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(Continued from p. 110.)
ARIMATHEA (a lion dead to the Lord), the city of Joseph the counsellor, who begged for the body of Jesus from Pilate, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid: St. Jerome places this city between Lydda and Joppa. It was anciently called Ramah, where the prophet Samuel dwelt. 1 Sam. i, 19; vii, 17.
ARCA, once a famous city of the Arkites, the offspring of Canaan. It lies five miles from Sumrah to the east it is built over against the northern promontory of Mount Libanus, in a most delightful situation, having a prospect to the northward of an extensive plain, diversified with an infinite variety of towns and villages, ponds and rivers; to the westward it sees the sun set in the sea, and to the eastward sees the sun rise over a long and distant chain of mountains. Here likewise are not wanting Thebaic columns, and rich entablatures, to attest the splendour and politeness which it once possessed. The citadel was erected upon the summit of an adjacent mountain, which, by the figure and situation of it, must have been impregnable in former times: for it is sloped like a cone or sugar loaf, in an ascent of fifty or sixty degrees. and appears to have been originally intended for a mons exploratorius, not being a work of nature, but of art and labour. In the deep valley below, there is a brisk stream, more than sufficient for the necessities of the place; but it has been judged more convenient to supply it with water from Mount Libanus; for which purpose, they united the mountain to the city by an aqueduct, whose principal arch, though now broken down, could not have been less than one hundred feet in diameter.-See Dr. Shaw's Travels, p. 270.
ARNON, a river or brook, whereof there is frequent mention made in Scripture: its spring-head is in the mountains of Gilead, or of the Moabites, and it discharges itself into the Dead Sea.
ASHDOD (pillage, theft), I Sam. v, 1, 2. Azoth according to the Vulgate, and Azotus according to the Greek, a city which was assigned by Joshua to the tribe of Judah: it was possessed a long time by the Philistines, and rendered famous for the temple of the god Dagon. It lies upon the Mediterranean Sea, about nine or ten miles north of Gaza; and in the times when Christianity flourished in those parts, was made an episcopal see, and continued a fair village till the days of St. Jerome.
ASIA (muddy, boggy), in its largest acceptation, denotes the whole Asiatic continent, being the eastern and greatest of the three parts of the old world, four thousand eight hundred miles long from east to west, and four thousand three hundred from north to south. In this sense it is distinguished into two parts. Asia the Lesser, now known as the Turkish province of Natolia, and Asia the Greater, denoting all the rest of the Asiatic Continent.
ASIA MINOR, contained the provinces of Bithynia, Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, Mysia, Troas (all mentioned in the New Testament), as also Lydia, with Ionia, and Æolis (both included sometimes under Lydia), Caria with Doris (sometimes included under Caria), and Lysia. Of these, Lydia and Caria, taken under larger acceptations, Mysia and Phrygia (including Troas, otherwise called Phrygia Minor), make up the Roman Proconsular Asia, which has been thought to be the same as the Scripture Asia. But it is evident (says Dr. Wells) to any one diligently reading the travels of St. Paul, in the New Testament, that Mysia, Phrygia,
and Troas, are by the sacred writer reckoned as distinct provinces from Asia, so called in Scripture. Wherefore it is with great reason taken for granted by the most judicious, that by Asia in the New Testament is to be understood Lydia, it its largest acceptation, or taken so as to include Ionia and Æolis; within which compass lay the seven cities, the churches whereof are styled by the sacred penman the churches of Asia.
The ancient Hebrews were strangers to the division of the earth into three or four parts, and we never find the name Asia in any book written in the Hebrew. This nation seemed to think that the continent consisted only of Asia Major and Africa. The rest of the world, and even Asia Minor, were comprised under the name of Isles of the Gentiles. We are unacquainted with the true etymology of the word Asia, we find it in no part of the Old Testament; but in the books of the Maccabees, and in the New Testament, in frequently occurs. Asia is looked upon as that part of the world, which, of all others, has been peculiarly distinguished by Heaven: there it was the first man was created; there the Patriarchs lived, the Law was given to Moses, and the greatest and most celebrated monarchies were formed; from thence, the first founders of cities and nations in other quarters of the world brought their colonies. Lastly, in Asia, Jesus Christ appeared; there it was that he wrought the salvation of mankind, that he died and rose again, and from it the light of the gospel was diffused all over the world. Laws, arts and sciences, and religion, almost all had their origin in Asia.
BRITISH REFORMATION SOCIETY.
