments. Thither the victorious consuls, followed by their conquering legions, and preceded by captive princes, rode in solemn triumph. In it were deposited the treasures of vanquished monarchs; it was enriched with the spoils of temples and of royal domes, and with the plunder of a conquered world!
In reality, the Capitol was the treasury of the imperial city; the depository of accumulated triumphs, during centuries of victory and conquest. Crowns, shields, and statues of gold, the offerings of kings, heroes, and emperors, blazed on every side, and adorned, with equal profusion, the interior and exterior of this temple of dominion, this throne of empire, this sanctum sanctorum of pagan religion. Its threshold was bronze; the valves of its portals were gold; the roof was bronze, but bronze doubly and triply gilt. The value of gilding alone amounted to 3,000,000l. The pediment, the sides, and the summit of the roof presented horses, chariots, heroes, and gods; the Roman eagle, and its attendant, Victory, all of bronze, silver, or gold, glittering to the sun, and dazzling with rival splendour the eyes of the spectators. Deluded by its magnificence, they might well call it " The Eternal City!"
THE BIRMINGHAM APPRENTICE.
His Fellow Workmen.
PECULIAR were the circumstances of William in his situation in the manufactory: but they cannot be accurately understood, without some brief notices of the characters of those who were his principal fellow-work
In the manufactory where William employed, there were five other apprentices, younger than himself; but none of whose parents were known as professors of religion. There were also six journeymen, who continued in the same employ during the greater part of his seven years of servitude: but only one of them was considered as regarding the forms of public worship. He was an orderly, sober, worthy nan; but he was not remarkably qualified to become the undaunted, wise, and eloquent advocate of scriptural religion and personal piety, against the impious jocularity, and the profane levity of his ungodly shopmates. Their impiety occasioned him no little distress, and made him rather shun an opportunity of dispute with then on the subject of religion. Of the remaining five, only one was a man of tolerable sobriety, and all the other four, though excellent workmen in their respective branches of an inge nious fancy trade, were vulgar and gross in the extreme; and their vulgarity was displayed especially, in their senseless reflections upon the forms and spirit of religion. And that which to some may appear astonishing, but which is still by no means uncommon, was, those who were most skilful and ingenious as mechanics, were generally the most determined in their enmity to the realities of vital godliness.
When at any time religion became a subject of conversation, and sometimes even these haters, both of its spirit and its forms, presumed to talk on that holy and venerable subject, the characters or histories of Scripture, very imperfectly known, were referred to, as affording the most convenient topics for their stupid and wicked jesting. However awful and shocking such a practice may seem, to those young persons, who, at home, have been brought up by their pious parents "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord," this wicked and dangerous practice is known to be not uncommon in our days, in many manufactories. Surely "the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain," as himself has solemnly declared: how awfully criminal, then, must it be in men,-ingenious and rational men,-to trifle and sport, with his holy word! in addition to the violation of the third commandment !
The Dissenters were frequently spoken of: but it was
generally for the purpose of ridiculing their custom of serious prayer, and of censuring their presumption, in supposing themselves wiser in matters of religion than their neighbours, and especially the clergy, who had heen taught at the universities; and condemning their principles as methodistical, without their understanding either the meaning of that term, or the doctrines or the discipline of the people who call themselves Methodists. They professed themselves to be churchmen: but they denounced their own parsons" as avaricious; influenced merely by the love of money, which was declared to be their trade; and they were indeed able to refer to instances, well known, which fully justified their severe reflections. Such cases were not uncommonly adduced, as a complete justification of their own irreligion: but these objections were, in reality, only the fruit of "the carnal mind, which is enmity against God."
The general character and principles of these workmen, may be tolerably well inferred, from a short statement of the miserable manner in which the mortal career of four of them was terminated. Though ingenious and clever as mechanics, and capable of earning ample wages, their rooted habits of intemperance always kept them wretchedly and pitiably poor. After a course of drinking for two or three days together, they would come to the shop in a state sufficiently deplorable to excite the commiseration of every feeling heart; and for the remainder of the week their general state of mind was such, as for themselves to describe it by their "having the horrors." An apostle might well ask, "What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? for the end of those things is death." Rom. vi, 21.
