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SUPPLYING THE WORLD WITH BIBLES. COMPARED with the cost of a Bible before the invention of printing, that wonderful art has been the means of diffusing the knowledge of the Scriptures to an amazing extent, and with surprising cheapness. But the disadvantage to the country, and to the world, by the charges of those who enjoy the exclusive monopoly of printing English Bibles, in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, is truly serious, according to the statement of Mr. John Child, the celebrated printer of Bungay. In his evidence before a "Select Committee" of the House of Commons on the "King's Printers' Patents," recently published, that intelligent gentleman stated "The Minion Testament, which sells wholesale at ls. ought to be sold for 61, or 7d.; the Brevier Testament, which sells for 10d. ought to be sold for 7d.or 74; the Small Pica Bible, which sells for 78. 3d. ought to be sold for 48. 3d. or 4s. 6d.; the same, a fine edition, which sells for 168. ought to be sold for 10s. or 11s; the Minion Bible, which sells for 4s. 5d. ought to be sold for 38. or 38. 3d. The Bible Society have paid upwards of half a million sterling more than they ought to have paid, of which sum the Norwich Branch Society alone have paid above 5000!. !”

Surely this statement deserves the most scrutinizing examination; and while the demand for the Word of God is increasing throughout the world, the Bible Society should not rest satisfied with the excessive charges of the proprietors of the King's Printers' monopoly. Certainly the period is arrived, when every possible effort should be made to supply the whole world with Bibles, perfect as to their accuracy, the most beautiful in typography, and at the very lowest price, that "the earth may be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea."



DR HAWKER, in speaking of the aversion which has been sometimes shown in the features of the waiter of an inn, on adverting to family worship, mentions a striking instance of the same feeling which came under his own notice. "In the family of one, who is now a peer of the realm, well do I remember, where the most Sovereign contempt was shown by the valet of the house to family worship. Not satisfied with constantly absenting himself upon those occasions, when prayer was observed in the house, he proceeded to show a yet more decided hatred to the service, and made a point to insult the whole of the family while at their devotions. For this purpose, he contrived to place himself in the adjoining room to the one in which they had assembled; and by noise in whistling, singing, and throwing about the furniture, as his corrupt humour dictated to him, in order to turn, if he could, the whole into ridicule. But without being supposed to know this conduct of his was designed, his master sent for him, and took occasion to inquire, how it was he never attended family prayer? Prayer,' said he, and with the most impudent brow of scorn and derision, 'I never did live in a praying family, and never will.' "True, my friend,' said the Doctor, in answer to what he had heard, for he was present, you have for once spoken the truth; you never have known what prayer is, it is plain from what you have said, nor the blessedness of it, and living and dying in this state you never will: for in hell there are no prayers, and to that family you are hastening.'" Williams's Memoir of

Dr. Hawker.



THE Orang Outang of Borneo, is not so large as that mentioned in Abel's Voyage to China. Of Mr. Grant's the following circumstances have been noticed :-He was grave, and seemed pensive and melancholy, but he was curious, and attentive to remark what passed. His actions were prompt. He would arrange very well his little concerns. He drank milk willingly with a little tea, and ate bananas with pleasure. He learnt to hob and nob with a glass of wine; he was mild and rather kind, but a strange voice sometimes frightened him. His greatest passion was curiosity to examine all things he touched them and turned them about, smelt them, and tried them with his teeth. Sometimes he played with some objects, and sometimes was angry with them, and tore or broke them. He learnt to dance. There was no occasion to threaten him, like other apes, with a stick; but he showed a great superiority of intellect over these. We could not avoid seeing a greater capacity for instruction in him, than in baboons or apes. When a dog came near him, he seemed surprised and alarmed, but showed no hostility or malignity, as monkeys do. When some Hindoos of Bengal came in sight, his gravity changed to fantastic and playful motions. After a woman had given him cold water instead of tea several times, he showed great vexation at it, and to know what it was, put his finger in. Observing this, she gave himn hot water, which scalded him; after this he always put in a spoon or piece of wood first, and then touched the spoon. This action seemed very like human reflection.

