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exhibits the appearance it presented in all the periods of its history. From its elevated summit, almost all the principal features of the city may be discerned; and the changes that eighteen centuries have wrought in its topography may perhaps be ascertained. The features of nature continue the same, though works of art have been done away; the beautiful gate of the temple is no more; but Siloa's fountains haply flow, and Kedron sometimes murmurs in the valley of Jehoshaphat.

The hill which now bears the name of Sion, is situated upon the south side of Jerusalem, part of it being excluded by the wall of the present city, which passes over the top of the mount. If this be indeed Mount Sion, the prophecy concerning it (Mic. iii, 12), that the plough should pass over it, has been fulfilled to the letter; for such labours were actually going on when we arrived. Here the Turks have a mosque over what they call the tomb of David.

"Leaving the mountain, where all the sepulchres of the kings of Judah are hewn, and regaining the road which conducts towards the east, into the valley of Jehoshaphat, we passed the fountain of Siloa; from hence we ascended to the summit of the Mount of Olives, passing in our way a number of Hebrew tombs. Here indeed we stood upon holy ground; and it is a question, which might reasonably be proposed to Jew, to Christian, or Mahometan, whether, in reference to the history of their respective nations, it be possible to attain a more interesting place of observation. So commanding is the view of Jerusalem afforded in this situation, that the eye roams over all the streets and around the walls, as if in survey of a plan, or model of the city. The most conspicuous object is the mosque, erected upon the site and foundation of the temple of


"A spectator, standing upon the Mount of Olives, and looking down upon the space enclosed by the walls of Jerusalem, in the present state, as they have remained since their restoration in the sixteenth century— must be convinced, that instead of covering two conspicuous hills, Jerusalem now occupies only one eminence, namely, that of Mount Moriah, where of old the temple stood, and where, like a phoenix that hath arisen from the ashes of its parent, the famous mosque of Omar, is now situated. It is probable that the whole of Mount Sion has been excluded, and that the mountain covered by ruined edifices, whose base is perforated by ancient sepulchres, and separated from Mount Moriah by a deep trench, which Josephus calls Tyropæon, extending as far as the fountain of Siloa towards the eastern valley, is, in fact, that eminence which was once surrounded by the bulwarks, towers, and regal buildings of the house of David.'

"As we descended from the mountain, we visited an olive ground, always mentioned as the Hortus Oliveti, or garden of Gethsemane. This place is, not without reason, shown as the scene of our Saviour's agony the night before his crucifixion, both from the circumstance of the name it still retains, and its situation with regard to the city. We found a grove of aged olive trees, of most inmense size, covered with fruit almost ripe. It is a curious and interesting fact, that, during a period of little more than two thousand years, Hebrews, Assyrians, Romans, Mahometans, and Christians, have successively been in possession of the rocky mountains of Palestine; yet the olive still vindicates its paternal soil, and is found at this day upon the same spot, which was called by the Hebrew writers 'Mount Olivet,' and the Mount of Olives,' eleven hundred years hefore the Christian era.

Proceeding towards the south, along the eastern side of the valley, between the Mount of Olives and

Mount Moriah, towards the bridge over the Kedron, across which, Christ is said to have passed in his visit to the Garden of Gethsemane, we caine to the sepulchres of the patriarchs, facing that part of Jerusalem where Solomon's temple formerly stood. The antiquities which particularly bear this name are four in number. According to the order in which they occur from north to south, they are severally called, the sepulchres of Jehoshaphat, of Absalom, the cave of St. James, and the sepulchre of Zechariah."

Other interesting particulars concerning the Holy City will be found in our first volume, p. 169, to which the reader is referred.



