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THE SUMMER MORNING.
The cocks have now the morn foretold,
The dews, brush'd off from grass and flowers,
While every leaf that forms a shade,
Stoops, bowing with a diamond drop.
While glittering dew the ground illumes, As, sprinkled o'er the withering swaths, Their moisture shrinks in sweet perfumes; And hear the beetle sound his horn;
And hear the skylark whistling nigh,
SUMMER TWILIGHT. By D. M. MOIR.
The clouds pass away, and are leaving the sky,
All is tranquil and still, save the spirit of man;
. Draw him on like a spell from the mansions of rest.
"THE use of salt, as it is generally grateful, appears almost necessary to health. The appetite for salt is shared by many of the higher animals. The beasts of prey, that inhabit the central parts of the African and American continents, are known to travel immense tracts for the purpose of visiting the salt springs that are occasionally met with; and it is said that these springs have been in some instances discovered by means of their footsteps, and the hovering of birds over them."-Bostock's Physiology.
AMONGST the many traditions possessed by the Jews concerning their great progenitor, the father of the faithful, is one to the following effect whether founded in fact or not, it contains a profitable lesson on the Divine forbearance, contrasted with the impa tient spirit too often manifested by the most devoted servants of God.
As Abraham was one day sitting at the door of his tent, an aged traveller passed by, apparently fatigued with his journey, and standing in need of refreshment and repose. With the characteristic hospitality of those primitive times, the good patriarch invited him in, to rest his limbs and refresh his wearied spirits. The offer was thankfully accepted by the old man, who, entering the tent, was furnished with water to cleanse his feet, and left awhile to that repose which his exhausted frame required. Thus far fitted to resume his journey, his benevolent host set before him an abun dant supply of provision, and bade him a hearty welcome. But with pious grief he beheld the stranger take his food without first presenting a thank-offering to the Most High; and in the warmth of his excited feelings, after reproaching the man with his ingratitude, he rudely drove him from his dwelling. When the irritation of the patriarch had subsided, and his mind had become sufficiently calm to receive instruction, the voice of the Lord was heard calling to him, to demand why he had thus driven the traveller from his door. "Because, Lord," said the venerable Hebrew, "he feared not thee, nor was grateful for the bounties of thy hand." "Abraham! Abraham!" said the Divine voice, "fourscore years have I borne with the ingra titude of that sinner, and couldst not thou have patience with him for one day?"
A TERRIBLE mode of punishment among the ancient Persians was, to shut the malefactor between two boats of equal size, except that the head and feet were left bare. These parts were moistened with honey, and on being exposed to the sun, the honey attracted the insects. The unhappy victim was obliged to take food, so that he lived often for many days. One is mentioned who lived seventeen days, and on taking off the upper boat, his flesh was found to be full of worms!
IN Dorsetshire, was the largest of which mention is made. Its circunference was sixty-eight feet; and the cavity of it, which was sixteen feet long and twenty feet high, was, about the time of the Commonwealth, used by an old man for the entertainment of travellers as an ale-house. The dreadful storm in 1703, shattered this majestic tree; and in 1755 the last vestiges of it were sold as firewood.
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BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY. THIS most noble national Institution, under the patronage of His Majesty William IV with an annual subscription of one hundred pounds, seems destined to be a blessing not only to Great Britain, but to every nation of the world. Its design is "the education of the labouring and manufacturing classes of society, of every religious denomination; " and it arose out of the zealous exertions of Joseph Lancaster, an ingenious schoolmaster, who is generally considered the inventor of the system of mutual instruction. His own exertions were surprising; and he soon enjoyed the patronage of His Majesty George III, and of the Royal Dukes of Kent and Sussex. A society was formed in 1805, and a noble building for a model school was erected in Southwark, and schools were soon established in different parts of the kingdom upon the same plan. It is a law of this society, that the schools in connection with it, "shall be open to the children of parents of all denominations: the lessons for reading shall consist of extracts from the Holy Scriptures; no catechism or peculiar religious tenets shall be taught in the schools, but every child shall be enjoined to attend regularly the place of worship to which its parents belong." As no preference was given to the peculiarities of the church of England, and no provision made for the use of its catechisın, prejudices and opposition were excited among the more zealous of its members. It was said to be an engine for the multiplication of dissenters: but this prejudice was overruled for good, as churchmen were roused to take part in the education of the poor, by the formation of what are called National or Parochial Schools. These were therefore established in very many parishes through the kingdom, in which it is reported there are now about 280,000 scholars taught on a similar plan, somewhat modified by Dr. Bell, after his return from Madras.