ON Thursday, May 10, the General Meeting of this Institution was held at Exeter Hall. In the absence of the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Roden, the chair was taken by Lieut. Col. Phipps. The object of this Society is truly noble, which is, "Promoting the Religious Principles of the Protestant Reformution." This Institution has a special regard to the prevalence of the Roman Catholic profession of religion in England and Ireland; and it proposes by education, Scripture readers, miscellaneous publications, and public local discussions, to excite public interest in the controversy, to diffuse information on the subject, and thus to destroy the influence of the priests, and convert the Catholic population to the doctrines of the Holy Scriptures.
Mr. Tottenham, the Secretary, read an abstract of the Report, which detailed the various operations of the Society in some instances with happy effect; but it complained of the great want of suitable agents to carry into effect the objects of the Society. The Meeting was addressed by the Marquis of Cholmondeley; the Rev. J. Cummings, of the Scots church; the Very Rev. the Dean of St. Patrick's; J. Cummings, Esq. of Cork: J. E. Gordon, Esq.; G Finch, Esq.; Mr. E. Tottenham, the Secretary and Travelling Agent of the Institution; the Rev. W. L. Beaufort; A. Johnstone, Esq. M. P.; the Rev. J. Lyons; the Rev. C. Seymour; the Right Hon. Lord Barham; and Captain F. V. Harcourt.
Mr. Finch read some very striking extracts from an "Enclytical Letter" lately issued by Pope Gregory XVI, in which his Holiness laments especially "that worst and never sufficiently to be execrated and detested liberty of the press, for the diffusion of all manner of writings!" False religion must necessarily dread this liberty: but truth, and the religion of the Holy Scriptures need fear nothing; because the more they are examined the brighter will they appear in their native glory. His Holiness concludes his Letter by imploring the patronage of the Blessed Virgin, to "draw down an efficacious blessing on his plans, his proceedings, his desires, in the present straitened condition of the Lord's flock."
'Tis stern Adversity.
Heed not tread on, the billows, cleft,
Shall fence with crystal wall thy right hand and thy left.
Saw'st thou the broad and arid plain?
No sheltering leaf is there;
No fount, where scorch'd and fainting pain,
May slake his lips: nor fear, nor fly;
Heaven's stores shall ope for thee when earth and wave deny.
Greater and mightier far than thou,
The hosts that bar thy way;
Yet let not that high spirit bow,
A loftier power than they
Conducts thy march: before Him driven
Melts Anak's giant horde and rampart wall'd to heaven.
True, dark Ingratitude is there,
And Disappointment cold;
Yet fear not,-He, whose knight thou art,
With energy divine can nerve thy human heart.
To lure thy pilgrim feet.
Yet yield not,She who woos thy vows
With crown of bleeding thorn enwreath'd thy Master's
Say not thy yoke is hard to bear;
But look on Him who bore
For thee a weightier load of care,
And then repine no more.
His yoke is light; His ways are rest:
They that endure with Him, with Him too shall be blest.
Fear not, and thou shalt overcome,
With palm of more than conquest's bloom
'Mid white-rob'd hosts of fair renown,
The morning star shall shine first jewel of thy crown.
Fear not! in victory thou shalt stand
Upon the glassy sea;
And chaunt, with heaven's own lyre in hand,
The pean of the free;
"Sing to the Lord! The fight is done!
The fearful woe is whelm'd; the rest eternal won!"
MAP OF THE TRAVELS AND VOYAGES OF
By the Sunday School Union. Single Sheet, canvassed. THE Sunday School Union have earned immortal laurels, by their labours to promote the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. This Map is a most valuable addition to their other publications, and worthy of a place in every Sunday School-Vestry-Minister's Study- -or Family Sitting Room:. We rejoiced to see their Map of Ca naan; but we think this of the Travels of the great Apostle of the Gentiles likely to be far more useful. We give it our unqualified recommendation, and rejoice that its cheapness will place it within the reach of many in the most humble circumstances.
THE ABYSSINIAN FLY.
"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost parts of the rivers of Egypt, and they shall come and shall rest all of them in the desolate valleys." Isa. vii, 18, 19.
THE periodical rains which take place in Africa, and constitute one of the marvels of nature, produce another which is almost equally extraordinary. As soon as the rich earth of the mountains of Abyssinia becomes saturated with water, immense swarms of flies burst into existence, and assist to drive almost every living thing before them. This insect, though scarcely larger than a common bee, becomes formidable from its immense numbers; and its buzzing sound is no sooner heard than the cattle forsake their food and run wildly about the plain, till they actually die from fear, pain, and fatigue. The camel, whose patience under every other affliction is proverbial, gets ungovernable from the violent punctures of these flies; his body is covered with putrid lumps, and the wretched creature, termed by the Arabs "the ship of the desert," founders and dies. Even the rhinoceros and the elephant, whose hides are almost impenetrable to a musket ball, are severely persecuted by these clouds of insects. All the inhabitants of the south coast of the Red Sea to the mountains of Abyssinia are obliged annually to seek refuge with their cattle in the cheerless sands of the desert; and so many human beings and huge animals thus flying before an army of flies, certainly forms a very remarkable and wonderful feature in the great picture of nature, besides being an highly interesting confirmation of Sacred Writ.
