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terests of this ambitious usurper, they gave it as their opinion, that the bishop of Rome was previously to be consulted, whether the execution of such a purpose was lawful or not. In consequence of this, ainbassadors were sent by Pepin to Zachary, the reigning pontiff, with the following question: Whether the divine law did not permit a valiant and warlike people to dethrone a pusillanimous and indolent monarch, who was incapable of discharging any of the functions of royalty; and to substitute in his place one more worthy to rule, and who had already rendered most important services to the state? The situation of Zachary, who stood much in need of the succours of Pepin against the Greeks and Lombards, rendered his answer such as the usurper desired. And when this favourable decision of the Roman oracle was published in France, the unhappy Childeric was stripped of his royalty without the least opposition; and Pepin, without the smallest resistance from any quarter, stepped into the throne of his master and his sovereign. Let the abettors of the papal authority see how they can justify in Christ's pretended vicegerent upon earth, a decision which is so glaringly repugnant to the laws and precepts of the divine Saviour. This decision was solemnly confirmed by Stephen II, the successor of Zachary, who undertook a journey into France, in the year 754, in order to solicit assistance against the Lomhards and who, at the same time, dissolved the obligation of the oath of fidelity and allegiance which Pepin had sworn to Childeric, and violated by his usurpation, in the year 751. And to render his title to the crown as sacred as possible, Stephen anointed and crowned him, with his wife and two sons, for the second time!"

Gibbon states, "Zachary pronounced, that the unfortunate Childeric, a victim of the public safety, should be degraded, shaved, and confined in a monastery for the remainder of his days!"

Childeric's cathedral was taken down, and the present structure was commenced in 1163, in the reign of Louis VII. Pope Alexander III, then a fugitive in France, laid the first stone, Maurice de Sully being then bishop of Paris. Such zeal influenced those who prosecuted the work, that the high altar was consecrated in 1182; and in 1186, near the steps of it, was interred, Geoffry, duke of Brittany, son of Henry II, king of England. Two centuries more, however, elapsed before this cathedral was completed. The nave and west front, with its lofty and massive towers, are supposed to have been completed about the year 1223. The south porta! was commenced in 1257, and that on the north not till about the year 1313. Some additions were made as late as the year 1447, by Charles VII.

The west or principal front of Notre Dame cathedral, with its towers and marygold window, is remarkable, not only for its general effect, but for its elegant simplicity, bold character of outline, and its uniformity of design. It may be described as being divided into four compartments, the lowermost having for its centre the principal entrance porch on each side is a similar one, but smaller. They open with high pointed arches, and form deep recesses, gradually contracting to the doors, which are extremely beautiful, being richly decorated with alto-relievos. Above the door of the middle porch, there are fine sculptures representing the general judgment: within the porch to the left of the spectator, are various subjects from the New Testament, in sculpture, and on the right are figures of the prophets, evangelists, and saints: but the polite monsters of the French Revolution, vented their impious fury against the emblems of religion, so as even to decapi tate these beautiful stones! "The Gallery of the Kings," is immediately above the porches: and is so called from its having been adorned with the statues of twenty-eight of the royal benefactors of the cathedral,

commencing with Childeric, and closing with Philip Augustus. Infidel rage destroyed them in 1793, leaving not a vestige remaining. Above this gallery is the centre and splendid marygold window, 43 feet in diameter, still retaining some of the richly-stained glass of the thirteenth century. The towers rise about 221 feet above the casement; and the width of the façade is about 138 feet. The extreme exterior length of Notre Dame is about 449 feet, and its greatest width about 162 feet.