The Reports of the British and Foreign School Society are among the most interesting documents of the kind ever published; exhibiting its various correspondence, and branch operations, not only in England, but in many states of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and the islands of the Great South Sea, with the general state VOL. I.
of education in those countries. From this society have originated, not only the National Schools, but many others in different parts of the world, among which we must mention the " Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Ireland," called the Dublin Kildare Street Society, which had, in 1829, 1553 schools on its list, containing 124,449 scholars. This society has received a grant of money annually from Parliament. The Irish Report states also-"the total number of schools assisted from your funds during the past year, including the new schools, is 1,222; the gross amount of grants is 6,8307. 9s. 63d., exclusive of gratuities to deserving teachers, and of the expense of the training department."
In the central schools of the Society in London, there are regularly above 500 boys on the books, and 18,850 have been received for instruction. There are 300 girls kept on the books, and 9,180 have been received since the commencement: total, 28,000. The various schools in London, now in connection with this Society, contain about 15,000 scholars. "During the past year, sixty-two candidates either for Boys' or Girls' Schools have been admitted; thirty-nine have been boarded and instructed wholly or in part at the expense of the Society; thirty-eight have been appointed to schools; three have sailed for foreign stations, and nineteen remain on the list. Eight Missionaries have also attended to learn the system."
The expenditure of the British and Foreign School Society, during the past year, was 43097. 10s. 5d., including 17361. 9s. 7d., specially contributed for the advancement of scriptural education in Greece.
Prejudice and ignorance have misrepresented this great Institution, which we believe adapted and designed to be the means of advancing a religious education through all nations.
the attempts to cultivate their minds, as will appear by the following statement. There are fourteen Arabian youths in this class, of various ages and shades of colour. They appeared to be from thirteen to seventeen years of age. When they first entered into the school, in December, 1829, they were very uncivilized. They all appeared to follow the old maxim of the Bedouins, Let him take who has the power.' This was exemplified in some striking instances among the boys, from whom they forcibly took several things, and it was with difficulty they were prevented from hurting some by their violent conduct.
"They were at first taught by motions and gestures. All of them can now read with tolerable correctness, and even with good emphasis. They attempted explanations of words and sentences, and succeeded in several, chiefly by employing their own methods of illustration, which, though often curious, appeared extremely natural. They have also received instruction in writing, arithmetic, geography, and map drawing, in all of which they are making satisfactory progress. They are now quite docile, having learned the necessity of refraining from violence, and of conducting themselves in an orderly and peaceable manner. The present state of the whole of this class, is perhaps one of the most important and indubitable instances of the beneficial effects of education, as proving its irresistible tendency to soften the manners, by enlightening the mind."
Who can conceive the benefits which will result to Egypt, "the basest of kingdoms," and to the whole north of Africa, by the sound scriptural and scientific education of these fourteen Arab youths?
PRESENTATION OF THE BIBLE TO QUEEN
QUEEN ELIZABETH succeeded to the crown of England in 1558, on the death of her sanguinary sister Mary. Elizabeth was a Protestant; and she restored the profession of the doctrines of the Reformation. On this account, the citizens of London made her a suitable present on the day of her coronation. As she rode in state through Cheapside, they contrived to let down a child dressed in white, having a splendid copy of the English Bible, to present to her Majesty. Elizabeth received the present, kissing the hands of the child; and having kissed the sacred volume, she pressed it to her bosom, thanking her good citizens of London for their valuable gift, at the same time declaring that she esteemed it of more value than her crown, and that she would make it her study and the rule of her life.
THE serious and impartial retrospect of our conduct is indisputably necessary to the confirmation or recovery of virtue, and is therefore recomiended under the name of self-examination, by divines, as the first act previous to repentance.
It is indeed, of so great use, that without it, we should always be to begin life, be seduced for ever by the same allurements, and misled by the same fallacies.
"Let not sleep," says Pythagoras, "fall upon thine eyes, till thou hast thrice reviewed the transactions of the past day; that thou mayest know where thou hast turned aside from rectitude, and what thou hast left undone, which ought to have been done.”—Dr. Johnson.
