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ON THE CULTIVATION OF A SOUND,
JUDGMENT is to the faculties of the mind what charity is to the virtues, of the heart: as without charity the latter are of little worth, so without judgment talents are of little comparative use. Judgment, with the aid of God's Spirit and the instructions of his word, is the balance in which qualities are weighed, by which the proportions of our duties and the harmony of our virtues are preserved. When exercised in subservience to the divine rule, it subdues vanity, corrects impetuosity, and checks enthusiasm. Judgment is so far from being a cooler of zeal, as some suppose, that it increases its effect by directing its movements; and a warm heart will always produce more extensive, because more lasting good, when conducted by a cool head. A sound judgment, though equally bestowed with other blessings by Him from whom cometh every good gift, yet it is not so much born with us as improved by us. By teaching us to discern the faults of others, it warns us to avoid them by detecting our own, it leads to their cure. The deepest humility is generally connected with the soundest judgment. The judicious Christian is watchful against speculative errors, as well as against errors in conduct. Judgment is, in short, that quality of the mind which requires to be kept in ever-wakeful activity; and the advantages it procures us, and the evils from which it preserves us, will be more apparent the more it is kept in exercise.
Religious charity more especially demands the full exercise of the judgment. A judicious Christian will double the good done, by his selection of the object and his manner of relieving it. All things that are good are not equally good.
Above all, an enlightened judgment will enable you to attain and to preserve consistency, that infallible criterion of a highly-finished Christian character, the want of which makes some really religious persons not a little vulnerable. So much to be regretted is it, that goodness of intention is not always attended by propriety in the execution. Some persons are over-scrupulous as to minor points, and lax in others of more importance. These incongruities not only bring the individual into disgrace, but religion itself into discredit. Consistency presents Christianity in her fairest attitude and loveliest figure: it is the beautiful result of all the qualities and graces of a truly religious mind united and brought into action. Where the character is consistent, prejudice cannot ridicule, nor infidelity sneer. The world may dislike, but cannot despise it. In the more advanced Christian, religion may seem to be less prominent in parts of the character, because it is infused into the whole. Like the life-blood, its vital power pervades the entire system; not an action of the life that is not go verned by it; it is diffused through the whole conduct, and sheds its benign influence, not only on the things done, but on the temper of the doer in performing them. The affections now have other objects, the time other duties, the thoughts other employments. There will be more exertion, but with less display; it will be less obtrusive, because it is more rooted and grounded: there will be more humility, because the heart will have found out its own corruptions. Thus through the joint operation of judgment in the intellect and principle in the heart, the religion will become equable, regular, and consistent. Of all persons, religious persons are most bound to cultivate this precious faculty. We see how highly the great apostle of the Gentiles valued it: in directing the spiritual labours of his beloved young friend, in stirring him up to every good word and work, he does not forget this exhortation, "The Lord give thee a right understanding in all things." Again he
prays for his beloved Philippians, "that their love may abound more and more in knowledge and in all judgment." These admonitions acquire great additional force when it is considered, that he who gave them was a man of exceeding ardency of temper, and of zeal without a parallel. This experienced saint must have frequently seen the danger of imprudent piety, of self-confidence, of zeal not regulated by knowledge, and therefore presses the great importance of a sound judgment.
There never was but one visible exhibition of infallible judgment, and complete consistency. In that Divine Person who vouchsafed to dwell with men on earth, that he might give us a perfect example in his life, before he obtained salvation for us by his death; in him alone was judginent without any shadow of error, consistency without any speck of imperfection. His divine perfections none can approach, but all may humbly imitate those which come within the compass of his humility.
MRS. H. MORE.