Popery, with its usurpations, having oppressed France, in common with every other country in which it prevailed, and its superstitions having insulted reason, infidelity became universal in that populous country, and, other causes concurring, the consequence was the dreadful Revolution. Roman catholicism suffered a total eclipse in France, and infidelity, in every hideous form, became the fashion of the day. "It may be observed, however, that the clergy hastened their own destruction, by their avarice and imprudent selfishness. It was their obstinacy, together with that of the nobles and magistrates, that ultimately compelled the king to convoke the states-general in 1789, where the democratic party being equal in number, and superior in popular influence to both the clergy and the nobles, carried every thing their own way, and soon annihilated king, nobles, and clergy." The Bible being almost altogether unknown to the nation, scarcely any one understood genuine Christianity.

"Under the republican government, religion, as a national establishment, was formally abolished; the wealth and landed property of the clergy were seized and sold; and even the scanty pittance, allowed them by the state in lieu of their former princely revenue, was withdrawn; and the enthusiasm of infidelity, for a time, persecuted religion in France with all the bitterness and all the cruelty that was ever exercised by the most intolerant fanaticism. In the mystery of Providence, the persecuting catholic clergy were doomed to suffer all those woes which their predecessors had inflicted upon the French Protestants and their brethren the Jansenists in former reigns, and to drink deep in the cup of judgment. Infidelity throned in power, wielded the sword of vengeance with dreadful efficacy against the Romish priests, who were butchered by hundreds. At Nantz no less than 360 priests were shot, and 460 drowned in the Loire 292 priests were massacred during the bloody days of the 10th of August and 2d of September 1792; and 1,135 priests were guillotined under the government of the National Convention, from the 20th of September 1792, till the end of 1795; besides vast numbers who perished in different ways throughout France, as the infidel republicans hunted them like wild beasts up and down the country. The number of emigrant clergy till the end of 1795, amounted to 28,724, and many more emigrated afterwards.

"Scriptural religion had been persecuted and destroyed by the priesthood; and nothing better than the corrupt and superstitious ceremonies of popery being known to the people, the infuriated infidel rulers determined on the extermination of these, as Christianity. In order to obliterate every trace of Christianity, and every sense of religion, the decemvirs, as Robespierre, Carnot, and their colleagues, were called, abolished the old calendar, and employed men of science to make a new one. By this, each month was divided into three decades of ten days each, the Christian Sabbath was abolished, and the tenth day of every decade was fixed as a day of rest; evidently intending by this new political institution, to supersede the worship and ceremonies of that religion which they now wished to eradicate. But reflecting how prone the multitude are to superstition, they consecrated Reason as an object of

worship: a festival was celebrated in honour of her in the cathedral, where she was personated by a woman, Madame Desmoulines, who was afterwards guillotined.'

Most of our readers, it is probable, are unacquainted with the outrageous and shameless impiety, which attended the installation of this new divinity; and as it is without a parallel or precedent in the annals of mankind, we shall give a short account of the ceremonies observed on that occasion.