How grandly has the Apostle described the hopes of a Christian to be "full of immortality!" They are redolent of the glories and reflective of the purity of another world, forming principles for action as far above the mere dictates of human philosophy, as that philosophy, even divine as by its votaries it has been called, is above the untutored instincts of uneducated ignorance. The love of Christ constraining man, is the most exalted and influential motive for virtue in its highest developement; and the grand principle of love's reaction to its first Author, "who died that we might live," "suffering the just for the unjust, that he might bring us unto God," is at once a source of the most exquisite feeling generated in our own bosoms," of peace that passes understanding," and a cause as sublime as it is simple in its form, that "we should love him who so loved us."

To have the love of God as the motive, and the glory of God always in view as the end of our actions, should be the great object of our lives. It is not less our happiness than our duty; and by that wonderful and retributive action which seems to pervade the moral government of the Great Creator, the effect is not more certain, that in thus honouring God, and having our hearts ever fixed upon him and his glory, we are fulfilling our most reasonable service, than that we shall find its return in the prosperity of our souls, and in those inexpressible consolations, which he who knoweth what is in man will bestow upon us.

P. N.

ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON AND THE ROBBERS. ONE day happened a tremendous storm of lightning and thunder as he was going from Glasgow to Dunblane. He was descried, when at a considerable distance, by two men of bad character. They had not courage to rob him; but, wishing to fall on some method of extorting money from him, one said, “I will lie down by the way-side as if I were dead, and you shall inform the Archbishop that I was killed by the lightning, and beg money of him to bury me." When the Archbishop arrived at the spot, the wicked wretch told him the fabricated story: he sympathized with the survivor, gave him money, and proceeded on his journey. But when the man returned to his companion, he found him really lifeless! Immediately he began to exclaim aloud, "Oh! Sir, he is dead! Oh! Sir, he is dead!" On this the Archbishop, discovering the fraud, left the man with this important reflection: "It is a dangerous thing to trifle with the judgments of God!"


(Continued from p.291.)

Christianity compared with Atheism.

THE groundwork of Christianity are the doctrines of the existence of God, and the immortality of the soul. The plants of the valley and the cedars of the mountain, proclaim a God; the lightning announces his power, and the ocean declares his immensity. Man alone has said, "There is no God." Has he then, when in adversity, never raised his eyes towards heaven; has he in prosperity never cast them on the earth? "The earth is filled with the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handy-work." If there were no other proofs of the existence of God than the wonders of nature, these evidences are sufficient to convince every man whose only object is truth. But there is another as powerful an argument: by renouncing the Supreme Being, they are obliged to renounce a future state; the soul, nevertheless, disturbs them; she appears every moment before them, and compels them, in spite of their sophistry, to acknowledge her existence and immortality. The only being which is not all in all to itself, is man: the soul is eternally craving, and if it be impossible to deny that man cherishes hopes to the very tomb, if it be certain that all earthly possessions, far from crowning our wishes, only serve to increase the void in the soul, we cannot but conclude there is a state beyond the regions of time. It would insult the understanding of our readers, were we to attempt to show how the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are proved by conscience. "There is in man," says Cicero, “a power which impels him to that which is good, and deters him from evil: a power as ancient as that God, by whom heaven and earth subsist."

If every thing should be esteemed in proportion to its utility, then is atheism utterly contemptible, for it is not of use to any one. Let us survey human life, and begin with the poor and the wretched, since they constitute the major part of our species. Say, countless families, is it to you that atheism is serviceable? What! not one voice raised in its behalf? hear? a hymn of praise and thanksgiving? —these are believers!

What do I

With what despair would the rich man quit this world, if he conceived he was parting from happiness for ever! Religion enhances his pleasures, and prevents his being satiated with enjoyment, the natural result of a long series of prosperity.

The greatest generals of antiquity made professions of piety. No character is more amiable than that of a Christian hero; with the courage of the warrior he combines the charity of the gospel: he is, as it were, an angel sent by God to mitigate the horrors of war.

But it is in sight of the tomb, the awful approach to another world, that Christianity displays all its sublimity. When the atheist, at the end of his career, discovers the delusion of his system, he would fain return to God, but it is too late; the mind, hardened by incredulity, rejects all conviction. But the faith of the Christian is strengthened by his happiness, and his happiness by his faith: he dies, yet his last sigh was inaudible; he expires, and, long after his departure, his friends keep silence around him, in the impression that he is only slumbering; so gentle, so easy, is the departure of the Christian.