THE TYRANT REPROVED BY HIS SLAVE.
A poor West Indian Negro, employed as a domestic in the house of his master, who had purchased him, having bought a trifling article of a fellow Negro, who had procured it by clandestine means, was detected with the property about him; and therefore ordered by his master to be very severely whipped. he had received the punishment, he said to the officer who inflicted it, "Why you no flog white_man?" "So we do," answered the officer, "when they buy stolen goods, knowing them to be stolen." Negro replied, "There stand my massa; why you no flog him, as you flog poor me? He buy me; he know me stole."
London; Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court, Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed; and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the United Kingdom,
STATISTICS OF CHELSEA. CHELSEA has, for many centuries, been a place of considerable note. Its immediate vicinity to the Court end of London, and beautiful situation on the banks of the Thames, has rendered it a desirable retreat for the wealthy and noble; and on account of its numerous noblemen's seats, Chelsea has been called VILLAGE OF PALACES."
King Henry VIII had a royal palace at Chelsea; Sir Thomas More, the celebrated Chancellor to that monarch, had his residence here; and in 1752, that eminent physician and benefactor of his country, Sir Hans Sloane, died at his seat in this village.
Chelsea is no longer the beautiful rural village; but absorbed, with its increased population, in the great Metropolis. It is now famous chiefly on account of the ROYAL COLLEGE, for the reception of aged and infirm soldiers. Of this useful Institution, we purpose on a future occasion to give some historical notice, as it now forms one of the most noble of our endowed national asylums.
Our readers will perceive the evidences of the surprising transformation of Chelsea, from the following tables of its increasing population, during the last thirty years.
POPULATION OF CHELSEA.
2. Sloane Terrace 3. Union Chapel 4. Trevor Chapel 5. Paradise Chapel 6. Ranelagh Chapel 7. North Street 8. College Street
1811 ... 35007. ... Meth. 1000 1812... 1500. ... Indep. 550 1816... 3000l. ... Do.
1817... 850.... Baptist... 450 1818... 5000/.
The rectory of the Old Church, Chelsea, was endowed in the early part of the fourteenth century, of course by the Roman Catholics, and its first rector was Roger de Berners. The present officiating minister is the Rev. J. Rush, M. A. who has been curate for about twentyfive years.
St. Luke's is an elegant modern structure, the fourdation of which was laid in October 1820, and it was opened in 1824. The Rev. J. W. Lockwood, M. A. is rector, who succeeded Dr. Wellesley in 1832.
Trinity Church is a still more modern edifice. By a recent Act of Parliament, "Hans Town" is divided, as far as regards ecclesiastical matters, into a separate 2 A
parish, and is called "Upper Chelsea;" so that the Rev. H. Blunt, M. A. is styled Rector of Trinity Church, Upper Chelsea.
Connected with the history of religion in Chelsea, the names of several clergymen will be long remembered. Among these are the Hon. and Rev. W. B. Cadogan, M. A. second son of Lord Cadogan. He was born 1751, and on taking orders was preferred to the livings of St. Giles, Reading, and St. Luke's, Chelsea. With his evangelical ministry the revival of evangelical religion is reckoned to have commenced, both at Reading and Chelsea. He died at Reading, Jan. 18, 1797, after only a few days' illness. For an account of this excellent clergyman, see Evangelical Magazine for January 1798.
The Rev. Erasmus Midddleton was curate to Mr. Cadogan at Chelsea, and his judicious ministry was much esteemed by the pious people of Chelsea. This useful aminister of Christ was one of the "Six Young Men who were expelled from Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1768, for reading, praying, and expounding the Scriptures in private houses." He was afterwards enabled to prosecute his studies at Cambridge, by the generous and unsolicited support of W. Fuller, Esq. banker, and a Dissenter. A monument to the memory of this useful minister of Christ, was raised by himself in his excellent "Evangelical Biography," in four volumes octavo. See a memoir of this valuable minister in Evangelical Magazine for August 1805.
