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THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY, OXFORD.
which are each older by a hundred years. The Vatican,
the Medicean, that of Bessarion, and the others before OXFORD.
mentioned, exceed the Bodleian in Greek MSS, but Sur THOMAS BODLEY, founder of the magnificient Uni- in Oriental MSS it excels them all. As to printed versity Library at Oxford, has immortalized his name books, the Ambrosian at Milan, and that of Wolfenby that great work. But to give an accurate account buttle, are two of the most famous libraries ; yet both of this noble edifice, and of its precious literary trea- are inferior to the Bodleian. sures, or one worthy of its extent and excellent cha- Sir Thomas Bodley was born at Exeter, March 2, racter, is altogether impossible within our limits, as it 1544. On the ascession of Queen Mary, his father surpasses almost every institution of the kind.
removed with his family to Geneva. The University The most celebrated libraries on the coutinent, are of that city having been then recently erected, young that of the Vatican, at Rome; that of Cosmo de Me. Bodley, about twelve years of age, applied himself with dicis, at Florence; that of Bessarion, at Venice; that diligence to the study of the learned languages, under of the Emperor of Austria, at Vienna, which is said to the most celebrated professors. He attended the lecconsist of more than 80,000 volumes, and of 15,940 tures of Chevalerius in the Hebrew language, of Bero. curious medals; and that of Francis I, at Paris, aug- aldus in the Greek, and of Calvin and Beza in Divinity. mented by Cardinal Richlieu, and completed by On the accession of Queen Elizabeth his father re. M. Colbert, now the National Library of France. turned to England, and settled in London, when
The Bodleian Library exceeds that of any University Thomas was sent to Magdalen College, Oxford. In in Europe, and even those of all the sovereigns of 1563 he took the degree of B. A., and the year followEurope, except the Emperor's and the French one, ing was admitted fellow of Merton College. In 1565, Vol. 1.
he undertook the reading of a Greek Lecture in the lection, and those purchased from Dr. Clarke. Among hall of that college. In 1566, he took the degree of these treasures perhaps it will be sufficient just to menM. A., and the saine vear read natural philosophy in tion the Laudian MSS (in Uncial or capital characters) the public schools. In 1569, he was elected one of the of the Acts of the Apostles, the Euclid of D'Orville, proctors of the university; and, for a considerable and the Plato of Clarke. In the remainder of the room time, supplied the place of university orator. In 1576, are arranged the first editions of the Holy Scriptures, of he went abroad, and spent four years in France, Ger- the classic writers, and early fathers of the church; many, and Italy. Upon his return, he applied himself books printed by the family of the Aldi; editions of the to the study of history and politics. In 1585 he was classics and ecclesiastical writers of the fifteenth cenmade gentleman usher to Queen Elizabeth ; and from tury, among which are some of the rarest specimens of that time until 1597 he was employed in several em- early typography; not to inention the swarthy Caxtons bassies ; when, disgusted with the intrigues of the of our own isle; printed editions collated with MSS; court, he retired from public life, and, to use his own books printed on vellum; with some others, selected words, resolved to “set up his staff at the Library on account of their rarity and value. door.”
Within this room is another of smaller dimensions, Being in the prime of life, and eminently qualified called “ The Oriental Room:" in this are deposited both by his learning and experience, he engaged in an the rich treasures of eastern literature, from the stores employment, which, as Camden justly remarks, would of Laud, Pococke, Huntington, Marsh, &c., together have added glory to the character of a crowned head, - with others from different parts of the Library; to which the restoration of the Public Library. Having an- have been lately added about forly thousand purchased nounced to the University his design, and receiving from Dr. Clarke. This is considered the richest part assurances of thankful acquiescence, and cordial co-ope- of the whole Library: ration, he began by presenting a collection of volumes On the opposite side of the quadrangle, in a room which he had purchased abroad, and which were which was formerly the Law School, are deposited the valued at 10,0001. His example and solicitations ope- MSS of Dodsworth, Carte, Tanner, Willis, Ballard, rated so powerfully, that contributions flowed in from and selections from those of Dr. Rawlinson. The chief various quarters, with a rapidity that rendered it spee- contents of this room are the magnificent donation of dily necessary to enlarge the building.
