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THE BODLEIAN, OR UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, OXFORD.
SIR THOMAS BODLEY, founder of the magnificient University Library at Oxford, has immortalized his name by that great work. But to give an accurate account of this noble edifice, and of its precious literary treasures, or one worthy of its extent and excellent character, is altogether impossible within our limits, as it surpasses almost every institution of the kind.
The most celebrated libraries on the continent, are that of the Vatican, at Rome; that of Cosmo de Medicis, at Florence; that of Bessarion, at Venice; that of the Emperor of Austria, at Vienna, which is said to consist of more than 80,000 volumes, and of 15,940 curious medals; and that of Francis I, at Paris, augmented by Cardinal Richlieu, and completed by M. Colbert, now the National Library of France.
The Bodleian Library exceeds that of any University in Europe, and even those of all the sovereigns of Europe, except the Emperor's and the French one, VOL. I.
which are each older by a hundred years. The Vatican, the Medicean, that of Bessarion, and the others before mentioned, exceed the Bodleian in Greek MSS, but in Oriental MSS it excels them all. As to printed books, the Ambrosian at Milan, and that of Wolfenbuttle, are two of the most famous libraries; yet both are inferior to the Bodleian.
Sir Thomas Bodley was born at Exeter, March 2, 1544. On the ascession of Queen Mary, his father removed with his family to Geneva. The University of that city having been then recently erected, young Bodley, about twelve years of age, applied himself with diligence to the study of the learned languages, under the most celebrated professors. He attended the lectures of Chevalerius in the Hebrew language, of Beroaldus in the Greek, and of Calvin and Beza in Divinity. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth his father returned to England, and settled in London, when Thomas was sent to Magdalen College, Oxford. In 1563 he took the degree of B. A., and the year following was admitted fellow of Merton College. In 1565,
he undertook the reading of a Greek Lecture in the hall of that college. In 1566, he took the degree of M. A., and the same year read natural philosophy in the public schools. In 1569, he was elected one of the proctors of the university; and, for a considerable time, supplied the place of university orator. In 1576, he went abroad, and spent four years in France, Germany, and Italy. Upon his return, he applied himself to the study of history and politics. In 1585 he was made gentleman usher to Queen Elizabeth; and from that time until 1597 he was employed in several embassies; when, disgusted with the intrigues of the court, he retired from public life, and, to use his own words, resolved to "set up his staff at the Library door."
Being in the prime of life, and eminently qualified both by his learning and experience, he engaged in an employment, which, as Camden justly remarks, would have added glory to the character of a crowned head,the restoration of the Public Library. Having announced to the University his design, and receiving assurances of thankful acquiescence, and cordial co-operation, he began by presenting a collection of volumes which he had purchased abroad, and which were valued at 10,000. His example and solicitations operated so powerfully, that contributions flowed in from various quarters, with a rapidity that rendered it speedily necessary to enlarge the building.
On the 8th of November, 1602, the Library was first opened; and in 1605, the bust of Sir Thomas Bodley was placed in the Library, by the Earl of Dorset, chancellor of the University.
On the 16th of July, 1610, the first stone was laid of an additional room at the eastern extremity of the Library, forming, with the original repository of Duke Humphrey, the figure of a Roman T; Sir Thomas himself largely contributing towards the expense. Other benefactions being afterwards added, the University was enabled to raise the entire quadrangle of the schools to its present height. But in process of time, the donations increasing to such a degree that the Library, even with the late additions, was insufficient to contain them, the University betook themselves to another expedient, and which appears to have formed part of the original plan of Sir Thomas himself; this was no other than to construct, at the western end, a room similar to the one added by Sir Thomas at the eastern, below which the University might be accommodated with a convocation house. A piece of ground was accordingly purchased of Exeter College, and on May 13, 1634, the first stone of the new building was laid by the Vice-Chancellor.