The Rev. John Owen, M. A., the first Clerical Secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, officiated at Park Chapel from 1812 till his death, 1822. The labours of that eminent man are too well known to need mention. We believe his ministry at Chelsea was blessed to the salvation of many, and his "History of the British and Foreign Bible Society" will carry down his name with honour to posterity.
RANELAGH CHAPEL, CHELSEA.
Ranelagh Chapel deserves particular notice, on account of the benefits it has been the means of diffusing in Chelsea and its vicinity. This elegant place of worship arose under the labours of its present devoted minister, the Rev. R. H. Shepherd. The place in which the congregation originally assembled, being insufcient to accommodate the crowds who were flocking to hear the gospel of Christ, some ground was purchased, and this commodious chapel, with its school rooms, was erected at an expense of about 5,000. It was opened in July 1818, by the Rev. Dr. Winter, the Rev. Dr. Collyer, and the late Rev. J. Townsend. For several years Ranelagh Chapel was the most capacious place of worship in that vicinity, it being calculated to contain seats for 1,200 persons. The erection of the two new churches, in the immediate neighbourhood, has somewhat lessened the congregation, but still it is very considerable. The Liturgy of the Church of England is used by this congregation to direct their devotions, and the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Shepherd is truly sound and evangelical.
Justice seems to require that it be further stated, that 3,000/. of the cost of this Chapel has been paid, principally, we understand, by the proceeds of the seat rents, as the excellent minister's labours have been during the fifteen years altogether gratuitous! Probably the interest of the debt upon the chapel has amounted to little less than 2,000. more. Sincerely do we pray that the devoted minister may be amply rewarded in his "work of faith and labour of love,' seeing many individuals "seals to his ministry," and living epistles of Christ," "written with the Spirit of God."
During the period of fifteen years, the Sunday school
connected with Ranelagh Chapel has afforded instruction to several thousand children of the poor, besides the daily instruction of about three hundred and fifty. Surely it is not possible to compute the amount of good produced by such a series of benevolent labours, and we may confidently challenge the whole annals of infidelity to produce a similar instance of pure patriotism and philanthropy. This is the fruit of Christianity!
ACT OF FAITH OF THE "HOLY INQUISITION." (Concluded from p. 170.)
OUR readers will not fully comprehend all the horrors of this execrable institution of Popery, without a relation of the gaol delivery of the Inquisition, called "Auto da Fé," or "THE ACT OF FAITH." This is a solemn day, observed for the purpose of absolving innocent persons, who may have been accused, and punishing those convicted of heresy. It is usually contrived that it shall fall on some grand festival, that the execution may strike the multitude with the greater awe. It is always on a Sunday. The process is as follows. In the morning the prisoners are brought into a great hall, where they are all clothed in certain habits, which they must wear in the procession, and from which they learn their doom.
The procession is led on by Dominican friars, who enjoy this privilege, because St. Dominic their founder was the originator of the Inquisition. Before them is carried the standard of the holy office, on which the image of the founder is wrought in rich embroidery, holding a sword in one hand, and an olive branch in the other, with the inscription, "Justice and Mercy." These friars are followed by the penitents, who have narrowly escaped burning, and who over their black coats have flames painted with their points downwards. Next come the relapsed, who have flames on their habits pointing upwards. After these follow such as profess doctrines contrary to the faith of Rome, and who, besides flames pointing upwards, have their picture painted on their breasts, and surrounded by dogs, serpents, and devils, all open-mouthed. Each prisoner is attended by a familiar of the Inquisition; and those intended to be burnt, have also on each side a Jesuit, who is continually advising them to abjure. After the prisoners follow a troop of familiars upon horseback; after them, the inquisitors, and other officers upon mules; and lastly, the inquisitor-general upon a white horse, led by two men with black hats and green hat-bands. A scaffold is erected sufficiently large for containing two or three thousand people; at one end of the scaffold are the prisoners, at the other end the inquisitors. After a sermon, consisting of encomuims on the Inquisition, and of invectives against heretics, a priest ascends a desk near the scaffold, and having received the abjuration of the penitents, recites the final sentence of those who are to be put to death, and delivers them to the secular power, at the same time earnestly beseeching that their blood be not touched, nor their lives put in danger!!!
