Imágenes de páginas


THE CREATION. (Continued from p. 154.)

THE first order of amphibia, the tortoise kind, are the most immediately serviceable to man. The flesh of the sea-turtle is both a valued delicacy and a useful medicine: it is a gentle and harmless animal, without any means of hurting others: its occasional subsistence is grass, sea-weeds, and shell-fish; but it can subsist for many months without any. The green sea-turtles generally assemble in numbers: they can remain long under water, and sleep upon it. The land-tortoise has the same gentle and peaceable manners: it enjoys a great length of life, and can live without food. This class of animals were thus made to be in the waters what the sheep are on the hills; harmless, gentle, patient, and useful; one of the most pleasing forms of character of all animated being.

The lizard division presents to us as its leading class the formidable crocodiles, a name to which dread and aversion are by the prejudices of our defective knowledge almost inseparably attached yet it is neither a fierce nor cruel animal; it seeks its prey when hunger urges it, but it destroys only for food. They are sometimes thirty feet long: their whole body is covered with strong, hard scales, except the top of the head: having no lips, their teeth are always bare. On land, they can overtake a man in direct running; but if he turn quickly round, he escapes with ease, as the animal cannot so rapidly wheel round its great length of body. They abound chiefly between the tropics, but are met with several degrees nearer the poles; they are smaller, however, as more distant from the equator.

The other lizard tribes are small and pleasing animals; some are beautiful in their colours. The guana species is highly interesting. The varieties of the green lizard are most striking. The gilded lizard is not less attractive. All are very gentle and harmless, and have the property of living without food. The most remarkable are the flying lizard and the salamander. The flying lizard is the nearest resemblance to the fabled dragons of antiquity that nature contains; but it seldom exceeds a foot in length, and is a weak animal, perfectly innocent and peaceful: it flies from branch to branch of a tree, feeding on ants, flies, and insects, and can flutter from one tree to another within thirty paces. The salamander, instead of living in fire, delights in cold, damp places: it retires into the hollows of old trees, and can remain a considerable time under water: the instant it touches fire, it covers itself with a milky fluid, but never in such abundance as to extinguish the smallest flames.

The frog genus discovers sagacities and feelings like those of other animals. The pearly frog of Brazil is distinguished for its beauty; so is the common tree frog, which lives like birds on the branches of the forest, and in seeking insects is almost as light and nimble as they are. The red tree frog is used by the Indians of South America to give a fine red or yellow colour to the feathers of their parroquets.

The beavers have been proverbial for their intelligence ever since North America, their chief seat, has become known; and the otter displays the same maternal sensibilities which other orders of animals so strikingly exhibit. Thus all quadrupeds seem to have been created with one analogous mind, uniform in its essential qualities, but acting variously, according to the diversities of its bodily investments.

The serpent tribe is another of the departments of the same grand empire of organized living forms; full of mingled beauty and terror, presenting to us a new

exercise of the Divine imagination in its system of creation, but more exclusively existing for its own enjoyment, and less serviceable to man or the rest of nature than any other animal kind. Though destitute of feet and wings, few animals are so nimble as serpents, or can transport themselves from place to place with equal agility. Whether to seize its prey or to escape from danger, the serpent moves with the rapidity of an arrow, twisting and untwisting its flexible body around the trunks and branches of the highest trees with such celerity, that the sharpest eye scarcely follows its motion. Their size greatly varies; some are but a few inches long, while others extend to forty or fifty feet: all are covered with scales, and by this analogy are connected with the lizards and fishes.

Serpents are extremely vulnerable, and easily killed by blows on the back part of the head: the rest of their skeleton has a strong resemblance to that of fishes; but from the nature of their respiration they cannot remain long under water. All parts of their body have great force, agility, and elasticity. They are most abundant in warm and temperate regions; but increase in size and numbers in proportion to the heat and moisture, and to the freedom of their range. They have less blood than quadrupeds; but are more animated in times of tempest and hurricane. Their sense of hearing is dull, but their vision acute: their eyes for the most part are excessively brilliant and animated: they have a membrane to draw over the sight when the sun's rays are too powerful, or any injury approaches. Their sense of taste is probably of considerable delicacy, as the tongue is very slender, and divided into two points. Several species of them live quietly about the habitations of mankind, and sometimes enter their houses, and fix their residence there: they destroy troublesome animals and noxious insects, but are so far from hurting human beings, that they often pass over them when asleep without doing them any injury.