In this part of the Library were first deposited the Baroccian manuscripts, in number 249, the noble gift of William Earl of Pembroke, purchased from the library of Francis Baroccio, a Venetian. Adjoining these were placed 233 manuscripts, together with five rolls, and a catalogue, given by Sir Kenelm Digby. Also, towards the southern extremity, the MSS given by Archbishop Laud, Chancellor of the University, in number about 1,300, in nineteen different languages. But by far the greater part of it is occupied by the extensive collection of the learned John Selden, which was conveyed thither in the year 1659, under the direction of his executors.
In the year 1788 the Anatomy School, adjoining the south staircase of the Bodleian, was added to the Library, by the name of "Bibliothecæ Bodleianæ Auctarium." Hither were transferred from the general mass abovestairs, the Baroccian MSS; select portions of those of Laud, Cromwell, Roe, and Digby; also from the MSS of Sir T. Bodley, and those bequeathed by Dr. Rawlinson to these have since been added the D'Orville col
lection, and those purchased from Dr. Clarke. Among these treasures perhaps it will be sufficient just to mention the Laudian MSS (in Uncial or capital characters) of the Acts of the Apostles, the Euclid of D'Orville, and the Plato of Clarke. In the remainder of the room are arranged the first editions of the Holy Scriptures, of the classic writers, and early fathers of the church; books printed by the family of the Aldi; editions of the classics and ecclesiastical writers of the fifteenth century, among which are some of the rarest specimens of early typography; not to mention the swarthy Caxtons of our own isle; printed editions collated with MSS; books printed on vellum; with some others, selected on account of their rarity and value.
Within this room is another of smaller dimensions, called "The Oriental Room :" in this are deposited the rich treasures of eastern literature, from the stores of Laud, Pococke, Huntington, Marsh, &c., together with others from different parts of the Library; to which have been lately added about forty thousand purchased from Dr. Clarke. This is considered the richest part of the whole Library.
On the opposite side of the quadrangle, in a room which was formerly the Law School, are deposited the MSS of Dodsworth, Carte, Tanner, Willis, Ballard, and selections from those of Dr. Rawlinson. The chief contents of this room are the magnificent donation of the late Richard Gough, Esq., consisting of his matchless collection of works on British Topography, accompanied by innumerable maps, plans, and drawings; a valuable selection of books on Saxon and Northern literature; with 206 Missals, &c. This part of the library is now, from him, called " Gough's Room."
Besides the noble founder, and those whose names have been already mentioned, this Library is indebted for rich contributions to Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex; Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset; Sir Henry Saville; King James I; Laurence and Josiah Bodley, younger brothers of Sir Thomas; Francis I, Duke of Parma; Charles III, King of Spain; Christian VII, King of Denmark; and his late Majesty George III.
Besides giving his books, which he had collected at a great expense, Sir Thomas Bodley left an estate, for salaries to officers, and to keep the Library in repair. For the government of it, he drew up some statutes, which were confirmed in convocation, and which are preserved in the archives of the Library. By these, the Vice-Chancellor, Proctors, and the Regius Professors of Divinity, Law, Medicine, Hebrew, and Greek, are appointed Visitors and Curators.
By the provisions of a statute, promulgated and confirmed in full convocation, Dec. 2, 1913, the officers of the Library are now increased to a librarian, two under librarians, with the degree of M. A. or B. C. L. at least, and two assistants, either B. A. or under graduates. The present librarian, elected 1813, is Bulkeney Baudinel, M. A., late fellow of New College.
How many volumes this inestimable collection contains is not exactly known, but it is immense, and the Library is continually increasing by donations, by copies of every work printed in this country (by Act 54 Geo. III, ch. 156), as well as by books purchased from the fund left by its founder, assisted by fees received at matriculation, and by an annual payment from all who have a right of admission to the Library.
A CHRISTIAN AND AN INFIDEL. An infidel once asked his pious friend, "Is your God big or little."
Answer. Both. He is so big that the whole heaven and earth cannot contain him: and he is so little that he can dwell in my heart.