THE EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY. FOR a well-educated young person to be unable to give an intelligent reason why the Bible is received as the word of God, is exceedingly to be regretted. Such, however, is the case in very numerous instances. Nor is this ignorance to be found solely among those, whose friends are regardless of religion. It is not peculiar to those who are strangers to evangelical truth. It is common, even among those who have been brought up to attend the ordinances of divine worship, and whose parents are members of Christian churches; and it is presumed that every intelligent observer of the mode in which the young are educated, and the comparatively little attention which is paid to their establishment, in very many congregrations, in the demonstrative evidences of the divinity of Christianity, I will be convinced of the lamentable fact. It is admitted that much attention has lately been paid to this momentous subject; but still, far too much is taken for granted, as to the knowledge of our young people on these points.
The writer has been led to these remarks, from a case recently mentioned to him, by a respectable minister in one of the midland counties. It was in substance as follows:-A young lady, who attended his ministry, and who appeared to be serious in "pressing towards the mark, for the prize of her high calling of God in Christ Jesus," and active in "every good word and work," in a little time manifested a disinclination to submit her mind to the inspired dictates of the gospel of Christ. Previously to her entering upon the duties of her station, as governess in the family of a nobleman, she paid a visit to a distant friend, who had imbibed the sceptical notions of modern infidelity. The authenticity and inspiration of the Scriptures were doubted; the necessity of a propitiatory sacrifice for sin, and the regenerating influences of the Holy Spirit, were disregarded or disbelieved; and the mind of this intelligent, accomplished young person, became subverted. Her manner towards her affectionate pastor, when he sought an interview with her, was cold, reserved, self-sufficient, and haughty; and in this state of mind she entered the family of one of our nobles, to take the charge of educating his children. Unspeakably painful must such a case be to a sincere minister of the gospel of Jesus Christ: but what may be the consequences to her young charge, who can tell?
The primary cause of such an apostacy, whether it prove final, or only temporary, must be sought in the depravity of the heart. "The carnal mind is enmity against God for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be." (Rom. viii, 7.) But it is highly probable, that had the young lady been well instructed in the Evidences of Christianity, her intelligent mind would have rejected the profane and ignorant insinuations against the divinity of our most holy faith.
Blame does not appear to attach to her late pastor, as her attendance on his ministry had been but for an inconsiderable time. Culpability must, however, attach to her parents or teachers, or both, for having her mind unfurnished with that knowledge, which is so nearly connected with salvation. Criminality, as well as loss, must be hers: for had she devoted a tenth part of the time to the search of divine truth, which either of her elegant accomplishments had required, she would not have "been led away with the error of the wicked, nor fallen from her own steadfastness." (2 Pet. iii, 17.)
The impressions produced by the affecting case above stated, were deepened by reading the following passage in the Essay of the Ecclesiastical Knowledge
Society, "On the Present State of Religion in England, and the Impediments to its Advancement." "It is to be feared, however, that many young persons are suffered to grow up into life, without ever being taught to direct their minds to the foundations of the Christian faith. While great attention is often laudably paid in families to catechetical instruction, the Evidences of Christianity, on which so many small and easy treatises are extant, and which might be rendered interesting to many young minds, are sadly neglected. It is extremely probable, that to this neglect of inculcating intelligent views of Christianity and its evidences, are, in a great measure, to be attributed the numerous instances which have occurred of the children of Christian parents becoming infidels. I cannot,' says the late eminent Mr. Ryland, of Northampton, forbear declaring, with a degree of warmth that borders upon bitterness, grief, and indignation, that out of above five hundred persons, of all ages, who have come under my care, I have never had one youth, who had been instructed in the solid evidences of the Christian religion, by his parents or former tutors.' This passage, which is in the author's Contemplations,' was written about half a century ago; but it is to be feared, that the evil complained of is as yet but very partially remedied in Christian families."
It must be doing a service to the heads of Christian families, to invite their consideration of this momentous subject; and it may not be unseasonable, at least with respect to many, to point out to them some of the most valuable treatises on the Evidences of Christianity. Among the most valuable of modern works, the following may be recommended:-Grotius on the Truth of the Christian Religion; Addison's Evidences of Christianity; Doddridge's Evidences, Three Discourses; Paley's Evidences; Gregory's Letters, 2 vols.; Bishop Porteus's Evidences; A Father's Reasons for Christianity; Companion to the Bible.