Serpents are sometimes so tamed as to show stronger signs of attachment to their masters than many domesticated birds or animals, being only surpassed in fidelity by the dog. Their length of life is unknown, and most likely differs in their various species. They have no voice, but a hiss; and this utterance is softer or stronger according to circumstances. They have great strength also, from the peculiar construction of their body; and are so tenacious of life, that it is difficult to kill them by wounds in the body, or by the exhaustion of air. Severe cold only suspends the activity of their vital principle, without destroying it. Some of them too are eminently beautiful in their brilliant colours.

It is a curious distinction, lately ascertained, that all the species of serpents of which the young_are born alive, are venomous: the oviparous vipers have no fangs nor venom: the more we are familiarized to them, the more we shall be pleased to meet with them in our woods, fields, and gardens; they are an addition to the ornaments of the fields, and contribute, with the other animated beings, to embellish the vast and magnificent theatre of vernal nature.

Of the other serpents it need only be mentioned, that the enormous boa twists itself round calves, and sheep, and goats, to crush their bones, and then swallows them whole: it has been seen to overcome and devour tigers in this way, though not till after a desperate struggle. In Egypt and other parts of Africa, serpent flesh has been made an article of human food, and modern as well as ancient nations have made them objects of religious veneration.

(To be continued.)

Anniversaries of Religious and Benevolent Societies.


ON Thursday, May 9, the Thirty-ninth Annual Meeting of this great Institution was held at Exeter Hall. It appears that this was the most numerous assembly convened during the present anniversaries. The Rev. Mr. Douglas having offered prayer for the Divine blessing, the chair was taken by Thomas Wilson, Esq. Treasurer to the Society.

The Rev. W. Ellis read an abstract of the Report, which exhibited a most important scene of labour. The following plan exhibits the present state of this Society's operations.

South Seas..... Ultra Ganges

East Indies



South Africa........

British Guiana

Native Stations. Missionaries. Teachers. 41





14...... 7


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Madagascar & Mauritius 3

Making, with upwards of 400 schoolmasters, assistants, catechists, &c. between 500 and 600 persons more or less dependent on the Society, exclusive of families.

The number of native churches is 54, and that of native communicants 4,557; of schools, the number is 448, and that of scholars 27,257. The number of printing establishments is 13, from nine of which have been printed 250,050 books, including 37,500 portions of scripture, and from eleven stations, 113,237 copies of books have been put in circulation during the past year.

The amount of receipts of the Society is nearly 37,500%. and the expenditure nearly 41,6007.; leaving a balance against the Society of upwards of 4,000l. for the past year. For the support of the present operations of the Society, from 45,000l. to 50,000l. per annum are indispensably required, and we trust the amount will be readily furnished.

The Meeting was addressed by the Rev. Dr. Wardlaw, of Glasgow; J. Davies, Esq. of Wales; the Rev. Dr. S. H. Cox, of New York; the Rev. R. H. Hamilton, of Leeds; the Rev. J. Langley, of Wallingford, of the church of England; the Hon. Capt. Waldegrave, R. N. lately returned from the South Seas; the Rev. Dr. Doran, late a Church Missionary at Travancore; the Rev. J. Roberts, late Missionary in Ceylon; the Rev. D. Stuart, of Dublin; and the Rev. J. Philippo, Missionary from Jamaica.

The true spirit of the gospel seemned eminently to pervade the Meeting; and during the progress of the business, the chairman announced the receipt of 1007. to which he proposed adding his 100%. if 6007. could be thus raised. J. Dyer, Esq. announced a donation of 100 guineas from an anonymous friend, and 3631.38.3d. were collected at the Meeting.