Sect. V.-The Trial and Sentence of Adam. THE merciful manner in which God dealt with our first parents, in their guilty condition, must be particularly regarded in our review of the life of Adam. It appears from the representation of the Scriptures, that God was accustomed to manifest himself to them with peculiar condescension, when they were in a state of innocence; and that they were delighted to enjoy the distinguishing grace of their glorious Creator. How "the presence of the LORD God" amongst the trees of the garden could be made visible, and how the voice of the LORD God "walking in the garden in the cool of the day," could be perceived by mortal eye, we may be at a loss fully to understand: but God himself could be at no loss for means to hold communion with his beloved creature. The language of Moses is evidently accommodated to our weak capacities, and designed to impress us with the pleasing idea of the owner of the garden taking his evening walk in it, to see how the delicious fruits increased, and how the beautiful flowers flourished, and to converse with those to whom he had committed its
"The cool of the day" was the appropriate season of the accustomed worship of Adam and Eve; when they used to welcome the tokens of the Divine presence with that kind of exulting joy, with which a dutiful child meets the approbation of an indulgent father. But alas! to what a wretched state had sin reduced their minds! The echo of that voice, which hitherto had been as melody to their ears, filled their guilty souls with alarm and terrifying apprehensions. Instead of hastening to the spot whence the sound proceeded, they fly from the dreaded place. "And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said, Where art thou?" Gen. iii, 8, 9.
They fled from the Divine presence, not desiring a reconciliation: and, having their understanding darkened, they foolishly endeavoured to hide themselves from omniscience! May we, with our young readers, never forget those lines, with which we have been familiar from our early years.
"Almighty God, thy piercing eye
Strikes through the shades of night;
Attempts at concealment are all useless and vain, when God calls. Adam must appear before his Judge. Trembling and bowed down with the consciousness of sin, Adam stands before his offended Maker. “And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself," ver. 10. The first sentence from the lips of Adam shows the dreadful effects of sin. He does not humble himself, nor implore mercy, in a single petition. He utters a daring falsehood-and that addressed to God, who searcheth the hearts! It was not because Adam was naked that he hid himself, but because his consciousness of disobedience filled his guilty spirit with dread. This his Maker knew; and in a serious interrogation, God directs him to reflect upon the cause of his fear. "And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten ofthe tree whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldst not eat?" ver. 11. The reply of Adam further illustrates the hardening nature of sin. What pride! What impenitence! What impudent hardihood does it contain! He does not indeed deny the fact; but instead of a frank avowal of his crime, and a humble sup
plication for mercy, he proceeds in a circuitous way to excuse himself, by throwing the blame upon his wife; and, in an indirect manner, reflecting upon God himself, as the chief occasion of his fault. "And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat." Ver. 12.
How great must be the deceitfulness of sin, to allow Adain to attempt his own justification in a manner so culpable! But such a way of proceeding we too often observe in offenders among us. Self-justification, alas! how common: it is an evil, which we still see, forms a prominent feature of the human character, discernible from tender infancy to hoary hairs.
Eve is next summoned. "And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done?" ver. 13. Like her husband, hardened by depravity of heart, Eve endeavours to throw off the blame from her. self. And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat." Ver. 13.
What grievous aggravations of their offence, in their impenitent, disingenuous excuses! What now remained for the self-convicted culprits, "but a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries?" Heb. x, 27. "But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us," Eph. ii, 2, did not reply to the frivolous excuses of the unhumbled offenders. He first pronounced the awful sentence upon the serpent. "Cursed art thou because thou hast done this. I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat of the herb of the field in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." Ver. 14—19.
The exceeding sinfulness of sin, may in a considerable measure be discovered in the nature and extent of the curse pronounced upon our first transgressing parents. The woman was doomed to pain and sorrow in bearing children, and to a state of subjection to the will of her husband. Because Adam had hearkened to the persua sions of his wife, the ground was cursed; and with severe labour, and painful toil, his hard-earned sustenance was to be derived from its herbs, instead of his feeding upon the delicious fruits of Paradise. The earth itself, which had been fruitful as the garden of the Lord, now produced thorns and thistles and noisome weeds; and, in the sweat of his face, man was doomed to eat his bread with care, until worn with fatigue, and spent with age and infirmity, he returned in dishonour to his original clay. In all the fatigues of Adam, it would be sounding in his ears, "Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."