Religion speaks only of the grandeur and beauty of existence. Atheism is continually setting plague and famine before our eyes. Finally, religion assures us,

that our afflictions shall have an end, she comforts us with the promise of another life.

""Tis religion that can give

Peaceful pleasures while we live; 'Tis religion will supply

Solid comforts when we die."

The Future Happiness of the Righteous.

It has been asked, what is that plenitude of celestial happiness promised by Christianity? The purest of our sentiments in this world, is admiration, though this is always mingled with weakness. Imagine then a perfect Being, the source of all beings, in whom is clearly manifest all that was, and is, and is to come. Suppose, at the same time, a soul exempt from wants, incorruptible, indefatigable; imagine this soul contemplating the Omnipotent, incessantly discovering new perfections of Deity, and proceeding from admiration to admiration. Consider also the Deity aз supreme beauty, as the universal principle of love, so that the happy spirit is wholly absorbed by the love of God. Lastly, persuade yourself, that the blessed are thoroughly convinced of the endless duration of their happiness, you will then have an idea, though very imperfect, of the felicity of the righteous: we shall then comprehend why the choir of the redeemed can only repeat the song of "Holy! Holy! Holy!" which is incessantly dying away and reviving in the eternal extacies of heaven. (To be continued.)

REFLECTIONS OF A TRAVELLER. THERE are periods and seasons in our life-time, in which we feel a happy complacency of temper, and an inward cheerfulness and joy, for which we cannot very well account, but which constrain us to be at peace with our neighbours, and in love with all the works of God. In this truly enviable frame of mind 1 awoke this morning to proceed onwards on horseback; it was a morning which was fairly entitled to the epithet of "incense-breathing," for the variety of sweet-smelling perfume which exhaled after the rain from the forest flowers and shrubs, was delicious and almost overpowering. The scenery of to-day has been more interesting and lovely than any we have heretofore beheld. The path circled round a magnificent cultivated valley, hemmed in almost on every side with mountains of granite, of the most grotesque and irregular shapes, the summits of which are covered with stunted trees, and the hollows in their slopes occupied by clusters of huts. A number of strange birds resort to this valley, many of whose notes were rich, full, and melodious, and their plumage, splendid and beautiful. The modest partridge appeared in company with the magnificent Balearic crane with his regal crest, and delicate humming birds hopped from twig to twig, some of them of a dark shining green, some had red silky wings and purple bodies, some were variegated with stripes of crimson and gold, chirping and warbling amid the thick foliage of trees. It is the contemplation of such beautiful objects as these, all so playful and happy, or the more sublime ones of dark waving forests, plains of vast extent, or stupendous mountains, that gives the mind the most sensible emotions of delight and grandeur, leading it

"To look from nature up to nature's God."


God doth not take it well to be limited by us in any thing, least of all in his grace.-Owen.

Sunday School Lectures.


(6 GIVE US THIS DAY OUR DAILY BREAD." Teacher. Last Sunday I endeavoured to make you understand the meaning of redemption; who was the Redeemer; who were the redeemed; from whom we were redeemed. I also pointed you to the price, with which we were redeemed; and lastly, I tried to show you from Scripture, that the price of redemption has been paid for all men; consequently, if they will, they may return to their Father, their Redeemer, their Sanctifier, and be made heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; kings and priests unto God; escape everlasting ruin and damnation, and enjoy everlasting salvation in heaven.

What word did I explain to you last Sunday?-Redemption.

What did I show you was the meaning of it?-A buying back.

Who is our Redeemer?-Jesus Christ.
Who are the redeemed?-Mankind.
From whom are we redeemed?-Satan.

What is the price with which we are redeemed? Christ's blood.

Teucher. I am now going to show you two things, which Christ has accomplished.