ON Tuesday evening, May 14, the Fifteenth General Meeting of this valuable Institution was held at Exeter Hall. After singing the 117th Psalm, and prayer by the Rev. T. Jackson of Stockwell, Thomas Thompson, Esq. the Treasurer of the Society, took the chair. A most interesting abstract of the Report was read, by which

it appeared that the Society is greatly increasing in the estimation of the Christian public, as indispensably necessary to promote the evangelization of the villages in Britain. The receipts of the Society for the past year had amounted to 4,9471.; removing the debt which for several years had impeded the operations of the Institution.

The Meeting was addressed by the Rev. J. Clayton; the Rev. J. Sibree, of Coventry; the Rev. Dr. Morison; the Rev. Mr. Luke, of Taunton; the Rev. Dr. Bennett; the Rev. Mr. Brook, of Birmingham; the Rev. Mr. Edwards, Secretary to the Baptist Home Missionary Society; and the Rev. J. E. Good, of Bristol.

Several donations were announced; 10. from W. A. Hankey, Esq.; and the Rev. Mr. Brook stated, that the Rev. T. East of Birmingham had placed 507. in his hands, to give to the Society, on condition that the collection amounted to 100. ́ ́ Mr. Brook observed, that the Home Missionary cause was gaining ground in Birmingham, in which we sincerely rejoice, as the Christians in that great town have for a long period shown how much they can do for the interests of Christ, and for every philanthropic cause which has been ever laid plainly before them.


ON Thursday evening, May 2, the Anniversary Meeting of this institution was held at Exeter Hall. Lord Henley took the chair, after singing and prayer.

Mr. W. F. Lloyd read an abstract of the Report of the past year, full of the most interesting details. We can notice only a few particulars. It mentioned, that the last report of the American Sunday School Union stated the total number of 9,187 Sunday Schools, 80,913 teachers, and 542,420 scholars. The total number of Sunday schools at the present period in Great Britain, is stated to be 11,275, of teachers 128,784, and of scholars 1,158,435; being an increase, during the last year, of 329 schools, 12,468 teachers, and 22,915 scholars. From the depository accounts, it appeared that the sales, during the past year, had amounted to 7,0301. 3s. 2 d.

The Meeting was addressed by the Rev. Dr. Morison; the Rev. J. Burnett; Sir Andrew Agnew, M. P.; the Rev. J. M. Philippo, late Missionary at Jamaica; George Bennett, Esq. of Sheffield; the Rev. J. Beaumont; Andrew Johnston, Esq.; Mr. Wilson, Sunday school Missionary; the Rev. C. Stovel; and Dr. All

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ON Tuesday evening, May 7, the Nineteenth General Meeting of the Irish Evangelical Society was held at Finsbury Chapel, Moorfields. Thomas Walker, Esq. Treasurer, in the chair Prayer having been offered by the Rev. R. Vaughan of Kensington, an abstract of the Report was read by the Rev. A. Tidman, Secretary. An interesting detail was given of the stations occupied, the number of agents employed, the nature of their labours, and the successes which had crowned their operations. The income of the Society amounted to 3,0967. 188.9d., and the disbursements to 3,0987. 18s. 10d.; there were engagements and debts to the amount of 6001, and 5001. had been sold out of the funded property.

The Meeting was addressed by the Rev. G. Clayton ; the Rev. D. Stuart, of Dublin; Josiah Conder, Esq.; the Rev. J. Burnett; the Rev. Dr. Styles: and the Rev. Dr. Morison. By their intelligent and powerful appeals, the wants of Ireland were made to produce a deep impression on the assembly; and during the progress of the business, the Rev. J. Burnett announced donations of 10. 10s. from Mr. Hollam; 217. from T. Walker, Esq.; 107. 10s. from T. Challis, Esq.; 10. 108. from W. A. Hankey, Esq.; 10. 10s. from Dr. Conquest; 107. 10s. from T. Wilson, Esq.; 107. 10s. from J. Wilson, Esq.; 51. 5s. from W. Hunter, Esq. The collection and donations exceded 1507.