ARABIAN PRACTICE OF CHARMS. CHARMS are what the Arabs have most faith in when they are ill; their medicines are mostly simple and very excellent, but the writers of charms are more frequently applied to: they possess nostrums which not only heal wounds, bestow eloquence, and the gift of persuasion, but which calm all agitation and distress of mind. A writer with a ready wit and imposing manner, is at no loss for employment; his medicine chest consists of a gourd or a calabash for an ink bottle, and a reed for a pen, and pills and potions are wholly superseded. The imagination is worked upon, which more than half performs the cure, and extreme temperance completes the restoration of the patient. On some occasions, all the writers or maraboots in the neighbourhood are employed, and the tassels of a great man's cap or turban have been literally covered with the charms, which consist mostly of extracts from the Koran, or certain well-known proverbs. Major Denham, in his Travels through Africa, says, "A man came and offered me two fowls if I would give him a charm for a disease of the stomach; but I was obliged to decline the office of charm writer, and confine myself to cure diseases by medicine. A blooming widow applied for medicine to get her a husband. It is not good to pretend ignorance, and I therefore told her I had no such medicine with me."
It appears highly feasible that this singular custom of charm writing, is derived from the Pharisaic practice mentioned by our Saviour, "of making broad the phylacteries," the strict formalists among the Jews were in the habit of wearing detached sentences of the Scriptures on different parts of their robes, which if precept could enforce practice, would have had a most beneficial influence on the morals and discipline of all ranks of society.
TOO LONG NEGLECT OF THE BIBLE. Recommended to the attention of those who live in the neglect of their Bibles.
A person in Birmingham, who lived in the neglect of the worship of God, and of reading his word, was, on a Lord's day, sitting at the fire with his family. He said he thought he would read a chapter in the Bible, not having read one for a long time: but, alas! he was disappointed, it was too late; for, in the very act of reaching it from the shelf, he sunk down, and immediately expired! Reader, while it is called "to-day," resolutely begin to read the Holy Scriptures.
ON THE EFFICACY OF RELIGION.
LIFE is a varied scene of hopes and fears,
From sin's fermenting mass extract the leaven,
Religion cheers her, ere that awful lapse,
To those whose hearts the hope of future bliss
Has fail'd to wean from such a world as this.
She points to HIM, from whose full pores were wrung
A COMMENTARY UPON THE HOLY BIBLE, From Henry and Scott, with occasional Observations and Notes from other Writers. MATTHEW TO ACTS. Religious Tract Society. Small 8vo. cloth, pp. 648. "Family Bibles," large and adorned with plates, are commonly among the household ornaments of orderly and religious persons in humble life. They are regarded with a high degree of reverence; they serve for a record of births, deaths, &c.; but on account of their elegant bindings they are oftentimes of less practical utility than a cominon school Bible. Instead of an expensive folio, beautifully adorned with costly engravings, we beg to recommend the "Commentary on the Holy Bible," by the Religious Tract Society. It is a careful and judicious compilation from those invaluable stores of evangelical and orthodox Commentaries of the learned and excellent Henry and Scott, enriched with many important observations from a hundred of the most esteemed commentators and standard writers. mass of biblical information and devotional reflections in this volume from Matthew to the Acts inclusive, is prodigious; and its cheapness and neatness place it within the reach of all. There is a most commendable custom on the Continent, in some states, of giving every newlymarried couple a copy of the Holy Bible. We do earnestly recommend that pious parents particularly would present their children, when leaving the parental roof, with a copy of this valuable commentary.
PRODIGIOUS AMERICAN LEGACY.
A Frenchman, of the name of Girard, who left France in early life only a common sailor-boy, died a short time ago in Philadelphia. By his perseverance and indefatigable industry he had acquired an immense fortune, being considered the largest ship-owner in America. He had accumulated property to the amount of about 100,000,000 of francs, more than 4,000,000/ sterling! Among his legacies he left 10,000,000 of francs (about 400,000l.) to found a college: but he required that no priest of any religion should be allowed to enter it! The bulk of his fortune, more than 60,000,000 of francs, or 2,400,000l. he left to the city of Philadelphia. This large amount, if properly expended in public works of utility and ornament, may contribute in an astonishing degree to the happiness of that city and the state. Surely the legislature will set aside the atheistical clause in the will of that eccentric unbeliever, that the doctrines of everlasting life may be inculcated on the youth of Girard's college, by a faithful minister of Christ.