May the imperative obligation upon parents, tutors, and pastors, be deeply felt, so as to lead them to give the proper and necessary attention to the rising generation; that their minds may be instructed, and established against all the profane and pernicious sophistry of modern infidels.
Sect. II.-The Dignity of Adam.
ADAM, as a being of reason and intelligence, created in the image of his Maker, must have been truly noble! But the full import of that expression, "the image of God," includes something far beyond intellectual dignity; or else evil spirits, who are "held in chains of darkness" would be like God. What can be said more of a creature, than that he is made in the likeness of his Creator? "God is a spirit," John iv, 2; his image, therefore, in Adam must have been spiritual; yet it consisted not merely in his intellectual powers, but "in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness." Eph. iv, 24; Col. iii, 10.
Adam was like God in his knowledge; possessing an understanding capacious, comprehensive, and richly furnished: he resembled his Maker in holiness, delighting only in that which was right and just: and his happiness was spiritual and divine; for he partook, without interruption, of the overflowing felicity of his Creator. Adam bore some small degree of resem blance to his Maker, also, in his dominion and sovereignty, which the inspired Psalmist has instructively celebrated. Referring to the dominion of Adam, he says concerning man, "Thou hast made him a little
lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands, thou hast put all things under his feet all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea; and whatever passeth through the paths of the sea." Psalm viii, 5-8. This testimony of David is in exact accordance with the record of Moses in Genesis; and thus was Adam constituted the representative of the Almighty on the earth, as the Apostle Paul calls him, "The image and glory of God."` 1 Cor. xi, 7.
The knowledge of Adam must have been surprisingly great, as is evident from his giving different and suitable names to all the various living creatures. The account of this procedure, as written by Moses, is equally in structive and beautiful, affording a remarkable illustration of his constituted and rightful sovereignty. "And the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field." Gen. ii, 18, 19.
The LORD himself brought the tribes of living creatures to Adam, to call forth his powers of reason and speech. The terrible and majestic lion, the fierce tiger, the huge elephant, and the noble horse, were equally led by their Creator and presented to Adam to do him homage, as their appointed ruler and lord.
An old tradition is said to have been heard in Egypt by the philosopher Plato, that "the first man was the greatest philosopher." There seems abundantly sufficient reason to regard that tradition as founded in truth, especially when we remember, that the God of nature himself was the instructor of Adam in the formation and use of language; and by his inspiration, the different natures of the beasts were perceived, so that Adam would be able to appropriate names to them all, corresponding to their several qualities. It is probable, that in these things Adam was far superior in knowledge to Solomon, the wise king of Israel; though it is said concerning that prodigy of wisdom, that "he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon, even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes." 1 Kings iv, 33.
The wise king of Israel attained his vast knowledge by the Divine blessing on his observations and studies: but Adam was created perfect at once. The moment he came into being, he existed in all the dignity and strength of reason and intelligence. The whole volume of nature was open to his capacious and comprehensive understanding, and a small measure of experience would be sufficient to develop his amazing powers of understanding.
"With him his noblest sons might not compare,
In godlike feature, and majestic air;
And as in form excelling, so in mind
WORLD BEFORE THE FLOOD.
In the delightful place which was prepared for the habitation of Adam, the riches of divine benevolence were largely seen. Moses observes, "And the LORD God planted a garden eastward of Eden: and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; and the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden." Gen. ii, 8-10.
Eden is believed to have been situated on the Euphrates, near to the Persian Gulf. It is still possessed of the richest soil in the Turkish empire; and if culti
vated, would be one of the most lovely places in nature. When we think of Paradise, our minds are filled with the idea of the seat of overflowing delight. The very name of its situation, Eden, which signifies pleasure, warrants the thought of perfect felicity. But the enjoyment of Adam did not consist in doing nothing. Occupation was necessary, both for the preservation of his health, and for the continuance of the sweetness of his satisfaction. As we read in the sacred history, "the LORD took the man, and put him in the garden to dress and to keep it," we are taught to regard it as a place in which Adam was to be exercised in beneficial employment. He was to be nourished by feeding upon the delicious fruits of Paradise: he received his food by a particular grant from God, that he might be continually reminded of Jehovah being in all things his only and sovereign Lord. He was farther instructed, that his present condition in Paradise was not a state of established bliss, nor yet the limit of his happiness: but that after a course of perfect obedience to the holy will of his Maker, he might expect to be confirmed in the enjoyment of unutterable felicity in a superior and eternal world.