"The section of the Sans Culottes, declared at the bar of the Convention, Nov. 10, 1793, that they would no longer have priests among them, and that they required the total suppression of all salaries paid to the ministers of religious worship. The petition was followed by a numerous procession, which filed off in the hall, accompanied by national music. Surrounded by them, appeared a young woman of the finest figure, arrayed in robes of liberty, and seated in a chair, ornamented with leaves in festoons. She was placed opposite the president, and Chaumette said, Fanaticism has abandoned the place of truth: squint-eyed, it could not bear the brilliant light. The people of Paris have taken possession of the temple, which they have regenerated the Gothic arches, which till this day resounded with lies, now echo with the accents of truth: you see we have not taken for our festivals inanimate idols; it is a chef d'œuvre of nature, whom we have arrayed in the habit of liberty: its sacred form has inflamed all hearts. The public has but one cry, No more altars, no more priests, no other God but the God of nature. We, their magistrates, we accompany them from the temple of truth to the temple of the laws, to celebrate a new liberty, and to request that the ci-devant church of NOTRE DAME, be changed into a temple consecrated to Reason and Truth. This proposal being converted into a motion, was immediately decreed; and the Convention afterwards decided, that the citizens of Paris, on this day, continued to deserve well of their country. The goddess then seated herself by the side of the president, who gave her a fraternal kiss. The secretaries presented themselves to share the same favour ; every one was eager to kiss the new divinity, whom so many salutations did not in the least disconcert. During the ceremony, the orphans of the country, pupils of Leonard Bourdon (one of the members), sang a hymn to Reason, composed by Citizen Moline." The national music played Gosset's Hymn to Liberty. The Conven tion then mixed with the people, to celebrate the feast of Reason in her new temple. A grand festival was accordingly held in the church of Notre Dame, in honour of this deity. In the middle of the church was erected a mount, and on it a very plain temple, the façade of which bore the following inscription, A la Philosophie. The busts of the most celebrated philosophers were placed before the gate of this temple. The torch of Truth was on the summit of the mount, upon the altar of Reason, spreading light. The Convention and all the constituted authorities assisted at the ceremony. Two rows of young girls dressed in white, each wearing a crown of oak leaves, crossed before the altar of Reason, at the sound of republican music; each of the girls inclined before the torch, and ascended the summit of the mount. Liberty then came out of the temple of Philosophy, towards a throne made of turf, to receive the homage of the republicans of both sexes, who sang a hymn in her praise, extending their arms at the same time towards her. Liberty ascended afterwards, to return to the temple, and in re-entering it, she turned about, casting a look of benevolence upon her friends: when she got in, every one expressed with enthusiasm the sensations which the goddess excited in them, by songs of joy; and they swore, never, never, to cease to be faithful to her!"

(To be continued.)



Abraham Offering Isauc.

ISAAC, the child of promise, like his antitype Jesus, "grew in wisdom and in stature, and in favour with God and man." He was the delight of his aged parents; obedient, affectionate, and truly religious. He had attained to man's estate, and the mind of his venerable father was busily employed in contriving means and forming plans for his future welfare in the world. While Abraham thus beheld him with fond delight, as the father of many nations, as he through whom all the families of the earth were to be blessed, it was announced to him that he must be immediately slain.

"It came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham." Gen. xxii, 1. God did not lay a snare for him, to draw him into sin; but called him to an especial trial of his faith. Many signal proofs of unlimited confidence in the faithfulness of God, and of cheerful obedience to his revealed will, had Abraham already given but he was at length called to a far more difficult test of his principles. Isaac, the longpromised seed of Abraham, the son of his old age, the declared head of a new race, and of an innumerable posterity, the appointed fountain of unspeakable blessings to the world, and the dear object of extraordinary and merited affection, this very Isaac is, by the LORD, commanded to be taken to a distant mountain, and there to be offered as a burnt sacrifice, and зlain by the hands of his own father!

"And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son, Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of." Ver. 2. Every word is terrible, and the whole seems sufficient to chill the blood of the father in instant death.

We wonder that Abraham did not imagine this command to be a delusive dream; and t at some malignant spirit had suggested such an inhuman and monstrous idea. "Who but Abraham would not have expostulated with God? What, doth the God of mercies now begin to delight in blood? Is it possible that murder should become piety? Or if thou wilt needs take pleasure in a human sacrifice, is there none but Isaac fit for the altar, none but Abraham to offer him? Shall these hands destroy mine own child? Can I not be faithful unless I be unnatural? or if I must needs be the monster of all parents, will not Ishmael be accepted? O God, where is thy mercy, where is thy justice? Hast thou given me but one only son, and must I now slay him? Why didst thou give him to me? Why didst thou promise me a blessing in him? What will the heathen say, when they shall hear of this infamous massacre? How can thy name and my profession escape perpetual blasphemy? With what face shall I look upon my wife Sarah, whose son I have murdered? How will she entertain the murderer of Isaac? Who will believe that I did this from thee? Shall not all the world abhor this deed, and say, There goes the man that cut the throat of his own son? Yet if he were an ungracious or rebellious child, his deserts might give some colour to this violence: but to lay hands on so dear, so dutiful, so hopeful a son, is incapable of all pretences. But grant that thou, who art the God of nature, mayest either alter or neglect it, what shall be said to the truth of thy promises? Can thy justice admit contradiction? Can thy decrees be changeable? Can these two stand together, Isaac shall live to be the father of many nations;' and 'Isaac shall now die by the hand of his father? When Isaac is once gone, where is my seed, where is my blessing? O God, if thy commands and purposes be capable of alteration,