1. Christ has borne the punishment of the sins of the world.

2. He has obtained the Holy Spirit for all. What is the first of these two things?-Christ has borne the punishment.

What is the second thing I am to show you?-Christ has obtained the Holy Spirit for all.

Teacher. Now, lastly, I will show you that much more is needful to salvation; and give you reasons why redemption, and having had the punishment of our sins borne for us, and the Holy Spirit being within our reach, will not, cannot, alone save a sinner.

What is the last thing I am to show you?-That redemption, and Christ's having borne the punishment of our sins, and having purchased the Holy Spirit, cannot by themselves save a sinner.

Teacher. The wicked are turned into hell, not so much on account of their many sins, as on account of the neglect of that precept, "Ask." Ask for God's Spirit, to make them clean, by washing away their sins in Christ's blood: ask for Christ's righteousness, the wedding garment.

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Why are the wicked turned into hell? -Because they are not fit for heaven.

What have they neglected to ask for?-God's Spirit, and Christ's righteousness.

Teacher, I said that the wicked were not turned into hell, so much as a punishment for their sins, as because they were not fit for heaven. This must be truth, because Christ bore the punishment of the sins of all while hanging on the tree, as may be seen from John i, 29, "Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world!"

What is the second thing that I have to show?That the Holy Spirit has been obtained by Christ for all.

Teacher. One passage compared with another, will be quite sufficient to prove this: Rev. xxii, 17, "Whosoever will, let him take of the water of life freely:" now compare this with John vii, 38, 39, and we shall see what this water of life is, of which every one here is invited so freely to drink: "He that believeth on me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water; but this spake he of the Spirit." All are invited; whosoever will, let him come, and be

a partaker of the Spirit; and, if all are invited, it must be clear, that the Spirit has been obtained for all. What is this water, of which all may drink?—The influences of the Holy Spirit.

Where are we told that this refers to the Holy Spirit?-John vii, 38, 39, "He that believeth on me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water; but this spake he of the Spirit."

What is the last thing that I have to show?-That though the punishment of a person's sins may be borne for him, and though the Holy Spirit may be within his reach, he cannot be saved if he will not receive these blessings.

Why are not these three things alone able to save a man; redemption, his punishment having been borne, and the Spirit having been put within his reach? Because the sinner has not fled from Satan to Christ; because he is not fit for heaven; because he has not got the Spirit for his own; because his sin has not been washed away; because he has not got Christ's righteousness; because he is not justified; and because he is not justified, therefore he cannot be glorified.

Teacher. I have now given you my reasons for saying, 1st. That all men have been redeemed. 2dly. That the punishment of all men's sins has been borne. 3dly. That the Spirit has been obtained for all; and, lastly, I have shown you, why thus much could not save him, and how much more was wanting, and how he may obtain what was wanting, viz. by prayer. And what more now, in conclusion, can I do but entreat you to pray,-pray that God's Spirit wash you from your sins with Christ's blood; pray that Christ would give you his righteousness, and that thus being justified, God would finally glorify you. C. R. A.


No account is given us in Scripture of the geological formation of the different strata, rocks and minerals, which constitute the interior and the crust of the globe. The knowledge of these is left to be explored and ascertained by the researches and reasonings of scientific inquirers. The intelligent curiosity of many in every country of Europe, has been for some time directed to a minute examination of the mineralogical contents and geological structure of our globe, and with the most encouraging success. Surprising discoveries have been made within the last fifty years; and on no topic has the human mind shown its penetrating powers of research and inferential reasoning more creditably than on this. It has already disclosed many of the animals and vegetables of the antediluvian world, and has explored several important facts of the ancient state, both of our surface, and the rocks and substances immediately below it. The silence of the Mosaic records on this branch of history, allows every latitude to speculation; yet that theory will no doubt be found the truest, the most scientific and satisfactory, which is most coincident with the Hebrew document. The Newtonian genius has, however, yet to arise in this department of our studies, whose capacious and penetrating mind can unite the facts and science of nature with the ancient sacred record. His reward, like that of our greatest mathematician, will be an intellectual immortality.