the late Richard Gough, Esq., consisting of his matchless On the 8th of November, 1602, the Library was first
collection of works on British Topography, accompanied opened ; and in 1605, the bust of Sir Thomas Bodley by innumerable maps, plans, and drawings; a valuable was placed in the Library, by the Earl of Dorset, chan. selection of books on Saxon and Northern literature; cellor of the University,
with 206 Missals, &c. This part of the library is now, On the 16th of July, 1610, the first stone was laid of from him, called “Gough's Room." an additional room at the eastern extremity of the Besides the noble founder, and those whose names Library, forining, with the original repository of Duke have been already mentioned, this Library is indebted Humphrey, the figure of a Roman T; Sir Thomas him- for rich contributions to Robert Devereux, Earl of self largely contributing towards the expense. Other Essex ; Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset ; Sir Henry benefactions being afterwards added, the University Saville; King James I; Laurence and Josiah Bodley, was enabled to raise the entire quadrangle of the younger brothers of Sir Thomas ; Francis I, Duke of schools to its present height. But in process of time,
Parma; Charles III, King of Spain ; Christian VII, the donations increasing to such a degree that the Li- King of Denmark; and his late Majesty George III. brary, even with the late additions, was insufficient to Besides giving his books, which he had collected at contain them, the University betook themselves to ano. a great expense, Sir Thomas Bodley left an estate, for ther expedient, and which appears to have formed part salaries to officers, and to keep the Library in repair. of the original plan of Sir Thomas himself; this was no For the government of it, he drew up some statutes, other than to construct, at the western end, a room which were confirmed in convocation, and which are similar to the one added by Sir Thomas at the eastern, preserved in the archives of the Library. By these, the below which the University might be accommodated Vice-Chancellor, Proctors, and the Regius Professors with a convocation house. A piece of ground was ac- of Divinity, Law, Medicine, Hebrew, and Greek, are apcordingly purchased of Exeter College, and on May 13, pointed Visitors and Curators. 1634, the first stone of the new building was laid by By the provisions of a statute, promulgated and con. the Vice-Chancellor.
firmed in full convocation, Dec. 2, 1913, the officers of In this part of the Library were first deposited the the Library are now increased to a librarian, two under Baroccian manuscripts, in number 249, the noble gift librarians, with the degree of M. A. or B. C.L. at least, of William Earl of Pembroke, purchased from the and two assistants, either B. A. or under graduates. library of Francis Baroccio, a Venetian. Adjoining The present librarian, elected 1813, is Bulkeney Bauthese were placed 233 manuscripts, together with five dinel, M. A., late fellow of New College. rolls, and a catalogue, given by Sir Kenelm Digby. How many volumes this inestimable collection conAlso, towards the southern extremity, the MSS given tains is not exactly known, but it is immensey and by Archbishop Laud, Chancellor of the University, iu the Library is continually increasing by donations, by number about 1,300, in nineteen different languages. copies of every work printed in this country (by Act But by far the greater part of it is occupied by the 54 Geo. III, ch. 156), as well as by books purchased extensive collection of the learned John Selden, which from the fund left by its founder, assisted by fees rewas conveyed thither in the year 1659, under the direc- ceived at matriculation, and by an annual payment .tion of his executors.
from all who have a right of admission to the Library. In the year 1788 the Anatomy School, adjoining the south staircase of the Bodleian, was added to the Library, by the name of “ Bibliothecæ Bodleianæ Auctariùın."
A CHRISTIAN AND AN INFIDEL. Hither were transferred from the general mass above- An infidel once asked his pious friend, " Is your God stairs, the Baroccian MSS; select portions of those of big or little.” .Laud, Cromwell, Roe, and Dighy; also from the MSS Answer. Both. He is su big that the whole heaven of Sir T. Bodley, and those bequeathed by Dr. Rawlin- and earth cannot contain him: and he is so little that son : to these have since been added the D'Orville col. he can dwell in my heart.
plication for mercy, he proceeds in a circuitous way to
excuse hiinself, by throwing the blame upon his wife; ADAM.