Monkeys usually show some surprise at seeing themselves in a looking glass, but this Orang Outang surveyed himself in it with curiosity, and tried to ascertain its hardness by biting it, as he would other things. He was called Maharajah, and listened when he was called.

A MORAL FROM THE MONKEYS.-The Monkeys in Exeter Change were confined in a line of narrow cages, each of which had a pan in the centre of its front for food. But when they were all supplied, scarcely any ate out of its own pan, but thrust its arm through the bars, to rob its right or left-hand neighbour, though its own pan was exposed to similar depredations. J. E. A.


Two ways of determining the age of fishes have been devised. One by numbering the concentric circles on the scales, the other, by those in a transverse section in the back-bone. On examining a fish's scale by a microscope, it is found to consist of circles, one of which is added every year. The same addition occurs to the back-bone. By this method Buffon found a carp to have lived 100 years. Gessner had one as old; and Alberto asserts, that another was double that period in the royal pond at Marli. Some particular fish were alive in the middle of the eighteenth century, which were traditionally recorded to have been placed there in the reign of Francis I, in the sixteenth century. A pike was found to be ninety years old; and Gessner states, that in 1497 one was taken in Swabia, that had a brazen ring with the date of 1230: but it is desirable to have such facts confirmed by modern experience. Buffon thought that whales have lived a thousand years. Sharon Turner's History of the World.


With blood, but not his own, the awful sign
At once of sin's desert and guilt's remission,
The Jew besought the clemency divine,

The hope of mercy blending with contrition.
Sin must have death: its holy requisition

The law may not relax: the opening tomb
Expects its prey; mere respite, life's condition;
Nor can the body shun its penal doom.
Yet there is mercy; wherefore else delay

To punish? Why the victim and the rite?
But can the type and symbol take away

The guilt, and for a broken law requite?
The Cross unfolds the mystery! Jesus died!
The sinner lives; the law is satisfied!

With blood, but not his own, the Jew drew near
The mercy-seat, and Heav'n receiv'd his prayer;
Yet still his hope was dimm'd by doubt and fear;
"If Thou should'st mark transgression, who might


To stand before Thee?" Mercy loves to spare And pardon; but stern Justice has a voice, And cries, Our God is holy, nor can bear

Uncleanness in the people of his choice. But now One Offering, ne'er to be renew'd, Hath made our peace for ever. This now gives Free access to the throne of heav'nly grace,No more base fear and dark disquietude. He who was slain, the accepted Victim, lives, And intercedes before the Father's face!


From the most Remote Period to the Present Time, &c. With a Map and twenty-six Engravings. 3 vols. 12mo. Cloth, pp. 416, 460, 476.

"The British Empire in India," becomes every day more interesting to the people of England. We anticipate a vast extension of our commerce to that populous region of the earth, and to the unnumbered myriads that people the countries beyond it; and with the increase of British commerce, the promulgation of the gospel of Christ, and the prevalence of our pure and divine religion. Independently, therefore, of the consideration of British politics and government in India, our readers will feel a deep interest in these volumes, which contain a vast mass of various information concerning that interesting country. We have pleasure in recommending them to our readers, as peculiarly adapted for the family library. Without making extracts for the present, we shall content ourselves with transcribing the names of the talented authors, whose reputation will inspire universal confidence. Hugh Murray, Esq. F. R S. E.; J. Wilson, Esq. F. R.S.E. and M. W.S.; R. K. Greville, LL.D; Professor JaneWhitelaw Ainslie, M.D. M.R.A.S.; W. Rhind, Esq. M. R. C. S.; Professor Wallace; and Captain Dal rymple,


THE CONSOLATION OF CHRIST. When my mind faints beneath her tasks of care, And my sick heart feels heavy, cold, and broken, When life seems nought but unreserv'd despair, Heav'n sends my soul one re-assuring token; There rises o'er my griefs a vision rare,

A dearer self, more worthy of delight.