A little armour would serve if a man might choose where his enemy should strike at him: but we are told to take the whole armour of God, implying, that we shall be assaulted at every point.-Owen.


THIS "Mother in Israel" having "departed this life," many, on hearing her character and talents commended, will naturally be led to look at her writings, and if they have ever read them to reperuse them, to learn more particularly the springs of her actions, and the ground of her immortal prospects. This has been our case; and we have referred with delight to her "Reflections on Prayer," published in 1819, to renew her "Anticipations of Heaven," as described in that excellent work: we give them for the edification of our readers.

"When we consider the conflicts and the trials of the conscientious, watchful, praying Christian, we shall estimate aright the value of the consoling promise of that eternal rest from his labours, which supports him under them. And though rest is one of the lowest descriptions of the promised bliss of heaven, yet it holds out a cheering prospect of relief and satisfaction to a feeling being, who is conscious of the fallen condition of his mortal nature in all its weakness and imperfection. Rest, therefore, is of itself a promise sufficiently inviting to make him desire to depart and to be with Christ, even independently of his higher hope. The joy unspeakable, the crown of glory, and all those other splendid images of the blessedness of heaven, exalt and delight his mind. But it is, though with a higher, yet with a more indefinite delight. He adores, without fully comprehending the mighty blessing. But the promise of rest is more intelligible to the heavy-laden Christian; he better understands it, because it is so exactly applicable to his present wants and feelings: this is not our rest. It offers the relief longed for by a weary, frail, feverish being. He who best knew what man wanted, promised to his disciples peace and rest, and the Divine Spirit has represented the state of heaven under this image more frequently than under any other, as being in more direct contrast to his present state a state of care, anxiety, and trouble, and a state of sin, the cause of all other troubles. Perhaps this less elevated view of heaven may occur more rarely to persons of high-wrought feelings in religion; yet to the Christian of a contrary character, it is a never-failing consolation, a home-felt solace, the object of his fervent prayer. What a support, to be persuaded that the work of righteousness is peace, and the effect of righteousness is quietness and assurance for ever!'"

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We have pleasure in giving some particulars of the death and character of Mrs. Hannah More, from the pen of a friend.


"Died on the 7th of September, at her residence in Windsor Terrace, Clifton, in the 88th year of her age, after a painful and protracted illness, Mrs. Hannah More.

"Few persons have enjoyed a higher degree of public esteem and veneration than this excellent and distinguished lady. Early in life she attracted general notice by a brilliant display of literary talent, and was honoured with the intimate acquaintance of Johnson and Burke, of Reynolds and Garrick, and of many other highly eminent individuals, who equally appreciated her amiable qualities and her superior intellect. But under a deep conviction, that to live to the glory of God and to the good of our fellow-creatures is the great object of human existence, and the only one which can bring peace at the last, she quitted in the prime of her days the bright circles of fashion and literature, and, retiring into the neighbourhood of Bristol, devoted herself to a life of active Christian benevolence, and to the composition of various works, having for their object the religious improvement of mankind. Her pen could

adapt itself with equal success to the instruction of the highest and of the humblest classes, and the numerous editions through which her various publications have passed, attest the high sense entertained by the public of their varied utility and excellence.

"Her practical conduct beautifully exemplified the moral energy of her Christian principles. She was the delight of a widely-extended sphere of friends, whom she charmed by her mental powers, edified by her example, and knit closely to her in affection by the warmth and constancy of her friendship.

"She lived and walked in an atmosphere of love, and it was her delight to do good. The poor for many miles around her felt the influence of her unceasing benevolence, and her numerous schools attested her zeal for the improvement and edification of the rising generation. In these works of faith and charity she was aided for a long course of years by the concurring efforts of four sisters, who lived with her, who regarded her with mingled feelings of admiration and affection, and towards whom her conduct was ever marked by the kindest and most endearing consideration. It was truly a sisterhood animated by all the social and hospitable virtues.