WHIT-SUNDAY, originally called White-Sunday, is the day on which is commemorated the extraordinary effusion of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, as promised by Christ. John xiv, xv, xvi; Acts ii. On this auspicious day, the memorable Jewish Pentecost, those heralds of Messiah were miraculously qualified to fulfil their high commission, being so endowed as perfectly to understand the prophecies of Christ contained in the Old Testament Scriptures, and to speak in the languages of all nations as the Spirit gave them utter


Without this divine assistance their commission to evangelize the world would have been in vain; but with this, they were enabled to "preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ," and to write the inestimably precious records of the New Testament for our edification and salvation.

White-Sunday is the name given to this memorable day, on account of the white garments used in the early ages of Christianity. Baptism was administered on this day with much parade and ceremony, unknown to the primitive Christians, and not prescribed by the Apostles, the candidates for baptism appearing in white robes, to indicate the purity of their Christian profession.

The Greeks called this Bright-Sunday, on account of the general use of white garinents, worn on that day, as an emblem of the holiness of their professed religion. The name given to this Sunday in the old Roman church was Dominica in Albis, the Lord's day in White garments.

The Holy Scriptures enjoin no religious observance of this day; nor is it recommended to us by the example of the Apostles. It seems to have originated in sincere piety; but in the dark ages of popery, it was abused to superstition and licentiousness. James I, to conciliate the Papists and to provoke the Puritans, pulished a "Declaration," called "The Book of Sports," which commanded the people who came to church twice on the Lord's day, to 66 recreate themselves, by dancing, archery, leaping, vaulting, Maygames, Whitsun-ules, Morice-dances, Maypole-dancing, and other sports of a like kind."

Whitsun-ales, a pernicious popish custom, was thus revived, and in many of the villages of our country it still prevails in the popular Wakes, which are attended with customs and practices most degrading. We trust, however, that the system of Sunday school instruction, and the operations of the Home Missionary Society, and of various other institutions, diffusing the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, will produce a moral renovation throughout the population of Great Britain, preparing and qualifying them to commemorate the glorious facts of Pentecost, as one of the most momentous events of the Divine dispensation.



31. CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS. Titus Flavius Clemens is called Alexandrinus, from the place of his residence, Alexandria in Egypt. By Christian writers of that age, he is celebrated as a man of learning, surpassing most if not all of his time. Clemens is believed to have been brought up an idolater: but thirsting for knowledge, he studied at Athens, of which he is supposed to have been a native; pursued his investigations in various parts of the East; and perfected his inquiries in Egypt. He had thus fully examined the doctrines of the different sects of pagan philosophers; but finding nothing in their various systems which could satisfy the soul of man, or relieve the guilty conscience, he was prepared to abandon them as false and pernicious, and embrace the gospel of Christ.

Clemens settling at Alexandria, about A. D. 190, assisted Pantænus in the famous catechetical school in that city, after having been instructed in the doctrines of Christianity by that renowned father. Clemens was ordained Presbyter in the church of Alexandria, and became a zealous preacher of the faith of Christ. On the death of Pantænus, A. D. 216, Clemens succeeded his revered instructor, as president of the Academy. His labours appear to have been eminently useful; but we have not all the information that is desirable concerning this distinguished father in the church of Christ. The Commentary of Clemens upon the Canonical Epistles is lost: but his Stromata, Pedagogue, and Exhortatations addressed to the Greeks are extant, and which abundantly show the extent of his learning, and the force of his genius. While, however, he enjoyed the highest respect of the most eminent Christian teachers of that age in the East, it is certain that, adhering to many of his early philosophic notions, he obscured the brightness of divine truth, by incorporating them with the gospel. In his Stromata, Clemens says, "I espoused not this or that philosophy, not the Stoic, nor the Platonic, nor the Epicureau, nor that of Aristotle; but whatever any of these sects had said that was fit and just, that taught righteousness with a divine and religious knowledge, all that being selected, I call philosophy."