"The principles of evil have a fatal activity. With every exertion, the best of men can do but a moderate amount of good; but it is in the power of the most contemptible individual to do incalculable mischief.”
"The grand principles of right and wrong operate in the same way between nations as individuals. Fair and open conduct, and inviolable faith, however they may seem adverse to present purposes, are the only kind of policy that will ensure ultimate and honourable success."
"Idleness is that silent file, which little by little wears away our strength and valour."
London: Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court, Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed; —and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the United Kingdom.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.
NOVEMBER 2, 1833.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY C. WOOD AND SON, POPPIN'S COURT, FLEET STREET, LOND N.
THE TOWER OF LONDON.
RECOLLECTIONs the most profitable and interesting are awakened in the mind of every intelligent Briton, by a contemplation of the Tower of London. Designed originally as a fortress to defend the naval approach to the metropolis, and appropriated to the purposes of a palace and a prison, human nature has been exhibited within its venerable walls under all the extreme circumstances of royal inagnificence and suffering degradation. Festivities the most sumptuous-murders the most atrocious-and martyrdoms the most instructive, are associated in the records of this metropolitan fortification, and its history must be deeply interesting to every Englishman and to every Christian.
Antiquaries are of opinion, that the Romans origi nally built a fortress on this spot; as in 1720, in digging on the south side of what is called Caesar's Chapel, there were discovered some old foundations of stone, three yards broad, and so strongly cemented, that it was with the utmost difficulty they were forced up by the workmen.
William the Conqueror, however, is generally considered the founder of the Tower of London, and that the great square tower, called The White Tower, was VOL. II.
erected in 1078, under the direction of Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, famous for his architectural skili. This originally stood by itself; Fitz-Stephen gives it the name of Ara Palatina, or the Palatine Tower; the commander of which had the title of Palatine. Within this tower is a very ancient chapel, appropriated to the devotions of the kings and queens. In 109, a violent tempest did great injury to the Tower; but it was repaired by William II, and Henry I. The former added another castellated building on the south side, hetween it and the Thames, afterward called St. Thomas's Tower. The Tower was first inclosed by William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, chancellor under Richard 1, who surrounded the whole with walls embattled, and made on the outside a vast ditch, in which, in after tines, water from the Thames was introduced. Different princes added other works; and the present extent within the walls is 12 acres and 5 roods: the circuit on the outside of the ditch is 1,052 yards.
The Lion's Tower, originally called the Bulwark, was built by Edward IV. Henry I had his menagerie at his manor of Woodstock (where he kept lions, leopards, lynxes, porcupines, and other wild animals) removed to the Tower; which is now well supplied with a noble collection of wild beasts.
OBJECTS OF CURIOSITY IN THE TOWER. Strangers visiting the Tower, are first generally shown the wild beasts. The next object of curiosity is the White Tower. The whole of this building is filled with arms and warlike instruments, and such models of them as have, at various times, been presented to the government. On the first floor are two rooms, one containing arms for about 10,000 seamen; the other containing warlike engines of various descriptions. Near the south-west angle is the Spanish Armoury; so called from its being the repository of the spoils of the Spanish armada, vainly pronounced by the pope to be invincible.
THE GRAND STORE HOUSE, 245 feet long and 60 broad, contains what is called a wilderness of arms, so ingeniously arranged, by a common gunsmith named Harris, that at one glance in a single room may be seen arms for 80,000 men, all in the most admirable state of brightness, and fit for use. There are said to be arma in this storehouse sufficient for nearly 200,000 men!
THE HORSE ARMOURY, contains a representation of the kings and heroes of England, in the warlike accoutrements of their appropriate times, many of them on horseback.
ROYAL JEWELS IN THE TOWER.
To the east of the grand storehouse, in a dark stone room, are deposited the English Regalia, or royal jewels, and precious implements.