and, in an indirect manner, reflecting upon God himSect. V.—The Trial and Sentence of Adam. self, as the chief occasion of his fault. « And the man The merciful manner in which God dealt with our first said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she parents, in their guilty condition, inust be particularly
gave me of the tree, and I did cat." Ver. 12. regarded in our review of the life of Adam. It appears
How great must be the deceitfulness of sin, to allow from the representation of the Scriptures, that God was
Adaun to attempt his own justification in a manner so accustomed to manifest himself to them with peculiar
culpable! But such a way of proceeding we too often condescension, when they were in a state of innocence;
observe in offenders among us. Self-justification, alas ! and that they were delighted to enjoy the distinguishing
how common: it is an evil, which we still see, forms a grace of their glorious Creator. "How " the presence
prominent feature of the human character, discernible of the LORD God” amongst the trees of the garden could
from tender infancy to hoary hairs. be made visible, and how the voice of the LORD God
Eve is next summoned. « And the LORD God said “ walking in the garden in the cool of the day,” could
unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? be perceived by mortal eye, we may be at a loss fully
ver. 13. Like her husband, hardened by depravity of to understand: but God himself could be at no loss for
heart, Eve endeavours to throw off the blame from her.
self. And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, means to hold communion with his beloved creature.
and I did eat.” Ver. 13. The language of Moses is evidently accommodated to our weak capacities, and designed to impress us with the
What grievous aggravations of their offence, in their pleasing idea of the owner of the garden taking his
impenitent, disingenuous excuses! What now remained
for the self-convicted culprits, “ but a certain fearful evening walk in it, to see how the delicious fruits increased, and how the beautiful flowers flourished, and
looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which
shall devour the adversaries?” Heh. x, 27. “But God, to converse with those to whom he had committed its care.
who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he “ The cool of the day” was the appropriate season
loved us,” Eph. ii, 2, did not reply to the frivolous exof the accustomed worship of Adam and Eve; when
cuses of the unhumbled offenders. He first pronounced they used to welcome the tokens of the Divine presence
the awful sentence upon
Cursed art thou
because thou hast done this. I will put enmity between with that kind of exulting joy, with which a dutiful child meets the approbation of an indulgent father.
thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her But alas! to what a wretched state had sin reduced their
seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his
heel. minds! The echo of that voice, which hitherto had
Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply been as melody to their ears, filled their guilty souls
thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow shalt thou with aların and terrifying apprehensions. Iustead of
bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy hastening to the spot whence the sound proceeded, they
husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam
he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of fly from the dreaded place. “And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of
thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I comthe day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from
manded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the
is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of garden. And the Lord God called unto Adam, and
it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall said, Where art thou ?" Gen. iii, 8, 9.
it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat of the herb of They fled froin the Divine presence, not desiring a
the field : in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, reconciliation : and, having their understanding dar
till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast kened, they foolishly endeavoured to hide theinselves from
thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou omniscience! May we, with our young readers, never
return." Ver. 14--19. forget those lines, with which we have been familiar
The exceeding sinfulness of sin, may in a considerable from our early years.
measure be discovered in the nature and extent of the “ Almighty God, thy piercing eye
curse pronounced upon our first transgressing parents. Strikes through the shades of night;
The woman was doomed to pain and sorrow in bearing And our most secret actions lie
children, and to a state of subjection to the will of her All open to thy sight.”
husband. Because Adam had hearkened to the persua. Attempts at concealment are all useless and vain, sions of his wife, the ground was cursed ; and with sewhen God calls. Adam must appear before his Judge. vere labour, and painful toil, his hard-earned sustenance Trembling and bowed down with the consciousness of was to be derived from its herbs, instead of his feeding sin, Adam stands before his offended Maker.
upon the delicious fruits of Paradise. The earth itself, he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was which had been fruitful as the garden of the Lord, now afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself,” ver. 10. produced thorns and thistles and noisome weeds; and, The first sentence from the lips of Adam shows the in the sweat of his face, man was doomed to eat his dreadful effects of sin. He docs not humble himself, bread with care, until worn with fatigue, and spent with nor implore mercy, in a single petition. He utters a age and infirmity, he returned in dishonour to his oridaring falsehood --and that addressed to God, who ginal clay. In all the fatigues of Adam, it would be searcheth the hearts ! It was not because Adam was sounding in his ears, “ Dust thou art, and unto dust naked that he hid himself, but because his conscious- shalt thou return." ness of disobedience filled his guilty spirit with dread.