I think of Thee, who didst worse sorrows bear
So long, so well; with meekness, and the night
Of ceaseless agony which none could share,
Nor friends alleviate, till Truth and Time
Had seen Thee victor, patient yet sublime.
I could not, even in a dungeon, be
Utterly dark, while I remember'd Thee!

AFRICAN ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. JUSTICE is not unfrequently administered at Badagry, a large town in the interior, by means of a wooden three-cornered cap, which is placed on the head of the culprit at his examination. This fantastic work of mechanism, no doubt by internal springs, may be made to move and shake without any visible agent, as any other figure in our puppet-shows. It is believed the native priests alone are in the secret. When this cap is observed to shake whilst on the head of a suspected person, he is condemned without further evidence being required; but should it remain motionless, his innocence is apparent, and he is forthwith acquitted.

A respectable man was tried by this ordeal a short time since the fatal cap was no sooner put on his head than it was observed to move slightly, and then become more violently agitated. The criminal felt its motion, and was terrified to such a degree that he fell down in a swoon. On recovering, he confessed his guilt, and implored forgiveness, which was granted him on account of his sorrow and contrition.- Landers' Journal.

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WEDNESDAY.- British and Foreign Bible, Exeter Hall, at Eleven. Society for promoting Ecclesiastical Knowledge, City of London Tavern, Six Ev. Prayer Book and Homily, Sermon, St. John's Chapel, Bedford Row, Half-past Six Ev.

THURSDAY.-Religious Tract, Western, Willis's Rooms, at Twelve. Prayer Book and Homily, Exeter Hall, Twelve. Sunday School Union, Exeter Hall, Six Ev. London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews, Sermon, St. Cle ment Danes, Half-past Six Ev.

FRIDAY. London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews, Exeter Hall, at Twelve. Book Society, Exeter Hall. Six Ev.

SATURDAY.London Hibernian, Exeter Hall, at Twelve.

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No 48.


MAY 4, 1833.




99 - the

LONDON! famous through every land, as the "Seat of Empire"-the "Fountain of Intelligence "Mart of Nations" the 64 Golden City!" This modern "Babylon the Great," celebrated for every thing that can minister to the delights of sense, deserves infinitely higher distinctions than those which arise from sublunary sciences, useful arts, or the most refined gratifications!

London boasts her scholars the most profound-her philosophers the most penetrating-her statesinen of the highest wisdom-her commanders of the greatest valour and her patriots of the noblest order: and these her numerous sons are worthily the subjects of her constant glory.

London, daily throughout the year, exhibits the new discoveries, and the useful labours of her scientific, skilful, and active sons: but MAY, the loveliest of all the revolving months, consecrated by the servants of Christ to godlike benevolence, is distinguished in this metropolis by the high festivals of religion and charity, and universal philanthropy.

"Hail! thou, the fleet year's pride and prime!

Hail! month, which fame should bid to bloom!
Hail! image of primeval time!

Hail! emblem of a world to come!"

Disciples of the Son of God, "created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God had before ordained that we should walk in them," in this month especially renew their holy confederation in labours to enlighten, and bless with evangelical riches the whole family of mankind. They recognize man as the "offspring of God," destined for immortality, and born to live for ever; but appointed to learn on earth the mysteries of eternal grace; to receive his education in this world, VOL. II.

to qualify him for the possession of everlasting mansions in the glorious city of God.

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Sworn to do good," acknowledging every child of man a brother, feeling the illuminating and inspiring influences of the Holy Spirit, and guided by the Holy Scriptures, which they regard as divinely adapted to be the means of recovering the wandering children of Adam in all nations to the knowledge, and friendship, and image of their blessed Maker, the disciples of Christ in Britain hold their sacred anniversaries in May, while reviving, blooming nature seems especially to invite them to glorify God their Saviour. Regarding with reverential affection the faithful and gracious promises of God, they embrace in their enlarged benevolence of heart, all the nations and tribes of the earth, assured that they are not labouring in vain, but that in their persevering efforts, crowned with the Divine benediction, "the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea."