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"These would have been the thoughts of a weak heart but God knew that he spake to Abraham; and Abraham knew that he had to do with God, even Jehovah. Faith had taught him not to argue, but to obey. In holy willingness he forgets nature, or despises her. He is sure that what God commands is good, that what he promises is infallible; therefore he is freed from care as to the means, and trusts to the end."- Bishop Hall.

Without conmunicating his intention to Sarah, "Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him." Ver. 3. Three whole days they must travel to the place of execution, and still must Isaac be before his eyes, appearing to his imagination as bleeding upon the fatal pile! The peculiar time of a trial makes no small addition to its severity, and Abraham must have felt it; yet had he repented, he had ample time to return.

Having arrived at the mountain foot, "Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again unto you. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together." Ver. 5, 6. Doubtless they conversed upon the merciful appointment of sacrifices, and upon their typical design as the emblematical means of reconciliation and communion with God. But no consecrated victim appears, and Isaac knows not his father's reason for omitting to take it. At this distressing crisis, Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father" this address was natural and melting, and Abraham could not fail to be deeply affected with it. He might have said, as he probably thought, "Call me not thy father, who am now about to be thy murderer.” But he allows him to proceed with his intelligent inquiry: "Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?" The father of the faithful is still fearful to reveal the whole affair to his son. He knows the strength of his own faith to act: but he knows n t fully the power of Isaac to be resigned. "And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering." The patriarch gives an ambiguous answer, but which contains a remarkable prophecy. The Holy Spirit by his mouth seems to predict the "Lamb of God," which his mercy has provided, as a sacrifice to take away the sin of the world.

At length they arrive at the sacred place. The Divine command is plainly revealed to Isaac; and, after solemn prayer to the God of their covenant mercies, he yields in faith to the will of his father.

The inspiring Spirit has drawn a veil over the preliminary arrangements for the fatal act, and we are spared the pain of viewing the extraordinary scene. The altar is reared, the fuel is laid in order, and the young man bound is laid upon the prepared wood. All things being thus ready, again calling upon God and looking up to heaven," Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son," his beloved Isaac, the heir of a world of promises. Enough is done! The mind was settled in its purpose. sacrifice is virtually offered. God intended the trial only, not the actual shedding of blood. The eye of Omniscience had observed every step of these holy men, and scrutinized every motion of the patriarch's soul. He graciously interposes. "And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham, lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know


that thou fearest God, seeing that thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from me." Ver. 11, 12.

The voice of God, always inspiring to Abraham, was never so welcome, never so seasonable, never so sweet as now. The joyful transports of both father and son must have been overwhelming. With adoring gratitude, they bless the Father of mercies, and embrace each other in this more than resurrection from the dead. God provided himself a lamb, as Abraham had said for behind him he saw "a ram caught in a thicket by his horns and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him for a burnt offering in the stead of his son;" and never was a sacrifice presented to the LORD by hearts more enlarged with thanksgiving, admiration, and love.

The memorable occasion called for a new name to the place, to the honour of God, and for the encourage. ment of all true believers to the end of the world; and the LORD having appeared in this extremity, and provided so marvellously for Abraham, he called the name of that place Jehovah-jireh, signifying, "The LORD will provide." Again the LORD renewed his covenant with his servant, and condescended to confirm the gracious promise with his awful oath! Thus blessed and honoured of the Most High, the father and son returned to the servants, and hastened home with the liveliest satisfaction, unreservedly consecrated to God.