Thus man apostatized; God was provoked; the Holy This his Maker knew; and in a serious interrogation, Spirit forsook his living temple, the human soul; the God directs him to reflect upon the cause of his fear. unclean spirit took possession of it; the Divine image “And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast was defaced; and, in its stead, was impressed in evil thou eaten ofthe tree whereof I commanded thee that thou tempers, the likeness of Satan, the prince of devils ! shouldst not eat?” ver. 11. The reply of Adam further illustrates the hardening nature of sin. What pride! Sect. VI.— The Promise of a Saviour to Adam. What impenitence! What impudent hardihood does it contain! He does not indeed deny the fact; but in
"MERCY and truth met together," even in the sentence stead of a frank avowal of his crime, and a humble sup- pronounced upon the first human transgressors. Thei
cffended Creator did not utterly exclude then from his
INFANT SLAVERY IN ENGLAND. parental care. The unhappy apostates, to hide their
We rejoice to learn that so many petitions, and so discovered nakedness, and conceal their shame, “sewed
numerously signed, have been presented to parliament tig leaves together, and made themselves aprons." Gen, iii, 7. “ But unto Adam alsu and to his wife did
against the oppressive arrangements of the present the Lord God make coats of skins, and clothed them,”
“Factory System,” in Yorkshire and Lancashire. “At By this act of sovereign benevolence, God
a mill near Huddersfield, where little children are worked
NIGHT and day, and where the internal arrangements not only furnished them with suitable clothing, but instructed them how to prepare the like for themselves
are revolting to morality, and disgusting to human in future, and to impart the saine knowledge to their
nature, a clergyman of the church of England, minister posterity.
of the township, was wishful to see with his own eyes But the Divine compassion was chiefly manifested
what this system was, but the factory master absolutely
refused to let him visit his flock.” Boys of eight, ten, in the intimation of a deliverer from their state of helpless misery-a Saviour from everlasting death. The
and twelve years of age, are worked from twelve to
fourteen, sixteen, and even eighteen hours per day. stupendous plan of redemption had been formed in the counsels of divine mercy, before the foundation of the
Surely our national greatness does not depend upon world was laid: and men in every age have been saved
such cruelties, and we trust some legislative relief will and called with a holy calling,
be afforded ! according to God's
“These boys” (two mentioned by a Huddersfield gen. own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.” 2 Tini. i, 9.
tleman) began work at the mill at six o'clock on the While standing before the LORD God, fearful and
Friday morning, and absolutely worked till five o'clock guilty, and the righteous sentence upon them as trans
on Saturday evening, say thirty-five hours, with only the gressors sounding in their ears, the minds of our first
following time for meals. At half-past eight o'clock
half an hour; at twelve an hour; at five half an hour; parents were preserved from hopeless despondency, by the promise, that the “sced of the woman should bruise
at twelve o'clock at night an hour; at half-past four the serpent's head.” Without a revelation of mercy,
ou Saturday morning half an hour; at half-past eight the conscious sinner would be hardened in despair.
half an hour; at twelve o'clock at noon an hour; and The promise itself was doubtless explained to Adamn,
then they work till five on Saturday evening, and walk especially when he was clothed with the skins of the
home nearly three iniles. When they returned home beasts, which he appears to have offered in sacrifice
last Saturday week, they were put to bed. On Sunday under the Divine direction, as an expiatory atonement.
morning there was no school! no church !-- no! poor for sin. In Paradise, it is believed, the offering of so
things, they were sick and maisy,' and their parents lemn thanksgiving by Adam, was accompanied with the
were obliged to 'paddle' them out on Sunday; by presentation before the Lord of the choicest fruits of
degrees they recovered, and set off to their work on the earth: but now satisfaction for sin is required,
Monday morning. These boys, with about a dozen and without shedding of blood is no remission.”
more, work regularly every day from six in the mornHeb. ix, 22.
ing to eight in the evening, with two hours for meals ; “ By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent
and on Fridays, Friday nights, and Saturdays, are worked sacrifice than Cain.” Heb. xi, 4. Being offered in faith,
as above described, and the former two have nearly six sacrifices must have been commanded by the Lord;
miles a day to walk. and their meaning must have been explained in a great
“ At the same mill last Friday morning, a boy fourdegree, directing the penitent offerer to look by faith
teen years old, started at six o'clock in the morning, to the promised seed, the deliverer, " the Jainh slain,"
worked till half-past eight, then rested half an hour; in this impressive figure, “ from the foundation of the
worked till half-past twelve, anıl rested half an hour; world.”