1. THE IMPERIAL CROWN, used at the coronation of the kings, made of fine gold, and enriched with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, and pearls: the cap within is of purple velvet, lined with taffety, and turned up with ermine. With this it has been said the kings of England have been crowned since the time of Edward the Confessor: but this may reasonably be controverted, as in the time of the Commonwealth, the crown, as well as the greater part of the regalia, was sold. The imperial crown seems to be that made in the time of Charles II, after his restoration.
2. THE GOLDEN GLOBE, put into the king's right hand before he is crowned; this is enriched with precious stones.
3. THE GOLDEN SCEPTRE, with its cross upon a large amethyst, set round with diamonds.
4. THE SCEPTRE AND DOVE, perched upon a Jerusalem cross, enriched with diamonds.
5. ST. EDWARD'S STAFF; this splendid ornament is 4 feet 7 inches long, and 33 in circumference, all of beaten gold; and which is carried before the king at his coronation.
6. THE CROWN OF STATE; this precious diadem is worn by the king in parliament; it is enriched with the rarest gems, amongst which are a large emerald, 7 inches round, a pearl reckoned the finest in the world, and a ruby of inestimable value.
7. THE PRINCE OF WALES'S CROWN, made for him while Regent.
8. THE CROWN, GLOBE, AND SCEPTRE, of Queen Mary II, with the diadem which she wore at her coronation.
9. AN IVORY SCEPTRE, garnished with gold, with a dove on the top, of gold, enamelled with white; this was made for the queen of James II.
10. THE CURTANA, or SWORD OF MERCY, with a blade 32 inches long, and nearly 2 broad, without a
point: this is carried before the king at his coronation between the two swords of justice.
11. THE GOLDEN SPURS, and ARMILLAS, or BRACELETS, for the wrists.
12. THE AMPULLA, or GOLDEN EAGLE, which contains the holy oil, with which the monarchs are anointed; and the GOLDEN SPOON into which it is poured.
13. A GOLDEN SALT-CELLAR, in the form of the square White Tower, of most exquisite workmanship. Most of these are very ancient, and are used only at coronations.
14. A SILVER FONT, double gilt, elegantly wrought, in which the royal family are baptized.
15. A SILVER FOUNTAIN, very large, presented to Charles II, by the town of Plymouth.
Besides these particularly enumerated, this depository contains the crown jewels, worn by the royal family on state occasions, and much ancient plate.
This division of the Tower is famous for the many illustrious personages who have been confined within its walls. Notices of these would be peculiarly interesting to the Christian reader, as they lead his mind back to that glorious event, the Protestant Reformation. Several of the most eminent of those servants of God, to whose principles and labour the nation and the world are so greatly indebted, were here confined. But we must defer our notices of these to a future opportunity still we cannot deny ourselves the gratification of quoting an inscription from these walls, a memorial of that almost inimitable example of female loveliness and innocence, the Lady Jane Gray. It is said to have been scratched by her on the wall of her apartment with a pin :
"YOU SHALL BE MY GOD."
Captain Blythe took with him two young Otaheitans, who were employed to look after the bread-fruit trees on board, in their way to the West Indies. On their passage, one of them was taken ill. After two or three days, he applied to Mr. Harwood for relief, who gave him some medicine, the good effect of which he was soon sensible of. "Now," said he to Mr. Harwood, "you shall be my god; for I have been praying to my god these three days to heal me, and he has not; therefore, you shall now be my god."
God's Covenant with Abraham.
"THE CALL OF ABRAM" from Chaldean idolatry, to walk with God in a life of faith and holiness, was not merely for his own salvation, but for the lasting benefit of the world. By that event the venerable patriarch is introduced to us in a new character, and the condescending grace of Almighty God, manifested towards him, illustrates his expressive titles, "The Friend of God," and "Father of the faithful." Pertinently has it been remarked, that "all the true blessedness the world is now, or ever shall be possessed of, is owing to Abram and his posterity." Through them we have a Bible and a Saviour, the gospel and the hope of eternal life. This inestimable blessedness, which has descended through many generations to us, we now enjoy by virtue of the covenant which God made with his chosen servant.