Persecution under the emperor Severus raging especially at Alexandria, many of the Christians fled to other cities and provinces for security, and we find Clemens at Jerusalem. Alexander, bishop of the church in that place, was in prison for the cause of Christ, and by Clemens he wrote a letter to the Christians at Antioch, the following fragment of which exhibits all the parties in an interesting point of view: "Alexander, a servant of God, and a prisoner of Jesus Christ, to the blessed church at Antioch, in the Lord, greeting. Our Lord has made my bonds, in this time of my imprisonment, light and easy to me; while I understood that Asclepiades, a person admirably qualified by his eminence in the faith, was, by divine providence, become bishop of your holy church of Antioch. These letters, brethren, I have sent you by Clemens, the blessed presbyter, a man of approved integrity, whom ye both do know already and shall still further know: he hath been here with us according to the good will of God, and hath much established and augmented the church of Christ."


Clemens returned from Antioch to Alexandria, where he finished his mortal course; but by what death. he glorified his Saviour we are not informed. extract or two from his "Exhortations to the Greeks," cannot fail to be interesting. He points out the difference between the design of Jesus Christ, and that

of Orpheus, and of those musicians, who were the authors of idolatry. Clemens says, "These, captivated men by the sweetness of their music, with a view of rendering them miserable slaves to idols; and of making them like the very beasts, the stocks, the stones, which they adored; whereas Jesus Christ, who from all eternity was the Word of God, always had a compassionate tenderness for men, and at last took their nature upon him, to free them from the slavery of demons, to open the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf, to guide their paths in the way of righteousness, to deliver them from death and hell; and to bestow on them everlasting life, and to put them in a capacity of living a heavenly life here upon earth; and lastly, God made himself man, to teach man to be like unto God.-If you were permitted," says he, "to purchase eternal salvation, what would you not give for it? And now you may obtain it by faith and love; there is nothing can hinder you from acquiring it; neither poverty, nor misery, nor old age, nor any state of life. Believe, therefore, in our God, who is God and man, and receive eternal salvation for a recompense. Seek God, and ye shall live for ever!"


THE fool hath said "There is no God."
No God! Who lights the morning sun,
And sends him on his heavenly road,

A far and brilliant course to run?
Who, when the radiant day is done,
Hangs forth the moon's nocturnal lamp;
And bids the planets, one by one,
Steal o'er the night-vales, dark and damp?
No God! Who gives the evening dew,

The fanning breeze, the fostering shower?
Who warms the spring-morn's budding bough,
And paints the summer's noontide flower?
Who spreads, in the autumnal bower,
The fruit-tree's mellow stores around;
And sends the winter's icy power
T invigorate th' exhausted ground?
No God! Who makes the bird to wing
Its flight like arrow through the sky;
And gives the deer its power to spring
From rock to rock triumphantly?
Who form'd Behemoth, huge and high,
That at a draught the river drains;
And great Leviathan, to lie,
Like floating isle, on ocean plains?

No God! Who warms the heart to heave
With thousand feelings soft and sweet;
prompts th' aspiring soul to leave
The earth we tread beneath our feet,
And soar away ou pinions fleet
Beyond the scene of mortal strife,
With fair ethereal forms to meet,
That tell us of an after-life?

No God! Who fix'd the solid ground
On pillars strong, that alter not?
Who spread the curtain❜d skies around?
Who doth the ocean bounds allot?
Who all things to perfection brought
On earth below, in heaven abroad?
Go ask the fool of impious thought,
That dares to say "There is no God!"


(Alauda arborea. LINNEUS.)

In a former paper upon the skylark (vol. i, p. 95), we stated that there were only two species of the genus lark known in England. That which we are now about to describe, the woodlark, is one of our sweetest songsters, and continues in song almost all the year round, with the exception of the months of June and July. It sings, like the skylark, on wing; but differs from that bird in the mode of its flight, wheeling round in widelyextended circles, and pouring forth its most beautiful and melodious notes for a whole hour at a time. "The skylark's song is very sweet, full of harmony, and cheerful as the blue sky and bright sunny beam in which he sports, and he is heard and admired by all, from the ploughman to the prince; but the note of the woodlark is local, not generally known, and from its remarkable softness must almost be listened for, to be heard, and claims nothing of the hilarity of the other. Its gentle, quiet melody, seems rather that of placid contentment."