Thus man apostatized; God was provoked; the Holy Spirit forsook his living temple, the human soul; the unclean spirit took possession of it; the Divine image was defaced; and, in its stead, was impressed in evil tempers, the likeness of Satan, the prince of devils!
Sect. VI.-The Promise of a Saviour to Adam.
"MERCY and truth met together," even in the sentence pronounced upon the first human transgressors. Theil
offended Creator did not utterly exclude them from his parental care. The unhappy apostates, to hide their discovered nakedness, and conceal their shame, "sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons." Gen. iii, 7. "But unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them," ver. 21. By this act of sovereign benevolence, God not only furnished them with suitable clothing, but instructed them how to prepare the like for themselves in future, and to impart the samne knowledge to their posterity.
But the Divine compassion was chiefly manifested in the intimation of a deliverer from their state of helpless misery a Saviour from everlasting death. The stupendous plan of redemption had been formed in the counsels of divine mercy, before the foundation of the world was laid and men in every age have been saved and called with a holy calling, according to God's own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began." 2 Tim. i, 9.
While standing before the LORD God, fearful and guilty, and the righteous sentence upon them as transgressors sounding in their ears, the minds of our first parents were preserved from hopeless despondency, by the promise, that the "seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head." Without a revelation of mercy, the conscious sinner would be hardened in despair. The promise itself was doubtless explained to Adam, especially when he was clothed with the skins of the beasts, which he appears to have offered in sacrifice under the Divine direction, as an expiatory atonement for sin. In Paradise, it is believed, the offering of solemn thanksgiving by Adam, was accompanied with the presentation before the Lord of the choicest fruits of the earth: but now satisfaction for sin is required, "and without shedding of blood is no remission." Heb. ix, 22.
By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain." Heb. xi, 4. Being offered in faith, sacrifices must have been commanded by the Lord; and their meaning must have been explained in a great degree, directing the penitent offerer to look by faith to the promised seed, the deliverer, "the lamb slain,' in this impressive figure, "from the foundation of the world."
An excellent commentator observes, "Innocent animals slain in sacrifice, furnishing garments to fallen Adam and Eve, would very aptly typify the promised seed, who suffered for our sins, that we might stand accepted before God in his righteousness; and the circumstance of the LORD God making the coats of skins, and clothing them, not only intimates the kind instructions and assistance which he afforded to them, but represents to us, that the Saviour and salvation are of his providing; and that faith which receives and puts on Christ is his gift."-Scott.
(To be continued.)
DR. HAWEIS AND CAPTAIN WILSON. CAPTAIN WILSON, of the missionary ship Duff, on his return from his expedition for evangelizing the heathen, was complimented with a diamond ring of considerable value by Dr. Haweis, a zealous promoter of the Missionary Society, accompanied with the following note: -"Anxious for your arrival, I had prepared the following token. I wish to couple my name with yours. The circle is an emblem of the eternity I hope to spend with you. The brilliant is not brighter than my affection, nor the gold purer than my friendship. Wear me on your heart; while mine beats, it will remember you, and bless God for you."
INFANT SLAVERY IN ENGLAND. WE rejoice to learn that so many petitions, and so numerously signed, have been presented to parliament against the oppressive arrangements of the present Factory System," in Yorkshire and Lancashire. "At a mill near Huddersfield, where little children are worked NIGHT and DAY, and where the internal arrangements are revolting to morality, and disgusting to human nature, a clergyman of the church of England, minister of the township, was wishful to see with his own eyes what this system was, but the factory master absolutely refused to let him visit his flock." Boys of eight, ten, and twelve years of age, are worked from twelve to fourteen, sixteen, and even eighteen hours per day. Surely our national greatness does not depend upon such cruelties, and we trust some legislative relief will be afforded!