Adam, still, amidst all this luxuriant munificence of his Creator, and reigning as sovereign of the whole earth, filled with delight, in which the brute creation was not able to participate, was alone. "But for Adam," on the wide and spacious globe, "there was not found an help for him." Infinite goodness supplied the desirable blessing, and perfected the felicity of Paradise. "And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof: and the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. "Gen. ii, 21, 22.
"Grace was in all her steps, heav'n in her eye,
The intelligent and penetrating mind of Adam manifested itself on this occasion. He received this last gift of divine bounty, in a manner expressive of his lively gratitude to the beneficent Author, of affection to his lovely partner, and of his sense of the intimacy and equality of their inseparable union. Marriage was instituted and blessed by the great Creator himself. "And Adam said, This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife and they shall be one flesh," ver. 23, 24.
What additional satisfaction would Adain now experience in contemplating the frame and course of nature, possessing the most exalted and pure of human joys, that of imparting knowledge to a beloved object! How would the spirit of devotion be heightened in the holy man, now that he could join in the elevating exercise of social worship! How would he delight to instruct his beloved Eve in the wonders of creation, and unfold to her the nature, perfections, and commandments of their adorable Creator! Even the luscious fruits of Paradise would acquire a new and more delicious flavour, when gathered by the hand of conjugal affection, and recommended by the smile of complacency and love.
(To be continued.)
HUMILITY AND UPRIGHTNESS THE WAY TO HONOUR.
In the evening of the day Sir Eardly Wilmot kissed his Majesty's hand, on being appointed chief justice, one of his sons, a youth of seventeen, attended him to his bed-side. Now," said he, "my son, I will tell you
a secret worth your knowing and remembering. The elevation I have met with in life, particularly this last instance of it, has not been owing to any superior merit or abilities, but to my humility; to my not having set up myself above others, and to a uniform endeavour to pass through life void of offence towards God and man."
THE MIRACULOUS ROCK.-Exod. xvii, 6. THE celebrated rock which Moses struck, is near the middle of the valley of Raphidin, about a hundred paces from Mount Horeb. In travelling through a long and pretty open road, we observe a high rock among several small ones, which has by a long succession of time been detached from the neighbouring mountains. This rock is a huge mass of red granite, and its figure is almost round on one side, but it is flat on the side that looks towards Horeb; it is twelve feet broad, and as many thick; its breadth is greater than its height; it is about fifty feet in circumference, and pierced with twenty-four holes, which are easily counted; each hole is a foot long, and an inch broad; the flat surface of the rock contains twelve of these holes, and the round side opposite as many, which are placed horizontally about two feet from the superior edge of the rock, are only some inches distant from each other, and also ranged very nearly in the same line.
The holes on one side are so far from communicating with those of the other, that they are not so much as opposite to each other. It is to be observed, that this and the other rocks are in a very dry and barren ground, and that no spring, nor any other kind of water, is to be found near them. The traveller relates,
1. We easily observe a perfect smoothness from the inferior lip of each hole to the ground.
2. This smoothness is only observed in a small trench or groove made in the surface of the rock, and runs along the whole of this groove from one end to the other.
3. The edges of the holes and grooves are lined with a fine slender green moss, though not the smallest herb appears on any other part of the rock, the whole surface of which, except the edges of the holes and grooves, is pure stone.
Now what is signified by this smoothness of the inferior lips of the holes these grooves equally polished from top to bottom-this fine moss, which only covers the edges of the holes and grooves, without any change happening for three thousand years past? What signify all these appearances, so sensible, if not that they are so many incontestible proofs, that formerly a copious and miraculous water flowed from these holes?
ON which the ark of Noah rested when the waters of the deluge subsided, is ten or twelve leagues from Erivan to the south-east. The Armenians have so great a veneration for it, that as soon as they perceive it they fall prostrate to the ground and kiss it. They call this mountain Mesesoufat, that is, "the mountain of the ark." It is supposed to be the Gordian mountain of the ancient geographers; and its summit is divided into two points always covered with snow, and almost continually surrounded with clouds and fogs, which render them invisible. At the foot of the mountain are moving sands, interrupted by some barren downs. A little higher are dreadful black rocks, piled upon each other, which, on account of the steepness of the mountain, the abundance of the sands, and the defect of water, are very difficult of access.