But the grand design of this extraordinary transaction must not pass unnoticed. It was intended to instruct Abraham and Isaac in the mysterious plan of human redemption, as well as to exhibit to all ages a worthy example of obedient faith. It has been thought probable, that Abraham had been imploring from God some brighter discoveries of the method of redemption, when God called him to this act of obedience as an answer to his prayer.

To the Jews our Saviour said, "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad." John viii, 56. The day of his crucifixion was eminently the day of Christ; but when did Abraham behold this day, unless in Isaac's sacrifice? And how could he behold it, unless he understood its purport? Our Lord assures us that Abraham not only saw it, but that he likewise rejoiced to see it. Now he might have seen it without understanding what it meant; but he could not have rejoiced to see it, unless he had been acquainted with its nature.

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As typical of the redemption of Christ, it must be observed, By faith Abraham when he was tried, offered up his only begotten son.' ." Heb. xi, 17. And God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." John iii, 16.

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Isaac carried the wood for his own sacrifice; and Christ bore the cross on which he was crucified for our sins. Isaac, without a murmur, yielded to the will of his father, in obedience to God; Christ could say in truth, "Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father." John xi, 17, 18. Moriah was the mountain on which Isaac was offered; and on that mountain was situated the hill of Calvary, the place on which Christ gave himself a ransom for a lost world.

Depending upon the Holy Spirit of God, let ns cherish the divine principles by which the venerable patriarch and his pious son Isaac were influenced: then shall we be prompt to make every required sacrifice, in obedience to the command of our covenant God; at the same time remembering, that they who are of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham." Gal. iii, 9; and shall sit down with him in the kingdom of heaven.

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Letters to a Mother, upon Education.


(Continued from p. 373.)

In reference to the doctrines respecting the Lord Jesus Christ, which are to Revelation what the sun is in the firmament, you will find the necessity of acquir ing and communicating accurate opinions.

Your child must be taught, that he is not the Father, but that he was with the Father, and that he was God; that the Father loved him from before the foundation of the world, and with a degree of esteem beyond that with which he regarded any or all beings.

Point out to him the glory of the person of Christ, derived from the names given to him, the attributes ascribed to him, the actions attributed to him, and the worship demanded by him.

Spare no pains to teach also the perfect identity of the nature assuined by the Redeemer with the nature of those whom he came to redeem, which, though fallen, he sanctified in taking, and preserved sanctified, and presented as such to God, in himself, by the aid of the Holy Spirit, as the new Adam, in whom, through his obedience, the whole human race stand redeemed.

In the instructions delivered by the Redeemer, you will have a boundless theme. In the things he taught, in the manner of his preaching, you will find abundance of subjects, which you must thoroughly inculcate into the mind of your offspring.

It will be ever needful for you to illustrate the perfect holiness in all respects of the Redeemer, without which doctrine his intended atonement must have been an utter failure.

The incomparable work entitled Archbishop Newcome's Observations on our Lord's Conduct as a Public Instructor, will furnish you with all the information upon these topics, distributed under the chief particulars of which they consist.

Coincidently with all the prior topics, and with all that follow, you will ever most clearly state to him the doctrine of the atonement for the sins of the world, offered through the sufferings of the Redeemer; and that it is solely through this means that the favour of God is enjoyed by any individual of the human race.

The miracles of Christ will often come under your notice, in which you will often take occasion to point out their unquestionable reality, and the proof thus afforded that the instructions taught by our Redeemer were agreeable to the will of God.

In this respect the final and most splendid miracle of all, namely, the resurrection of himself by our Lord from the dead, will occupy its due place in your representations. Make your son familiar with all the evidences and with all the circumstances of this event. You will find great assistance to this attempt from the admirable book of West on the Resurrection of our Saviour.