"Mrs. Hannah More's last illness was accompanied by feverish delirium; but the blessed influence of Christian habits was strikingly exemplified even under the decay of extreme old age and its attendant consequences. Not seldom she broke forth into earnest prayer and devout ejaculation, and invariably met the affectionate attentions of the friends who sedulously watched over her sick bed, by unceasing and most expressive returns of grateful love. The writer of this tribute to her memory saw her only the day before her last seizure, when she expressed to him in a most impressive manner the sentiments of a humble and penitent believer in Jesus Christ, assuring him that she reposed her hopes of salvation on his merits alone, and expressing at the same time a firm and joyful affiance in his unchangeable promises. In her excellent writings she will long live, not only as one of the brightest ornaments of her sex, but as the benefactress of her species."

DIRECTIONS FOR STUDYING THE SCRIPTURES. IN studying the Scriptures, it is peculiarly desirable that we should on no occasion depart any more from the usual and natural meaning of the words and phrases therein, than we do in reading any other author. They have been greatly disfigured by the forced constructions which men sometimes seek to put upon them, and much dissatisfaction has on this account been excited in the intelligent mind. The true construction of every part must be, not the possibilities of meaning which ingenuity may draw from the expression, but that sense and purport which the author himself, in penning them, intended that they should express. His personal meaning at the time, and not the import which our criticism can now extract, should be the great object of our attention.


Richard and John Lander, in their late Travels through Africa, speaking of the manners of a large town (Badagry), say,

We have observed one virtue in the younger branches of the community: it is the profound respect and reverence which they entertain for their elders, and which perhaps has never been surpassed in any age or country, not even amongst the ancient Spartans themselves."


(Continued from p. 238.)

BROOK is distinguished from a river by its flowing at particular times; for example, after great rains or the melting of the snow; whereas a river flows constantly at all times. However, this distinctness is not always observed in Scripture, and one is often taken for the other, by giving great rivers, such as the Euphrates, the Nile, the Jordan, and other rivers, the name of brook. Thus the Euphrates (Isa. xv, 7) is called the brook of willows. It is observed that the Hebrew word nachal, which signifies a brook, is also the term for a valley, whence the one is often placed for the other in different translations of the Scriptures; thus, that which the Septuagint translates the brook of cords (Joel iii, 18) and the authors of the Vulgate the brook of thorus, our translators of the Bible have rendered the valley of Shittim; and it is thought to be the brook of Cedron, which running between the city of Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, discharges itself into the Dead-Sea.


CABUL (displeasing or dirty), the name which Hiram, king of Tyre, gave to the twenty cities in the land of Galilee, of which Solomon made him a present, in acknowledgment for the great services he had done him in building the temple. (1 Kings ix, 15.) These cities not being agreeable to Hiram when he came to see them, he called them the land of Cabul, which in the Hebrew tongue denotes displeasing or dirty. As to the situation of these cities, it is reasonable to suppose that they lay towards Tyre, whereof Hiram was king.

CESAREA (a bush of hair), a city built by Herod the Great, and thus called in honour of Augustus, being formerly called the Tower of Strato. This city stood on the sea side, on the coast of Phoenicia, and was very convenient for trade, but that it had a bad harbour. To remedy this, he ordered a mole to be made, in the form of a half-moon, and large enough for a royal navy to ride in. The buildings of this town were all of marble, as well the private houses as the palaces; but the master-piece of all was the port, whereof we meet with a description in Josephus, Ant. lib. xv, c. 15. This city, which was six hundred furlongs from Jerusalem, is often spoken of in the New Testament. Here it was that King Agrippa was smitten by the Lord, for neglecting to give God the glory, when the people were so liberal to him of praises. Cornelius the Centurion, who was baptized by St. Peter, lived at Cesarea. There, Philip the Deacon, with his four maiden daughters, had their habitation. At Cesarea, the prophet Agabus foretold to Paul, that he would be bound and confined by his enemies at Jerusalem, &c. Lastly, the same Apostle continued two years a prisoner at Cesarea, till he was conducted to Rome, where he had appealed to Nero's tribunal.