worked till five, and rested half an hour; worked till An excellent commentator observes, “ Innocent ani
nine, and rested a quarter of an hour; worked till mals slain in sacrifice, furnishing garments to fallen
twelve at night, and rested an hour; worked till four Adam and Eve, would very aptly typify the promised
on Saturday morning, rested half an hour; worked till seed, who suffered for our sins, that we might stand ac
half-past eight, then rested half an hour; at half-past cepted before God in his righteousness; and the cir
twelve rested half an hour; and worked till five, then cumstance of the Lord God making the coats of skins,
left for home-- thus working thirty hours and a quarter and clothing them, not only intimates the kind instruc
out of thirty-five. But nark! this boy, in consequence tions and assistance which he afforded to them, but re
of pain in his wrist, occasioned by a boil produced by presents to us, that the Saviour and salvation are of his
excessive labour, is frequently assisted by his partnerproviding; and that faith which receives and puts on
he must soon, poor fellow, after thus labouring in exChrist is his gift.”—Scott.
cruciating torture, be laid aside, and afterwards be kept (To be continued.)
by the town. About fourteen boys work with this lad: they work twelve hours per day the rest of the week, and on Friday, Friday nights, and Saturdays, are en
gaged as herein described." DR. HAWEIS AND CAPTAIN WILSON. Captain Wilson, of the missionary ship Duff, on his
QUEEN ELIZABETH. return from his expedition for evangelizing the heathen, LORD Bacon relates of Queen Elizabeth, that once, was complimented with a diamond ring of considerable when she could not be persuaded that a book, containvalue by Dr. Haweis, a zealous promoter of the Mis- ing treasonable matter, was really written by the person sionary Society, accompanied with the following note : whose name it bore, she said, with great indignation,
-" Anxious for your arrival, I had prepared the fol- that “ she would have him racked, to produce his lowing token. I wish to couple my name with yours. author.” Bacon replied, “Nay, madam, he is a doctor: The circle is an emblem of the eternity I hope to spend never rack his person, rack his style ; let him have pen, with you. The brilliant is not brighter than my affec- ink, and paper, and help of books, and be enjoined to tion, 'nor the gold purer than my friendship.' Wear continue his story; and I will undertake, by collating me on your heart; while mine beats, it will remember his styles, to judge whether he were the author."'-Criyou, and bless God for you.”
stock remained, the vessels of Portugal carried large IVORY.
quantities to Europe ; and this traffic formed one of the “Horns op Ivory” (Ezek. xxvii, 15), the prodigious most profitable branches of the early trade with Africa. tusks of elephants, we oinitted to mention as they de- About the middle of the seventeenth century the store serve in our “ Notices of the Elephant.” (Sec p. 53.) was exhausted. But the demand for ivory, which had Nor are our limits sufficient to contain an extended been thus renewed in Europe after the lapse of so article on this subject. We do not read of elephants in many centuries, offered too great a temptation to the the Holy Scriptures : but they are mentioned in the apo- poor African to be allowed by him to remain without a cryphal books of Maccabees (1 Macc. vi, 34, 35, 46; supply. The destruction of elephants for their teeth viii, 6; 2 Macc. xi, 4; xii, 2), froin which we learn was again unremittingly pursued throughout those exthat these large quadrupeds were nuinerous in Syria. tensive forests; and that havoc has gone on with little,
The canonical books of Scripture contain various ex- if any, diminution to our own day." --Menageries, ancient times, in Palestine, which, as our readers will / "L: Thrones” and “ statnes” of “ ivory and gold” recollect, lies in the North-West corner of Asia, near were common in Egypt, Persia, and Greece, in the to Egypt, the North-East boundary of Africa. We ages of their glory. Ptolemy Philadelphus, in his read of a “ Throne of Ivory,” | Kings x, 18. Ivory triumph on account of a victory, had six hundred eleHouse,” xxii, 39. “Jvory Palaces,” Psalın xlv, 8. phants' teeth carried by European slaves : and these “ Benches of Ivory,” Ezck. xxvii, 6. “ Houses of were probably wrought up into statues of the Egyptian Ivory,” Amos iii, 15; and “ Beds of Ivory,” vi, 4. divinities, or into royal ornaments for the palace. From these passages it is manifest that elephants must From the prodigious quantity of ivory which is still have been destroyed in great numbers for the sake of consumed iu Europe only, we inust infer the amazing their “precious teeth.” “ There were periods, indeed," number of elephants. Yet it is impossible to ascertain says a modern writer, “in the history of refined nations with accuracy the amount of that consumption. “We of antiquity, when the destruction of the elephant was understand that at Dieppe there are at present eleven as great as in modern times : when Africa yielded her fourishing manufactories of articles in ivory, from tribute of elephants’ teeth to the kings of Persia ; which various specimens of art, from the commonest when the people of Judea built “ivory palaces ;” when piece of turnery to the most elaborate carving, are disthe galleys of Tyre had “ benches of ivory;" when, persed throughout the continent. Much is employed contributing to the barbarous luxury of the early Gre- for crucifixes, and other appendages of Roman Catholic cian princes,
worship. In our own country, in London, BirmingThe spoils of elephants the roofs iolay;'
ham, Sheffield, Liverpool, &c., the demand for ele.