The general characteristics of this bird are similar to those of the skylark: its length is about six inches, and its weight about eight drams. It is by no means so plentiful as the skylark; neither does it congregate in such flocks as that bird, but it associates only in little families; these may be met with in most parts of the kingdom.

The woodlark breeds very early, beginning to build its nest in March. Col. Montague says he has found the nest with eggs as early as the 4th of April. "The nest is placed on the ground, most commonly on rough and barren land, under a tuft of high grass, furze, or some low bush; and is made of dry grass, lined with finer grass, and sometimes with a few long hairs. The eggs are generally four in number, brown, mottled with dusky and ash colour, mostly at the larger end: they are somewhat less than those of the skylark, and weigh from forty to fifty grains. This bird feeds upon grain and seeds of various kinds, as well as insects."

The following lines from the Forest Minstrel are beautifully descriptive of this little bird.

No tree's leafy foliage embowereth his nest,
But lowly it lies on the earth's trodden breast,
And he flits through the wintry scene

With a silent, but strong and unmurmuring wing,
Till he marks the first glimpse of the green-vested spring.
Then away-away-through the splendours of day,
To heaven he carries his praise:

Ah! who does not love that delectable lay,
As o'er mountain and forest it plays?
Though lowlier he build than each musical bird,
Yet longer and louder his carols are heard,
And heaven his glad anthem repays,

As, day after day, to its portals he towers,
More sweet grows his nest midst deep verdure and flowers.

THE WILL OF THE LATE REV. ROWLAND HILL. We understand the will of the late venerable Rowland Hill has been proved under 17,000/.; and we are informed that about 11,000l. has been left to be devoted to the promotion of evangelical religion in the destitute and neglected villages of Britain. We regard this as a lovely expression of the purest Christian patriotism.

London: Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court, Fleet Street; to whom alt Communicatious for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed; —and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the United Kingdom.


No 52.


JUNE 1, 1833.

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Is so called from two Greek words, Areios, of Mars, and Pagos, a court. Our readers will remember that this is the place to which the Athenians brought the apostle Paul, Acts xvii, 19-22, when he preached in their renowned city, the doctrine of salvation by Jesus Christ. This famous place was the highest court of judicature at Athens, erected on a hill dedicated to Mars, the fabulous god of war. On this account the same Greek words, which in ver. 19 are rendered Areopagus, in ver. 22 are translated Mars' Hill. However, Mars' Hill was not limited to that court of justice, but included the whole of an immense rock; and so translating the words, leaves the station and dignity of "Dionysius the Areopagite," ver. 34, less evident to an unlearned reader, as one of the judges of that famous


Areopagus is thought by some to have been instituted as a court of justice by Cecrops, the first king of Athens, about the time of Moses; and to have been called after Mars, because he was the first that was judged there, on this occasion: Mars had murdered Habirrhothius the son of Neptune, for abusing Alceppe VOL. II.

his daughter; and Neptune arraigned Mars before a jury of twelve deities, by whom he was acquitted.

Areopagus was celebrated all over Greece and other distant countries, for the strict impartiality of its decisions; and Demosthenes tells us, that to his time, there never had been so much as one of their determinations, which either plaintiff or defendant had called in question. Foreign states, therefore, frequently referred to their decision. Ancient authors relate some remarkable decisions of this tribunal. Aulus Gellius, and Valerius Maximus, mention the case of a woman, who was accused of having poisoned her husband and her son, in the time of Julius Cæsar. She was taken, and brought before Dolabella, who was proconsul of Asia. She was no sooner in his presence than she acknowledged the fact; and added, that she had very good reason for putting her husband and son to death. "I had," said she, "to my first husband a son whom I tenderly loved, and whose virtues rendered him worthy of my affection. My second husband, and the son whom I bare to him, murdered my favourite child thought it would be unjust to have suffered those two monsters of barbarity to live. If you think, Sir, that I have committed a crime, it is your province to punish

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