The first, an unmarried man, and one of the most agreeable of them when sober, after wasting more than a whole week on one occasion at the public-house, in a course of daily intoxication, left his hated abode, in a fit of gloomy and desperate melancholy. No one knew what became of him; nor were any of his shopmates solicitous about him, as a week at a time was not very unusual for him to be away from his work, spending it in the worse than beastly habit of excessive drinking! His brother, however, after somewhat more than a fortnight, waiting in vain for his accustomed visits, was induced to inquire at Hagley, respecting the corpse of a man, which he had heard had been found suspended in a barn in that parish. From his clothes, he was enabled to identify it, as the body of his unhappy brother; and he learnt, that as the body had been found hanging in the barn, evidently by an act of suicide, and as no person had recognized and claimed it, the overseers of the parish had ordered it for burial.
All parties were deeply affected by the report of this dreadful tragedy: but no one, except William, seemed to lay it to heart, considering it as an awful proof of the testimony of the holy Scriptures, that "the way of transgressors is hard." Prov. xiii, 15.
The second of his fellow-workmen, a widower, did not make his exit by actual and direct suicide, but in a way not much more honourable. He was necessitated, through his habits of drinking to excess, to procure a lodging at a public house, in which he spent much of his earnings, his landlord having seized his furniture for rent. Thus, be was compelled to abandon housekeeping. Intemperance in the father had beggared his two daughters, one of whom was lame; the debasing habit had reduced bis bodily frame to a state of extreme nervous debility, which seriously impaired his fine abilities as a workman; and after a course of several days drunkenness, he was seized with a fit of illness, which rendered useless medical skill, and he died wretchedly, in a miserable apartment, at a low public-house! Such a father, and there are
many such, may be considered as deserving the execrations of his children, rather than their blessing.
The third, a man of superior genius, and of tolerable education in middle life, was not married to the insinuating woman, who lived with him in furnished lodgings. The same fell habit of drinking to excess, debilitated his once noble and athletic frame; which, invaded by an attack of fever, suddenly sunk. His associate in wickedness, "without natural affection," abandoned him in his affliction, when he could no longer support her, and he was conveyed to the workhouse, where he lingered in suffering for a considerable time. In the character and place of a pauper, his proud spirit being degraded, he was to appearance generally sullen in the extreme, but not penitent; he would sometimes utter the most horrid blasphemies even in his distress; in which state he continued till his death, and even then, in an agony of rage and despair, he used expressions the most shocking to those who were near him, declaring that he would not die. He refused the benevolent offers of instruction and prayer which were made by a pious Methodist, who, on account of his benevolent attentions to the sick, was allowed by the guardians of the parish of Birmingham to have constant access to the sick and dying in the workbouse.
The fourth, though respectably brought up, had been a grenadier officer in the army; but greatly enfeebled by that abominable practice which had been fatal to his shopmates, became in a few years incapable of work, and was obliged to have recourse to the parish for relief and support. Unwilling to go wholly into the poor-house, he dragged on a most miserable existence for several years, subsisting upon the contributions of a few friends, in addition to the parish allowance: but exhibiting in his emaciated frame, and his ragged clothes, a striking picture of the most extreme wretchedness.
Other workmen were occasionally employed by the master of William: but in manners they were very little different from those already described, and scarcely in any thing superior to them; and considering the radical depravity of human nature, and the corrupting influence of evil example, it must be regarded as a singular and gracious interposition of a sovereign and merciful Pro vidence, that William was prevented from falling into those courses, which hurried others of his shopmates into the same debasing, criminal, and ruinous enormities.
DISCOVERY OF TOBACCO.
"THE envoys, on their way back, for the first time witnessed the use of a weed, which the ingenious caprice of man has since converted into an universal luxury, in defiance of the opposition of the senses.
"They beheld several of the natives going about with firebrands in their hands, and certain dried herbs, which they rolled up in a leaf, and, lighting one end, put the other in their mouths, and continued exhaling and puffing out the smoke. These rolls they call tobacco, a name since transferred to the plant of which they were inade. The Spaniards were struck with astonishinent at this singular indulgence, although prepared to meet with wonders."-W. Irving's Columbus.