Consecrated to patriotism, philanthropy, and religion, London now possesses a noble edifice, in which the people of God, the friends of humanity, assemble to report their annual proceedings in the great institutions. EXETER HALL, the temple of Christian benevolence, though externally less splendid than royal palaces, is an object of deep interest in the British metropolis. It attracts its thousands from all parts of the kingdom, from the Continent, and even across the Atlantic Ocean, to share in the luxury of doing good; and it presents on those delightful occasions the most inspiring scenes, which can be contemplated by men or angels.

We purpose giving brief reports of the principal Societies as they may hold their anniversaries this May; but for the information of our readers, we shall give here a brief account in chronological order of the formation of the principal institutions, which adorn and


bless our age and country; by which they will be enabled to form a more tolerable idea of the progressive advancement of scriptural religion!

America, it should be remembered, was first colonized by Missionary efforts, commencing in 1620; from which several institutions arose; among which are to be reckoned "The Incorporated Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," formed in 1698, and a branch of this, denominated "The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." These arose out of the First Bible Society, formed in 1670, at whose head was Dr. Thomas Gouge; and the "Society or Company for Propagating the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America," in 1663, whose principal founders were, the Rev. Richard Baxter, Henry Ashworth, Esq., and the Honourable Robert Boyle. 1709. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. 1732. The Moravian Missions commenced. 1736. Rev. John Wesley went as Missionary to Georgia, America.

1737. Rev. G. Whitfield went to join Mr. Wesley. 1750. The Book Society for promoting Religious Knowledge among the Poor. This was a kind of Bible Society; and as its subscribers receive back their amount of subscription in the most valuable religious books, chosen by themselves, at a reduced price, with liberty to purchase to any amount at the price, we recommend it to the consideration of all our readers.

1780. The Naval and Military Bible Society.
1784, and 1817. In the former year Mr. Wesley,
in Conference, determined on sending as-
sistance to America, and various labours
were undertaken in the West Indies under
the direction of Dr. Coke; but in the latter
year the Methodist Missionary Society was

1785. The Sunday School Society was formed.
1792. The Baptist Missionary Society.
1795. The London Missionary Society.
1796. The Scottish Missionary Society.

1796. The Village Itinerancy, or Evangelical Associa
tion for Spreading the Gospel in England.
1796. The London Itinerant Society.
1797. The Baptist Home Missionary Society.
1799. The Religious Tract Society.

1800. The Church Missionary Society.

1803. The Sunday School Union.

1804. The British and Foreign Bible Society.

1805. The British and Foreign School Society.

1806. The London Hibernian Society.

1808. The Society for Promoting Christianity among

the Jews.

1812. The Prayer Book and Homily Society.

1814. The Irish Evangelical Society.

1816. The Irish Society.

1818. The Continental Society.

1818. The Port of London Society, for Promoting Religion among British and Foreign Seamen. 1819. The Home Missionary Society. 1822. The Irish Society of London. 1823. The Ladies' Hibernian Female School Society. 1825. The Christian Instruction Society. 1828. The British Society for promoting the Religious Principles of the Reformation.

For a more detailed account of these and other similar institutions, see book ix, chap. ii, of "Church History through all Ages," by T. Timpson.

Christianity, from such an immensity of agency, must, under the Divine blessing, be making incalculable progress in the world. Surely every patriot, every phi

lanthropist, every Christian must contemplate such a series of efforts as these Societies include, with the most heartfelt gratification, praying, “God be merciful unto us, and bless us; and cause his face to shine upon us. That thy way may be known upon earth, thy saving health among all nations." Psalm Ixvii, 1, 2.

(Continued from p. 131.)