"These boys" (two mentioned by a Huddersfield gentleman) "began work at the mill at six o'clock on the Friday morning, and absolutely worked till five o'clock on Saturday evening, say thirty-five hours, with only the following time for meals. At half-past eight o'clock half an hour; at twelve an hour; at five half an hour; at twelve o'clock at night an hour; at half-past four on Saturday morning half an hour; at half-past eight half an hour; at twelve o'clock at noon an hour; and then they work till five on Saturday evening, and walk home nearly three miles. When they returned home last Saturday week, they were put to bed. On Sunday morning there was no school! no church!--no! poor things, they were sick and maisy,' and their parents were obliged to paddle' them out on Sunday; by degrees they recovered, and set off to their work on Monday morning. These boys, with about a dozen more, work regularly every day from six in the morning to eight in the evening, with two hours for meals; and on Fridays, Friday nights, and Saturdays, are worked as above described, and the former two have nearly six miles a day to walk.
"At the same mill last Friday morning, a boy fourteen years old, started at six o'clock in the morning, worked till half-past eight, then rested half an hour; worked till half-past twelve, and rested half an hour; worked till five, and rested half an hour; worked till nine, and rested a quarter of an hour; worked till twelve at night, and rested an hour; worked till four on Saturday morning, rested half an hour; worked till half-past eight, then rested half an hour; at half-past twelve rested half an hour; and worked till five, then left for home-thus working thirty hours and a quarter out of thirty-five. But mark! this boy, in consequence of pain in his wrist, occasioned by a boil produced by excessive labour, is frequently assisted by his partnerhe must soon, poor fellow, after thus labouring in excruciating torture, be laid aside, and afterwards be kept by the town. About fourteen boys work with this lad: they work twelve hours per day the rest of the week, and on Fridays, Friday nights, and Saturdays, are engaged as herein described."
LORD BACON relates of Queen Elizabeth, that once, when she could not be persuaded that a book, containing treasonable matter, was really written by the person whose name it bore, she said, with great indignation, that "she would have him racked, to produce his author." Bacon replied, "Nay, madam, he is a doctor: never rack his person, rack his style; let him have pen, ink, and paper, and help of books, and be enjoined to continue his story; and I will undertake, by collating his styles, to judge whether he were the author."-Criminal Trials.
IVORY. "HORNS OF IVORY" (Ezek. xxvii, 15), the prodigious tusks of elephants, we omitted to mention as they deserve in our "Notices of the Elephant." (See p. 53.) Nor are our limits sufficient to contain an extended article on this subject. We do not read of elephants in the Holy Scriptures: but they are mentioned in the apocryphal books of Maccabees (1 Macc. vi, 34, 35, 46; viii, 6, 2 Macc. xi, 4; xiii, 2), from which we learn that these large quadrupeds were numerous in Syria.
The canonical books of Scripture contain various expressions which demonstrate the abundance of ivory, in ancient times, in Palestine, which, as our readers will recollect, lies in the North-West corner of Asia, near to Egypt, the North-East boundary of Africa. We read of a "Throne of Ivory," 1 Kings x, 18. "Ivory House," xxii, 39. "Ivory Palaces," Psalın xlv, 8. "Benches of Ivory," Ezek. xxvii, 6. "Houses of Ivory," Amos iii, 15; and "Beds of Ivory," vi, 4. From these passages it is manifest that elephants must have been destroyed in great numbers for the sake of their "precious teeth." There were periods, indeed," says a modern writer, "in the history of refined nations of antiquity, when the destruction of the elephant was as great as in modern times: when Africa yielded her tribute of elephants' teeth to the kings of Persia ; when the people of Judea built "ivory palaces;" when the galleys of Tyre had "benches of ivory;" when, contributing to the barbarous luxury of the early Grecian princes,
'The spoils of elephants the roofs inlay ;'
when the Etruscan attributes of royalty were sceptres and thrones of ivory; when the ancient kings and magistrates of Rome sat on ivory seats; when colossal ivory statues of their gods, far exceeding, in their vast proportions and their splendid ornaments, all the magnificence of the moderns, were raised by the Greeks of the age of Pericles; and when immense stores of ivory, to be employed with similar prodigality, were collected in the temples. In the time of Pliny, the vast consumption of ivory for articles of luxury had compelled the Romans to seek for it in another hemisphere; Africa had ceased to furnish elephants' tusks, except of the smallest kind. A century or two earlier, according to Polybius, ivory was so plentiful in Africa, that the