As the Providence of God is a manifestation of his power in a continued creation, so the preservation of Grace is a manifestation of his power in a continued Regeneration.-Charnock,
THE topic which now presents itself as the subject of a few observations, is that branch of behaviour usually denominated manners. You will not be surprised that I should think it worth your attention. You are aware that the subject is deemed of great importance in every rank of society, from the family of the nobleman, whose sons travel for the sake of acquiring the most finished style of manners, down to the cottager's wife, who is desirous that her children should be " pretty bel:aved." The subject is indeed as important as it is usually deemed. Dr. Paley has remarked, in his Evidences of Christianity, that one passage in which the Saviour of the world himself has given" advice to the guests at an entertainment, seems to extend to what we call manners, which," he adds, "was both regular in point of consistency, and not so much beneath the dignity of our Lord's mission as may at first sight be supposed; for bad manners are bad morals." Like, however, many other subjects, it has been much misunderstood, and many false maxims taught and adopted, and more mischief has been thereby produced than might without explanation be readily believed.
I apprehend, that, as in the case of all other virtues, the principle is of the highest importance from which manners should be cultivated. What a variety of mistakes, however, are made upon this part of the subject? With some it is laid down as an axiom, that the entire manners of a person must be artificial, that nature is incapable of suggesting or sustaining propriety of address. Other persons contend, that the manners of the higher classes of society alone are truly polite, and that the manners of all other classes can be so, only as they imitate their superiors. This I apprehend to be a very common maxim; for although the nobility are so seldom seen, or at least are not seen with sufficient frequency by the multitude to become their model, yet they imitate the manners of those who have frequent opportunity of moulding their behaviour by that standard. And the same may be said of every rank in society: we find persons come as near to it as they can, by imitating the manners of the class next above them. Thus the nobleman imitates the prince, the 'squire imitates the nobleman, the gentleman the 'squire, the farmer the gentleman (hence partly the new designation, gentleman-farmer), the cottager imitates the farmer. Thus the manners of the first orders in society influence in a decreasing ratio the manners of every subordinate class. Hence it is evident that very few persons have their own manners, or the manners precisely appropriate to their own situation. Where one man has sufficient true nobility, like Franklin, to go up from the lowest to the highest classes of society, retaining his native characteristic manners, how many do we see, who, the instant any chance of rising is afforded them, begin to imitate the manners of their patrons or superiors. A man, for instance, who from being a respectable tradesman becomes a "public man" in a city, and as a member of the corporation occasionally transacts public business with the nobility, will often dress like some distinguished patrician, vainly imitate the indefinable smile and look which marks the man of hereditary distinction, and even affect his very infirmities and vices, dress like him, and imitate his very walk and mode of putting on his hat. How often have I seen this! and I have often been able to recognize the original in the imitation, though a bad one.
Now it appears to me, that the rule which on many accounts hereafter to be specified should be adopted, is this-Be natural-Be yourself-Imitate no one. It is indeed most evident to me, that the imitation of any one is a species of the capability of hypocrisy, which is often allied to general insincerity. It not already insincere, I think the affected man will soon become so. Is not this reasonable to expect from him who habitually cultivates a practical lie?-for such a man lies in manner, at least. On the other hand, it seems to be a very law of our being, that the inward character should be seen in our external appearance. It is a provision made by our all-wise Creator for affording an opportunity of knowing the real disposition of our fellow-men.
Add to this, that every man's native manner, if he be a good man, is sure to be more pleasing than the most successful imitation even of the best manner of another can possibly become.
I put these together because they are inseparable. Whence comes the charm every heart acknowledges, when we observe the good boy or girl of a humble family bred up in the country, or indeed of a good person of any age, in any station of life, whose manner is simply the expression of the internal character, and when that internal character is good? It may not be polished; but every rightly constituted mind will allow, that it is more pleasing than any merely acquired or adopted polished manners. We love such a manner, because we are so formed as to perc eive the excellence of truth of all kinds, and because we are convinced that in such an instance we are presented with sterling truth. It is well known also, that the natural manner of a good child or man interests and pleases, not only much more, but much longer than those which are artificial. The man indeed with the latter manner may please for a time; we are fascinated, we are interested in such a finished specimen of art; but we become accustomed to it; our native love of truth and dislike of simulation reoperates; we cease to admire, and we cannot love it. The artificial rose might be so near a representation of nature, both in its colour, structure, and perfume, as even to amaze and interest us for a time, but Soon should we feel the preference returning for that paragon of flowers itself, which had derived its freshness from the dews of the May mornings, and its odour from the subtle and inimitable chemistry of nature.