ALEXANDER, dying in the year B. C. 323, left "the world which he had conquered" in confusion; and we learn but little more of this mighty city for nearly two hundred years. About that period, Humerus, a Parthian conqueror, destroyed the noblest monuments of art yet remaining in Babylon. Several new cities, especially Seleucia, called New Babylon, were built by successive sovereigns in these regions, on the Euphrates and on the Tigris, for the purpose of immortalizing their own names; and by this means the old city was drained of its inhabitants, and spoiled of its building materials.

Babylon contained but a very thinly scattered, wretched population, at the commencement of the Christian era; and extensive tracts of land within its walls were brought under a partial cultivation. It continued to decline, and its desolation increased, till, in the fourth century, it was made a hunting-park for the Persian monarchs, its walls forming an inclosure for the breeding of wild beasts. Many ages succeeded, in which no record was made concerning Babylon; while, as was testified by the prophet, it was rapidly advancing to its appointed utter desolation.

Intelligent travellers from England, France, and Germany, have, within the last two centuries, satisfactorily ascertained the site of ancient Babylon. They have described its various ruins from personal inspection, and their testimony, which is in perfect harmony, illustrates the Divine prediction. Babylon, from being "the glory of kingdoms," is now the greatest of ruins; and after the lapse of two thousand four hundred years, it exhibits to the view of every visitor, the precise scenery described by the prophets of God.

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As the counsels of Heaven had determined, "the name and remnant" are "cut off from Babylon." There "the Arab pitches not his tent:" there "the shepherds make not their folds:" but "wild beasts of the desert lie there, and their bouses are full of doleful creatures." It is a place for the bittern, and a dwelling place for dragons:" it is a " dry land and a desert," "a burnt mountain,' empty," wholly desolate,' 'pools of water," "heaps," and "utterly destroyed," "a land where no man dwelleth," "every one that passes by it is astonished."

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Superstition filling the minds of the wandering Arabs, and leading them to dread "the abode of evil spirits, and the natural terror at the wild beasts which dwell among the ruins of Babylon, restrain them from pitching their tents or making their sheepfolds there. The princely palaces and mansions of that wonderful city, utterly destroyed, present nothing to view but unshapely heaps of bricks and rubbish. Instead of their stately chambers, there are now caverns, where porcupines creep, and owls and bats nestle; where lions find dens, and jackals, hyenas, and other noxious animals, their unmolested retreats; from which issue loathsome smells, and the entrances to which are strewed with the bones of sheep and goats. On one side of the Euphrates, the canals are dry, and the crumbled bricks, on an elevated surface exposed to the scorching sun, cover an arid plain, and Babylon is "a wilderness," “a dry land,”

a desert." On the other side, the embankments of the river, and with them the vestiges of ruins over a

large space, have been swept away: the plain is in general marshy, and in many places inaccessible, especially after the annual overflowing of the Euphrates. Thus "no son of man doth pass thereby;" "the sea," or river, "is come upon Babylon," and "she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof."

"Birs Nimrood," or the temple of Belus, which was standing after the commencement of the Christian era, is still to be distinguished. Several modern English travellers have visited and described it; from which it appears, that from its mere immensity, it is still worthy of being a relic of "Babylon the Great:" for though a mass of ruins only, it is no less than two hundred and thirty-five feet high. On these ruins, there are vast fragments of brickwork, which have been completely melted, and they ring like glass; by which it appears that they must have been subjected to a heat equal to that of the strongest furnace. From the summit of this mass, a distinct view may be had of the frightful heaps, which constitute all that now remains of ancient and glorious Babylon; and imagination itself could not conceive a more perfect picture of absolute desolation !