tribes on the contines of Ethiopia employed elephants' tusks as door-posts, and for the palisades that enclosed their fields. When the Roman power fell into decay, and the commerce of Europe with Africa was nearly suspended for centuries, the elephant was again unmolested in those regions. He was no longer slaughtered to administer to the pomp of temples, or to provide ornaments for palaces. The ivory tablets of the citizens of ancient Rome (libri elephantini) had fallen into disuse; and the toys of modern France were constructed of less splendid materials. At Angola, elephants' teeth had become so plentiful, because so useless as an article of trade, that in the beginning of the seventeenth century, according to Andrew Battell, an Englishman, who served in the Portuguese armies, the natives had their idols of wood in the midst of their towns, fashioned like a Negro, and at the foot thereof was a great heap of clephants' teeth, containing three or four tons of them: these were piled in the earth, and upon them were set the skulls of dead men, which they had slain in the wars, in monument of their victory.' The people of Angola and Congo, when the Portuguese first established themselves there, were found to have preserved an immense number of elephants' teeth for centuries, and had applied them to superstitious uses. As long as any part of the
stock remained, the vessels of Portugal carried large quantities to Europe; and this traffic formed one of the most profitable branches of the early trade with Africa. About the middle of the seventeenth century the store was exhausted. But the demand for ivory, which had been thus renewed in Europe after the lapse of so many centuries, offered too great a temptation to the poor African to be allowed by him to remain without a supply. The destruction of elephants for their teeth was again unremittingly pursued throughout those extensive forests; and that havoc has gone on with little, if any, diminution to our own day."-Menageries, vol. ii.
"Thrones" and "statues" of "ivory and gold" were common in Egypt, Persia, and Greece, in the ages of their glory. Ptolemy Philadelphus, in his triumph on account of a victory, had six hundred elephants' teeth carried by European slaves: and these were probably wrought up into statues of the Egyptian divinities, or into royal ornaments for the palace.
From the prodigious quantity of ivory which is still consumed in Europe only, we must infer the amazing number of elephants. Yet it is impossible to ascertain with accuracy the amount of that consumption. "We understand that at Dieppe there are at present eleven flourishing manufactories of articles in ivory, from which various specimens of art, from the commonest piece of turnery to the most elaborate carving, are dispersed throughout the continent. Much is employed for crucifixes, and other appendages of Roman Catholic worship. In our own country, in London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Liverpool, &c., the demand for elephants' teeth to be employed in the manufacture of musical instruments, plates for miniatures, boxes, chess-men, billiard-balls, mathematical rules, parasol and knife handles, must be much more considerable than might occur to a superficial observation. In 1827, the customs upon elephants' teeth, the duty being 20s. per cwt., amounted to 3,2577. exhibiting an importation of 364,784 lbs. In eleven years, from 1788 to 1798, 18,914 cwt. of ivory was imported, which shows an average annual importation of 192,579 lbs. The consumption, therefore, is either increased in Great Britain, or, from our possession of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, we are enabled to supply the demand of foreign nations.
"The average weight of an elephant's tusk is about 60lbs. To have produced, therefore, 364,784 lbs. of ivory, the import of 1827, 6,080 tusks must have been procured. This fact assumes the annual slaughter of at least 3,040 elephants. But the real havoc is much greater. Mr. Burchell, in his travels in Africa, met with some elephant hunters, who had shot twelve elephants, which, however, produced no more than two hundred pounds weight of ivory, as all the animals, excepting one, happened to be females. If any thing like the same ill luck, or want of skill, attended all the elephant hunters, upwards of forty thousand of these animals would be annually slain to supply our demand for ivory baubles. But this circumstance is, of course, an extraordinary one; and we only mention it to show the necessary waste of elephant life, in the supply of our commercial wants.”—Menageries, vol. ii.
THE LARGEST ELEPHANTS' TUSKS IN LONDON. Messrs. H. Verinder and Co., cutlers, in St. Paul's Churchyard, have standing usually at their door, a large African elephant's tusk, measuring EIGHT FEET SIX INCHES in length; and ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-THREE pounds in weight.
Messrs. Nathanael Bowers and Son, comb makers and dealers in elephants' teeth and tortoise shell,