phants’ teeth to be employed in the manufacture of when the Etruscan attributes of royalty were sceptres musical instruments, plates for miniatures, boxes, and thrones of ivory; when the ancient kings and ma- chess-men, billiard-balls, mathematical rules, parasol gistrates of Rome sat on ivory seats ; when colossal and knife haudles, must be much more considerable ivory statues of their gods, far exceeding, in their vast than might occur to a superficial observation. In 1827, proportions and their splendid ornaments, all the inag- the customs upon elephants' teeth, the duty being 20s. nificence of the inoderns, were raised by the Greeks of per cwt., amounted to 3,2571. exhibiting an importation the age of Pericles; and when immense stores of ivory, of 364,784 lbs. In eleven years, from 1788 to 1798, to be einployed with similar prodigality, were collected 18,914 cwt. of ivory was imported, which shows an in the temples. In the time of Pliny, the vast con- average annual importation of 192,579 lbs. The con. sumption of ivory for articles of luxury had compelled sumption, therefore, is either increased in Great Bri. the Romans to seek for it in another hemisphere; tain, or, from our possession of the colony of the Cape Africa had ceased to furnish elephants' tusks, except of Good Hope, we are enabled to supply the demand of the smallest kind. A century or two earlier, ac- of foreign nations. cording to Polybius, ivory was so plentiful in Africa, “ The average weight of an elephant's tusk is about that the tribes on the contines of Ethiopia employed 60lbs. To have produced, therefore, 364,784 lbs. of elephants' tusks as door-posts, and for the pali- ivory, the import of 1827, 6,080 tusks must have been sades that enclosed their fields. When the Roinan procured. This fact assumes the annual slaughter of power fell into decay, and the commerce of Europe at least 3,040 elephants. But the real havoc is much with Africa was nearly suspended for centuries, the greater. Mr. Burchell, in his travels in Africa, met elephant was again unmolested in those regions. He with some elephant hunters, who had shot twelve elewas no longer slaughtered to administer to the pomp phants, which, however, produced no more than two of temples, or to provide ornaments for palaces. The hundred pounds weight of ivory, as all the animals, exivory tablets of the citizens of ancient Rome (libri ele- cepting one, happened to be females. If any thing like phantini) had fallen into disuse ; and the toys of mo- the same ill luck, or want of skill, attended all the ele. dern France were constructed of less splendid materials. phant hunters, upwards of forty thousand of these ani. At Angola, elephants' teeth had become so plentiful, mals would be annually slain to supply our demand because so useless as an article of trade, that in the for ivory baubles. But this circumstance is, of course, beginning of the seventeenth century, according to an extraordinary one; and we only mention it to show Andrew Battell, an Englishman, who served in the the necessary waste of elephant life, in the supply of Portuguese armies, the natives had their idols of wood our commercial wants.”-Menngeries, vol. ii. in the midst of their towns, fashioned like a Negro, and at the foot thereof was a great heap of clephants' teeth,
THE LARGEST ELEPHANTS' TUSKS IN LONDON. containing three or four tons of them : these were piled in the earth, and upon them were set the skulls of dead Messrs. H. Verinder and Co., cutlers, in St. Paul's Churchmen, which they had slain in the wars, in monument yard, have standing usually at their door, a large African of their victory. The people of Angola and Congo, elephant's tusk, measuring EIGHT FEET SIX INCHES in when the Portuguese first established themselves there, length; and ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-THREE pounds were fonnd to have preserved an immense number of in weight. elephants' teeth for centuries, and had applied them Messrs. Nathanael Bowers and Son, comb makers to superstitious uses. As long as any part of the and dealers in elephants' teeth and tortoise shell,