The doctrine of justification you will explain to be, the acquittal of a penitent person through means of his faith or reliance in the Gospel, of which the atonement and intercession of Christ are the cardinal truths.

The doctrines respecting the Holy Spirit occupy the next place in the enumeration. You will carefully represent to your son, that the Holy Spirit is not a mere influence, but that he is a person, and that he is God. Exhibit his agency in the Old and New Testament, not merely as the means whereby life was given to animate beings, and the human nature of Christ was upheld and assisted; but as also the one only channel of all Divine favours, whether ordinary or extraordinary.

Let your child then be taught to expect all good through this one medium only.

Repentance will be readily explained as such a perception of the nature and consequences of sin, as produces the desire and effort to forsake it.

Love, as the infusion of sentiments of benevolence towards all beings; towards the ever-blessed Creator, and towards all beings as his creatures.


Coincidently with all the preceding, I entreat you to have a perpetual regard to the inculcation of the duties of universal morality. Explain these thoroughly be yourself first assured that these are the great end of all religion; and that the religious character of every man is in the Divine view estimated by his acquirement of these.

From the beginning then establish a habit of reverence in your child's mind towards his Creator, and towards every thing related to him; his name, his word, his house, his day, his ministers.

Inculcate humility as the sentiment natural and becoming, upon views of our immense disparity in all respects to the Creator.

Resignation, as the tranquillity resulting from a perfect confidence in all His conduct.

Inculcate the observance of the Lord's day as consisting in a cheerful, rational obedience in attending upon public worship, moral and religious improvement, and rest from worldly engagements.

Inculcate obedience to every order of magistrates, as being of divine appointment, since they promote the welfare of society.

Inculcate the abhorrence of cruelty to man or animals, as injury done to the creatures of God.

Inculcate purity of mind, as essential to peace of conscience.

Inculcate honesty, universal honesty, to the exclusion of all idleness, prodigality, fraud, and gaming.

Inculcate the habit of truth, or of taking and communicating right apprehensions at all times and upon all subjects.

Inculcate the utmost kindness when your child is speaking of others.

Inculcate contentment with his station in life, as the appointment of God, who best knows by what circumstances an individual can be trained for future happiness.

With regard to the external means of grace, ever represent to him that the grand means of religious instruction is the perusal of the Scriptures, with an inquisitive mind, and a desire to acquire direction of conduct and consolation of hope. Habituate him to expect great benefit from the explanations of the word of God, which he will hear from the appointed ministers.

Thoroughly establish in his mind the conviction, that no good descends from God to man except in answer to prayer; that God will give, if man prays; and that God ceases to give, if we cease to ask.

I now proceed to give you a series of observations, not so much connected with each other, as with the general topics of the Letter.

1. In the first place, it will be advantageous for you to make use of some manual of instruction in your religious education of your child. You will not find any that are better adapted during the first year or two than Dr. Watts's Catechisms for Children, which you may cause your child at a proper age to commit to meinory.

2. Allow me strenuously to advise, that you use every means to be derived from every source for gaining correct apprehensions on all the varied topics of religion; otherwise you cannot teach them, and incorrect notions are the source of proportionable mischief, ge



nerally of unhappiness, and often of the more palpable forms of sin.

3. I hope that the public preaching upon which you attend is of the kind calculated to promote your own personal improvement; comprehensive, plain, ample, and perfectly scriptural. This will be one of the most valuable means of grace to yourself and to your offspring, and will enable you daily to correct your own opinions, and to inculcate truth upon his mind.

4. For this purpose I advise you to make yourself familiar with one Commentary upon the Old, and one upon the New Testament. This can only be done by frequent use of it. I recommend Dr. Adam Clarke or Matthew Henry for the former, and Dr. Doddridge for the latter. Train your child to an habitual acquaintance with these books; you will then take every human means to secure that he shall rightly understand the Scriptures.