Add to this, that nature is so powerful a principle, that soon or late it will operate. Artificial manners may be cultivated and sustained for an evening, a week, but ultimately we become wearied under the fatigue of the effort, and both act and seem as we really are. The consequence is, that the eye and the ear and the heart of mankind recognize the diversity, and an imperceptible yet insuperable distrust is engendered in their mind respecting a person who can wish, or really attempt thus to transform himself. How many a man also might have been very useful and very much beloved, but all whose valuable qualities have never been called into action by society, owing to this very circumstance! He has even perhaps been peculiarly slandered, passed over, and insulted. Many years roll away, and he is lost in speculations, why the energy and the attainments of which he is conscious have never been noticed by the world? He has injured himself.
Hence, therefore, the following rule may be deduced:— That all excellence of manners must be derived, like all other moral excellence, from the establishment of the best internal principles. Make your child honest, and his eye will have a beauty and a penetration and a dignity, which no attention to the mere exterior could produce. Make him humane, kind-hearted, and he will really have an expression of benevolence in his countenance, which no languid simpering of affectation could enable him to
assume. Make him industrious, prompt, active, and vir tuous upon principle, this will give genuine elevation to his brow. Make him fuli of the love of purity; make him in love with genuine inward excellence of all kinds; make him value titles, money, fame, according to the true standard, and he will have a noble yet natural and delightful air, which no imitation of some fancied Sir Charles Grandison could give him. In a word, elevate his mind and you will elevate his countenance; enlighten him with knowledge; inspire him with a sense of honour; improve his heart, and then the more you leave his manners to nature, the better. At the same time I think it quite lawful to point cut defects or to correct impropricties as such. Nature is always lovely; yet sometimes even her most genuine and lovely productions need to be trained and pruned, or drawn out. It is but little of it however that is really needed. Nothing is so detrimental to all kinds of excellence as a morbid and excessive desire of improving upon nature. Know when to stop and the point is,-when you have developed nature most clearly.
I scarcely need add, that these rules must be systematically and perpetually applied. If the subject be attended to only upon select occasions, the effect must be unhappy. What awkward, affected, or contemptible ways may be seen in almost every party, especially composed of the middling classes. Look around, and you will hardly see any one who is acting naturally. They have put on their best manners as they do their best clothes, and their want of ease both in the one and in the other shows that they are not accustomed to them. There is the citizen, who is natural enough behind his counter, has left all his domestic manly, plain, honourable address behind him, and is trying to be elegant. His wife is no more the matron, she is aping the fine lady. The daughter at home is an agreeable, goodnatured, unaffected hoyden: she is now sentimental, timorous, can hardly speak or step, she lisps, is nerdous, liable to faint. Her brother has no more the honest, unaffected ease of a tradesman's son: he is dressed: see that constrained motion of his arms and his elbows, his stiff neck, his exquisite bow: hear him speak, and you are reminded at once of the French for this species of foppery-parler gras. What different and far more pleasing beings will they be to-morrow when at home! If you were to go home with them to live in their family, you would see, that before the first week was over, under some circumstances or other, they would all suddenly come down from their superbness, and speak out very naturally, to their great relief and your
Sometimes very ludicrous accidents have happened through the folly to which I am now adverting. There is one related in a very sensible little work by Mrs. Child upon the subject of education, which, by the way, I almost wholly recommend.
A family expected company. Negligent of their manners when in each other's society only, it was found necessary to give the poor children a lesson extraordinary for the reception of the visitors. Particularly they were ordered, when the company came, and any lady or gentleman spoke to them, to say, Yes, Ma'am -No, Ma'am Yes, Sir-No, Sir-Pretty well, I thank you, Sir;" and always to make a bow or a courtesy. The visitors came: the children stood in the constrained, because unusual attitude of order, politeness, and decorum; and the instant the people entered the room, they all began: the girls made a courtesy, the poor boys made a bow, and all together exclaimed, "No, Ma'am - Yes, Ma'am - No, SirYes, Sir-Pretty well, I thank you, Sir." The visitors were confounded, and the children having performed