How vain the proudest works of the greatest mortals!

loftiest monuments of their power, genius, and riches levelled with the dust, and preserved in ruins for the purpose of illustrating and confirming the faithful testimony of the eternal God, recorded in his holy word against sinners. How wonderful are the predictions of his inspired servants, when compared with the events to which they direct our contemplation! and what a convincing demonstration do these afford of the truth and divinity of the Holy Scriptures ! With what

affecting propriety does Jehovah allege this awful instance of his foreknowledge, in relation to Babylon, and challenge all the false divinities and their votaries to produce any thing similar! "Who hath declared this from ancient time? Who hath told it from that time? Have not I, the LORD? And there is no God else beside me, a just God and a Saviour, there is none else beside me. Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure." Isa. xlv, 21; xlvi, 10.

Letters to a Mother, upon Education. LETTER XXVI.

On Grammar.

Dear Madam, YOUR son must also learn grammar, which, although the etymology of the word does not express it, is the art of speaking or writing any language correctly. If the importance of this science be measured by its utility, it will be found to be inestimable; because the habit of expressing oneself correctly, either in writing or in speaking, secures the use of the fewest words really needful, the selection of the best words, and the use of such words as will convey the sense most explicitly and in the most unequivocal manner. This science, which, according to the ancient definition, teaches the use of right words in right places, serves to give the admirable precision we observe in legal documents, mathematical demonstrations, the description of philosophical experiments, the forms of contracts and agreements. The study of it tends to establish the habit of taking and of communicating clear perceptions. Whatever then may be the future occupation of your son, he will by the use of this habit

save himself and others much trouble, and procure to himself and others much benefit. Half the controversies of mankind one with another result from the loose, indefinite manner in which they express themselves. Half the trouble in conducting a controversy is generally to ascertain the sense in which each party uses his terms. And the end of most controversies is, that when immense pains have been taken to determine this one point, the antagonists find that they each of them mean the same thing. Men take the same perceptions of a thing generally, but owing to an imperfection in their grammar, they express themselves as if their perceptions were different.

While you are teaching your child the rudiments of English grammar, and no one can teach them so well as his mother, you are teaching him the rudiments of the grammar of every other language which he may hereafter learn, since the terms used, and the sense of those terms (I speak of the principles of the art), are the same in reference to every language whatever.

I think it is to be sincerely wished that the nomenclature of grammar were improved. How awkward are the antiquated technicals of this science, such as noun substantive, noun adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, &c. Why not call the first name instead of noun ? How little does the word adjective express the meaning of the thing! What a metaphysical word is substantive!

Till, however, these terms are changed away for others, you must adopt them. If your son called these things by other names, and afterwards went to school, where the barbarous technicals are retained, he would feel, and to all intents and purposes be, a foreigner to the rest of the boys, and the rest of the boys would be foreigners to him. Upon the subject of grammar they would have no common means of communication. You must then be content to use these terms; and you have to hope, that though hard, repulsive, and unmeaning, except to the accomplished scholar, your child will in the course of time learn to associate ideas with them.

But little more can be said for the definitions of these terms which you find in most Grammars. You will perhaps be surprised to hear the definition of noun substantive, which is taught now in every school using the Eton Latin Grammar.

"A noun is the name of whatsoever thing or being we see or discourse of, and has commonly a, an, or the, before it. A noun adjective requires to be joined to a noun substantive, of which it shows the nature or quality!"

You will not adopt these definitions. You need not adopt any out of any published Grammar, at least in the first instance. You will converse with your child, and in conversation alone will convey a luminous idea of the definitions of these words. You will tell him, that whatever he can perceive through his senses, whatever he can see, or hear, or smell, or taste, or feel, is called a noun.

That the word which tells what sort or quality the noun is of, is called an adjective; as, a white cloud.

Apply these two lessons first. Exercise him in the first by asking him, what the several objects around him are called, such as the table, window, chair, &c. &c. Then ask him to tell you what part of speech the quality, colours, &c. &c. of these things are called. A green tree: what part of speech is the word green? Thus diversify your application of these lessons to the utmost extent, and you will have taught him in one morning what he never would have learnt if he had devoted whole years in a purblind recital of written definitions.

Teach him that whatever Tell him to think whether he

Then proceed to the verb. I can do is called a verb.

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