Hypocrisy is thus carried to its utmost height; the prisoners being now in the hands of the civil magistrate are immediately loaded with chains, and carried first to the secular gaol, and thence, in an hour or two, brought before a civil judge. After inquiring in what religion they intend to die, the civil judge pronounces sentence on such as declare they die in the communion of the church of Rome, that they shall first be strangled and then burnt to ashes; on such as die in any other faith, that they be burnt alive. Both are immediately carried to the place of execution, where as many stakes are set up as there are prisoners to be burnt, and about
each stake is laid a quantity of dry furze. The stakes of the professed, or of such as persist in heresy, are about four yards in height, and towards the top have a small board, on which the prisoner is seated. The relapsed being first strangled and burnt, the professed mount their stakes by a ladder; and the Jesuits, after repeatedly exhorting them to be reconciled to the church, part with them and say that they leave them to the devil, who is standing at their elbow to receive their souls, and to carry them with him to the flames of hell. On hearing this, the multitude raise a great shout, and cry, "Let the dogs' beards be made!" This is performed by thrusting flaming furzes, fastened to long poles, against their chins, till their faces are burnt to a coal. This inhuman act is accompanied with the loudest acclamations of joy. At last, fire is set to the furze at the bottom of the stake, over which the professed are chained so high, that the top of the flame seldom reaches higher than the seat upon which they are set, so that they seem rather roasted than burnt. There cannot be a more lamentable spectacle: the sufferers continually cry out, as long as they are able, "Pity, for the love of God!" Yet it is beheld by those of all ages, and by both sexes, with transports of joy and admiration!!
Our readers are prepared to denounce this as the perfection of infernal ingenuity: but the idea of all this being perpetrated in the name of RELIGION, and by PRIESTS professing the RELIGION of JESUS CHRIST, must excite the utmost astonishment! Popery, the antichristian system of corrupted religion, which could sanction such outrages upon human nature, must indeed be, as the pen of inspiration has declared it, "THE MYSTERY OF INIQUITY," 2 Thess. ii, 7; and 'MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH." Rev. xvii, 5.
We leave our readers for the present to make their own reflections upon the above; from which they will doubtless be led to adore that merciful Providence, by whose bounty and grace we in Britain enjoy the blessings, both civil and religious, which flow from the possession of the Holy Scriptures.
VICTIMS OF THE SPANISH INQUISITION. As an Appendix to our account of the "Holy Inquisition," we subjoin a recapitulation of its victims in Spain, from the year 1481 to 1820, from Llorente's History.
Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
LETTER XXVIII. On learning History.
Dear Madam, A COMPETENT knowledge of History must follow the attainment of Geography, in your system of Education.
It seems natural, and on many accounts advisable, to begin the study with some short history of the city or town or neighbourhood or country in which we live.
In the case of an inhabitant of London, I think some short luminous History of London might be the best book to put into the hands of children in the commencement of the study of history.
Being familiar with the objects, they would thus obtain a clearer and more complete idea of the nature of history. By the history of London they would learn is meant a description of London from the period of its first existence, as far as it is known; and the transfer of this idea to the country at large is easy, namely, a description of the country of England from the earliest period. The best History of England, all circumstances being considered, is perhaps that of Mr. Hume. Let your son read this aloud to you, half an hour each day, as one of his lessons.
When each lesson is over, let him close the book, and require from him an account of what he has read, in his own language. Be satisfied, if he can give you a delineation of the most striking events; and while he is faithfully reciting them, allow him as much liberty as he pleases. He will thus obtain a habit of delivering his sentiments in his own language, freely and elegantly. As you read onwards, let him write down the dates of great events alone; and these he may commit to memory, rather by frequent recurrence to them than by learning them by heart all at once as a task. You must nevertheless require him really to know them, and frequently exercise him in his knowledge of them. About twenty dates will be sufficient, as far as the history of England is concerned; these consisting of the principal occurrences alone, any minor occurrences will be recollected as having happened between some two of these principal dates; and this is precision enough.
I need scarcely remind you, that the history of any country should be read with the maps of it, and that the places should be found as they are mentioned. Should it be deemed necessary that your son should, in that part of his education which is conducted by yourself, acquire some knowledge of the other principal nations of the world, modern or ancient, the study should be pursued by similar methods. Goldsmith's History of Rome, and the History of Greece by the same author, will be found amply sufficient to afford a knowledge of the chief events in the career of those most illustrious nations of antiquity. I have however generally observed, that the history of these nations is but feebly pursued by young persons. They are devoid of the charm of interest to any but those of an age to admit of mature reflection. Hence they are generally read as part of the drudgery demanded by the study of the classics. Attention to them will be useless to your son if he is to become a tradesman or merchant; and if he is to become a scholar, may be properly left to the occupations of the grammar-school and university.
With regard to the moral use of historical reading, which is proposed by some preceptors, I believe the attempt rarely answers with children. It requires some degree of maturity before a young person knows what is meant by the philosophical use of history. A person must mingle with mankind in the great concerns of human life, before he can understand how to trace