5. Be most careful what kind of religious books you have in your house. It was said by a great writer many years ago, that half the books in the world were not worth reading: I have no hesitation in saying, that the effect of nine-tenths of the religious books now extant is decidedly bad. In any other branch of knowledge, mankind are solicitous to read the best books; but in religion, too many persons read every thing recommended to them, or that accidentally comes in their way. Hence their notions are inaccurate, false, defective; their minds unhappy, and their true duties neglected. Would that men would but exercise the same discretion as to the selection of the sources of religious knowledge, as they do with regard to science and literature in general, consisting both of books and teachers!

(To be continued.)

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22. Earl of Lichfield, 1674. "By fidelity and constancy." 23. Earl of Berkeley, 1679.

with us."

Fide et constantia – "God

Dieu avec nous→

24. Earl of Abingdon, 1682. Virtus ariete fortior"Virtue is stronger than a battering ram."

25. Earl of Scarborough, 1690. Murus æneus conscientia sana —“ A good conscience is a brazen wall.” 26. Earl of Coventry, 1697. Candide et constanter — "Candidly and constantly."

27. Earl of Jersey, 1697. Fidei coticula crua cross is the touchstone of faith." 28. Earl of Cholmondeley, 1706. virtus 66 Virtue is the safest helmet."

29. Earl of Oxford, 1711. virtue and faith."



Cassis tutissima

Virtute et fide-"By

30. Earl of Dartmouth, 1711. Gaudet tentamine vir-" Virtue rejoices in trial."

31. Earl of Halifax, 1714.

"Ease with dignity."

Otium cum dignitate —

Vestigia nulla

32. Earl Stanhope, 1718. A Deo et rege-"From God and the king."


33. Countess of Coningsby, 1719.
"No footsteps backward."
34. Earl of Harborough, 1719. Hostis honori invidia
-"Envy is an enemy to honour."

35. Earl Ker, 1722. Pro Christo et patria dulce peri-
Danger for Christ and one's country is


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Virtus mille scuta

En suivant la verite

Prudens qui patiens

36. Earl of Effingham, 1731.
"Virtue is a thousand shields."
37. Earl of Portsmouth, 1743.
In following the truth.”
38. Earl of Leicester, 1744.
"He is prudent who is patient."
39. Viscount Hereford, 1549.
stantia Constancy is the basis of virtues.”
40. Viscount Lonsdale, 1696.
virum "The magistrate shows the man."
41. Viscount Falmouth, 1720. In cœlo quies·
in heaven."

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Basis virtutum con

Magistratus indicat


42. Viscount Folkestone, 1747. Patria cara, carior libertas-"One's country is dear, liberty is dearer." 43. Lord Petre, 1603. Sans Dieu rien—“ Nothing without God." "Given to

44. Lord Arundel, 1605. God."

45. Lord Clifton, 1608.

the end."

46. Lord Teynham, 1616. hope is in God."

47. Lord Cornwallis, 1661. "Virtue overcomes envy."

Deo data Finem respice-" Regard

Spermea in Deo


Virtus vincit invidiam

48. Lord Craven, 1665. Virtus in actione consistit "Virtue consists in action."


49. Lord Bernard, 1699. Nec temere, nec timide "Neither rashly nor fearfully."

50. Lord Conway, 1702. Fide et amore and love."

51. Lord Foley, 1711. Ut prosim ·


52. Lord Bathurst, 1711.

thy fidelity."

53. Lord Onslow, 1716. faithful."

54. Lord Romney, 1716.


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By faith

"That I may do

Tien ta foy—“Maintain Semper fidelis


Non sibi, sed patriæ

"Not for myself, but for my country."
55. Lord Ducie, 1720. Perseverando-"By perse-

56. Lord King, 1723. Labor ipse voluntas—“ Labour itself is pleasure.

57. Lord Raymond, 1730. Equam servare


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'Preserve an equal mind.”

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