God's covenant with Abram was a gracious promise, repeatedly renewed during the period of more than fifty years: it comprehended various blessings for the present world, the Messiah with all the fruits of his mediation, and everlasting felicity in the world of glory. On some occasions, for the encouragement of Abram, and to be recorded for our consolation, the promise was delivered under the awful solemnity of the Almighty swearing to his servant. "For when God made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself, saying, Surely, blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee." Heb. vi, 13, 14.
On the birth of John, the forerunner of Christ, his father Zacharias celebrated this ancient covenant, and burst forth admiring the faithfulness of God, which was hastening" to perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant, the oath which he sware to our father Abraham." Luke i, 72, 73.
While Abram was yet in his native city, “Ur of the Chaldees," God made this covenant with his servant, and said, "I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: and I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed." Gen. xii, 2, 3. The latter part of this gracious promise crowned all the rest, as it directly pointed to the Messiah, in whom alone all the families of mankind can be truly blessed.
Abram arrived in Canaan, and built an altar for the public worship of God by means of sacrifice, first at Sichem, then at Bethel, and about three years after his departure frem Chaldea at Hebron; at each of which places, God granted to his faithful servant some special tokens of his blissful friendship.
Nine years had Abram left his native country, living by faith upon the promise of God, while yet he had no child. A degree of despondency appears to have seized the mind of "the father of believers." To remove his anxieties, "the word of the LORD came unto Abram,” for the fifth time, "in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram; I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward." Excited by these inspiring words, but not altogether relieved, "Abram said, LORD God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus ? Behold, to me thou hast given no seed, and lo, one born in my house is mine heir." Abram was at a loss to conceive how the covenant could be fulfilled while he had no child, and his beloved wife seventy-four years of age. "And the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of
thine own bowels shall be thine heir. And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them and he said, So shall thy seed be." New vigour entered the soul of Abram; "And he believed in the LORD, and he counted it to him for righteousness. And he said unto him, I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it." Gen. xv.
The corrupt Canaanites were then in the land, and they were both numerous and powerful. Abram was therefore somewhat perplexed to perceive how God would fulfil his revealed purpose. He sought a solution of his difficulty from him who alone could give it. “And he said, LORD God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?" God did not rebuke the humble suppliant, but graciously unfolded his holy purposes, to satisfy his inquiring servant, by means of an extraordinary vision.
"And he said unto him, Take me an heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtle dove, and a young pigeon. And he divided them in the midst, and laid each piece one against another: but the birds divided he not. And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him. And he said, Know of a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years. And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age. But in the fourth generation shall they come hither again for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. And it came to pass, that when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces. In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates: the Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites." Gen. xv.
The whole transaction, as recorded in this chapter, astonishes while it instructs us. We perceive in Abram, true faith struggling against unbelief, and gaining a triumph. Believers in our times must not wonder if they experience seasons of darkness, and even of temporary distress for it is believed, that in most instances in which the mind endeavours after dependence upon God, changing circumstances will occasion fear and gloomy apprehensions. But it is not the will of our covenant God and Father, that such should cherish dejection of mind. He says to us as to the holy patriarch, "Fear not:" and all that he was to Abram, he will be to his people in these later days. Did Abram rejoice in the prospect of a son? We may exult, that the promised seed of Abram has appeared, the Son of God, who “took hold on the seed of Abram,” and that in him the covenant of eternal grace, on which repose our highest hopes, has been established, and ratified with the most affecting solemnities, even by the shedding of his own blood. Did Abram expect from the Divine promises, the blessings of an earthly Canaan ? We have the same, or stronger assurances, that we shall inherit the kingdom of glory in heaven.
Sarai with her venerable husband, firmly believing the promises of God, but conscious that through age she was incapable of child-bearing, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her maid, in marriage, that she might have a son, at least by adoption; a practice common even in those days. Hagar bare a son to Abram; and, con