CALNEH, a city in the land of Shinar, built by Nimrod, and the last city mentioned (Gen. x, 10) as belonging to his kingdom. It is believed to be the same with Calno, mentioned in Isaiah (x, 9), and with Canneh in Ezekiel (xxvii, 23) with still greater variation. It is observed, that it must have been situated in Mesopotamia, since the prophet joins it with Haran, Eden, Assyria, and Chilmad, which carried on a trade with Tyre. It is said by the Chaldee interpreter, as also by Eusebius and Jerome, to be the same with Ctesiphon, standing upon the Tigris, about three miles distant from Velencia, and that it was once the capital city of the Parthians.

CALVARY (the place of a skull), Mount, is a sinall

eminency, or hill, on the greater Mount Moriah. It was anciently appropriated to the execution of malefactors, and therefore shut out of the walls of the city, as an execrable and polluted place. But since it was made the altar on which was offered up the precious and all-sufficient sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, it has recovered itself from that infamy, and has been always reverenced and resorted to with such devotion by all Christians, that it has attracted the city round about it, and stands now in the midst of Jerusalem; a great part of the hill of Sion being shut out of the walls, to make room for the admission of Calvary! This mount is likewise honoured with a stately church, erected by Helena, mother to Constantine the Great, called the Church of the Sepulchre, as being built over the place where our Saviour's sepulchre stood. This church is enriched with abundance of magnificent ornaments; and Mount Calvary is more honoured by Christians, than Old Jerusalem ever was by the children of the synagogue. Maundrel gives a very minute and entertaining description of the inany superstitious ceremonies observed here by pilgrims and devotees, who visit the holy sepulchre, as may be seen in his Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 70, &c.

CANA (zeal), of Galilee, a little town where Jesus performed his first miracle (John ii, 1). Nathaniel was of Cana in Galilee, where our Lord was invited three days after he had received Nathaniel as a disciple. This is called Cana of Galilee, to distinguish it from Cana, or Shana, mentioned in Joshua xix, 28, belonging to the tribe of Asher, and lying not far from Sidon, and so situated much farther north than Cana of Galilee, which lay in the tribe of Zebulon, and not far from Nazareth.

CAPERNAUM (field of repentance), a city celebrated in the Gospels, being the place where Jesus usually resided during the time of his ministry. This city is nowhere mentioned in the Old Testament, under this or any other name like it, and therefore it is not improbable that it was one of those towns which the Jews built after their return from the Babylonish captivity. It stood on the sea coast, i. e. on the coast of the sea of Galilee, in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtalim, and, consequently, towards the upper part thereof. It took its name, no doubt, from an adjacent spring of great repute for its clear and limpid waters, and which, according to Josephus, was by the natives called Capernam. As this spring might be some inducement to the building the town in the place where it stood, so its being a convenient wafting place from Galilee to any part of the other side of the sea, might be some motive to our Lord for his moving from Nazareth, and making this the place of his constant residence. Upon this account, Capernaum was highly honoured, and said by our Lord himself to be exalted unto heaven; and because it made no right use of his signal favour, it drew from him the severe denunciation, that it should be brought down to hell, which has certainly been verified: for, so far is it from being the metropolis of all Galilee (as it once was), that it consisted long since of no more than six poor fishermen's cottages, and may perhaps be now totally desolate.

CAPHTOR (a sphere), the island Caphtor, whence came the Caphtorims, otherwise called the Cheritims or Cherithites, and the Philistines. The generality of interpreters believe, that by Caphtor was signified Cappadocia; and by the Caphtorims the Cappadocians. But F. Calmet is of opinion, that by Caphtor is meant the isle of Crete, and this opinion he supports by many learned arguments in a particular dissertation prefixed to the first book of Samuel, which well deserves the inquisitive reader's attentive perusal.

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